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>l SLhi jO ?j^ 

With Which is Consolidated The Colliery Engineer 




July 3 to Dec. 27, 1919 


lOth AVE. AT 36th ST. 

I .p'i . ■» 


With Which is Consolidated 
The Colliery Engineer 


July to December, r'19 

Note — Illustrated articles are denoted by an 
asterisk ( • ) , book notices by a dagger ( t ) . 
Titles are often abbreWated. They are indexed 
under their most important words, or, if no 
word be distinctive, under their first one (except 
"A," "The." etc.). or under some topical word 
not found in the title. This volume is complete 
in twent.v-three numbers owing to the fact that 
certain numbers so desiguated on their indi- 
vidual contents pages have been combined. 

Following is a list of the pages included in 
the several numbers of the volume by date: 

July 3 Pages 1- 42 

" 10 •■ 43- 80 

■• 17 " 87-133 

" 24 " 133-17U 

" 31 •• 177-216 

Aug. 7 " 217-260 

14 " 261-304 

•' 21 •• 305-348 

" 28 •' 349-390 

Sept. 4 " 391-430 

" 11 •' 431-476 

" 18 " 477-518 

•' 25 " 519-558 

Oct. 2 " 559-598 

9 •■ 599-633 

" 16 " 633-666 

" S3 " 667-700 

" 30 " 701-734 

Nov. •' 735-768 

" 13| " 769-818 

■' 37} ■■ 819-808 

Deo. 4 1 

" 111 •• 869-910 

" 18/ 

" 25 UI7-953 


Abandoned workings. Sealing up. Discus- 
sion 333 

Accelerated obsolescence 63 

Accident — Baltimore tunnel. Kneeland. . . . •55 

Accident, hoisting (inq.) Johnson •ISO 

Accident prevention 673 

Accidents. Mine. Fay 777 

Accidents, mine car 654 

Accidents. Ohio. 1918 467 

Accidents, roof 637 

Accidents. Two blasting cap 677 

Accidents. U. S.. 1916 •600 

Accidents. 1918. Penn 294 

ArierniMtb. Strohm 317 

Air coniprnssor. Supcrirjr oil in 532 

Air splits. Calculntinjr. (iiiii.) 589 

Airw.iys. ,.izc rjf i inci l. lli.'): Discussion. 385, 374 

Al.ibama. ccal iiroduction. 1918 136 

— Coal tax 209. 294. 383. 551. 945 

Alabama, first ;iid meet and barbecue. Bell. '275 

Alabama Satct.v Assn. — Paper '228 

Alaska, coal fields 339. 834. 803 

Alberta. lillS coal production 125 

Allcs-'hcny Kiver, Large coal mine. Mayer. .•SIO 
.AIlcKhcn.v River Min. Co. — Cement gun at 

Ca.ln<,-:,n mine. Norman ^269 

Aluminum. Conducting 443 

Always need for skill in mine work 23 

America's export coal trade 122 

America grows less careless •600 

Amcr. Coal Min. Co. — No. 3 mine... 821, 'S?! 

Amcr. coal output 239 

Araer. Expeditionary Force Univ •530 

.-\mer. Inst. Min. Engrs. — Papers. , •187. 
313, •486, •668. •674. '703. 707, 

•712. 770, '820. •870, •018 

— Chicago meeting 268, 322. 606 

Amer. Mfrs. Export Assn. to assist foreign 

buyers 75 

Amer. Min. Congress. — Coal export com- 
mittee 500 

— Annual meeting. 689. Hall 797 

— Corporation to export coal 838 

— Paper 883 

Amor. vs. British byproduct coking prac- 
tice 435 

Americaniz.ation work in mining towns. , . 855 

Ammonia from coal. Meredith 503 

Amsterdam disaster ^703 

Amusement hall '^Ol 

Analyses, Quack. Seaburg 193 

Analvses, Williamson Co. HI. coal 703 

Analysis, coal 'nlS 

Ai.rilysis. coal before and after washing. . .705 
Analysis — Heating values of anthracite. . . 4 

Analysis Ohio coal 707 

Anchorage. buUwbeel •10 

Anthracite Bureau of Information Report.. 371 

Anihracite, Blxrning steam sizes 'i 

Anthracite culm, coking 946 

Anthracite, fire prevention. Price 651 

Anthracite operators bring suit against U. S. 'J 43 

Anthracite production 343 

Anthracite, Robbing pillars 37 

Discussion H5 

Anthracite situation, RSsumS 279 

Anthracite sizes 644 

Anthracite, Some truths about 271 

Anthracite. Taxing. Joyce 844 

Appeal to reason 917 

Appliances in mining operations. Sherlock. 319 

Arbor or shaft press ^433 

Argentina. Coal market 431, 942 

— British investments 46.5 

Artificial gas and byproducts in 1917 278 

Ash conveyor. Steam jet. Peebles ^658 

As they see it from the train 411 

AustraUai commandeers coal supply 208 

— Brown coal. Ferrin 238 

— Coal regulations 381 

— Production, coal 492 

— Exports 593 

Australia, gov't controls coal mines 553 

Babbitt metal. Removing old. Sherman... 400 
Ballasting of mine tracks. Discussion . . 536. 756 

Baltimore sighting compass ^407 

Baltimore tunnel disaster 36, *5.5, 6'2. 78 

Banquet to Herbert Hoover 404 

Barge loading, low cost coal 83*2 

Barometer vs. outflow of gas. Discussion. 

•150. 503 

Bathhouse at Wellesley colliery 750 

Bathhouses and laundries. Baker ^634 

Belgium coal situation 166, 358, 939 

— Production 492 

—Coal to Italy 730 

Bell & Zoller Min, Co, — No. 3 mine. . .820, 870 

Bench clamp ^89 

Bituminous coal. Preparation of. Proch- 

aska •». 'Oli 

Bituminous mines employing more than 10 

men 4.36 

Bituminous operators reply to McAdoo. . . . 782 
Bituminous production, consumption, uses. 440 
Black damp 834 

BLASTING. See also "Explosives." 

— Cap accidents. Two blasting 677 

— Exam, questions 338, 506 

— Explosives. Permissible. Thompson.... 94 

—Explosives. Permissible. Miller ^225 

— Firing lime. Reducing ventilation. Dis- 
cussion '" > 

— Primer in blasting. Position of (imi.i 

— Shotlirer. Gentry '1^:' ' ' 

Boiler equipment. Scientific control ii' 1 

Boiler ferrule extractor ".rM 

Boiler horsepower 740 

Boiler-house economics. Humphrey •;>'?0 

Boiler, interesting old •93.1 

Boilers — Superheater- M.r.,Iiili 367 

Bolshevism in Amcri. 1 : .1- 11 - ..11 . . . .31. 

.333. ■■',-,'■ s, ,;■■:. fi93. 860. 901 
Bolshevism — not a prni. nil. l.iii .i passion. 

Hall ■ • „1 

Bouduig — Electric arc welding •52. ^407 

Bonding of mine rails. Proper. Beck •BO 

Bonds. New type of mine. Steek •2.'J7 

Book reviews 405 

Brackets. Three-in-one roller. Mayer ^521 

Brakeshocs. Half-soling mine-car (inq.). 

Stafford '.^OS 

Breathing apparatus 088. 741 

Brewster. T. T. (Photo) 057 

Bucket. Wellman geared 743 

Buckeye Coal Co. — Nemacolin plant. Baker. ^560 
Buckwheat burning under boilers 093 


— Appropriation. 1920. provided 893 

— Dedication of building. Baker 330, 

•392, 530, •611 

— Filing system. Baker ^736 

— Gasc-H 680 

— Hydrocarbons, Decomposition 335 

— L,il>.ii:ilo.v fn.-l •831 

— M. II Slil.ility of 135 

— I'l-iriii- ii-h I M.iosivcs. Thompson 04 

— Kci^iiii/ ,11 ,lan 103 

— Sanipluu . lor Swiss gov't 400 

— Weiglil.- of various coals 107 

Bureau of Standards — Concrete hardening.. 100 
— Experimental retort tests. McBrldc and 

Brumbaugh 'BO? 

Burning steam sizes of anthracite '4 

Bushings. Seamless tube wheel. Tcemer. . 3 

Brush, wire 'S 

Byproduct. See "Coke." 

Canada, coal production 

— Resources, coal 

Canadian Min. Inst. — Meeting 

Canadian Western Fuel Co. — Wages 

Canal, barge, Gt. Lakes-Ohio River 

Carbon, ignition point 

Carnegie, Andrew « 

Carnegie Inst. — Course in mining engineer- 

— Developments at School of Mines 

Car door lifter. Mayer * 

Car door opener. Mayer ' 

Car. Mine-rescue * 

Car. railroad. First reinforced concrete .... 

Car rating 

Car retarder. Mayer 

Car. Safe powder. Honaker ' 

Car, Safety powder. Deuvell 

Car shortage. .77. 108, 171, 252, 355, 293, 
341. 383. 467. 511, 550, 503, 761. 

Car tonnage and. British miner 

Car-wheel tester. Jones 

Cars. Device for dumping rock. Mayer. . . " 

Cars — Fluid-controlled check rail devic^e . . . ' 

Cars on tracks, device for replacing * 

Cars. Railroad owned open-top, in U. S,.. 

Cars, Roller bearings for mine. Discussion. 
545. 805. 

Cars soon available for coal loading 

Cartoons 371, 455. 498, 684, 

Cave, mine, situation 

Cement gun, Cadogan mine. Norman . . . . ' 

— Stucco covering from 

— Effective use of. Baker ' 

Certification and safety. Discussion. . . .30, 
68, 203, 345, 

Ch.ain block. Monorail for ' 

Chain, New rivellcss conveyor " 

Chart — Barograph 

Chart — Fatalities 

Chart — Heating value of anthracite 

Charts — Accidents 

Charts — Coal, petroleum, natural gas and 
mineral products 

Charts — Price movements ' 

Cheer up. Strohra 

Checks at tipple. Handling miners'. Mayer. 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. — Report, 1918 .... 

Chicago. Wilmington & Franklin Coal Co. — 
Tests of Orient coal. McBride and Brum- 
baugh ' 

Child labor in mines 

Discussion 457, 585, 

Chilean market for fuel 





Chile, Nev 



coal deposits 

in south 

ility coal 

13.3. 340, 

nork bench. Willey 

M of coal, use. Ashley. . . 

L huili. 1 , ...unple. Buggy 

Closnig down mines 

Coal Age — Index ready 1;" 

— Safet.v number 



iwn. Ferrin 

lid heating value. 

Coal, .\ii-n, I 

Coal barun imam. 
Coal, comiiosition 
Coal. Conservation 

Coal ('Onsumed by railroads 

Coal, differences in weights industry in 1017 

Coal iniiu.stry be bond or free? Hall 

Coal Min. Inst. — Program 

— Papers •839, 833, ' 

— Meeting. Hall ' 

Coal mining. Outlook in. Discussion .. 347, 

Coal needed by Europe 

Coal operator's largest customer 

Coal operators as agents of public. Hall. . 

Coal onlcr issued. New 

Coal, origin of. Hippard 


Coal oxygen absorption 

Coal, raw. Impurities in 

Coal resources of Germany. Discussion,..' 

Coal resources of Germany ' 

Coal scams, Connellsvillo Dist. Moore. 


Coal shortage. Hall 

Coal shortage abroad, causes 

Coal shortage in Europe. 166; Bartholow. . 
Coal shortage m;iy reduce Canadian con- 


Coal. Sufficient, if transportation and Labor 

do not hinder outi)Ut 

Coal supply of world 

Coal. Use-classifliiation. Ashley ' 

Coal. The better the 

Coal, Waste of. Discussion 


. 895 





Vol. 16 

Coefficient of rolling friction. Discussion . . 28 

Colombia, Bolivar, coal mining 240 

— New coal mines 404 


— Belgium 

— Byproduct coke. Coals of Ohio and their 

limitations for. Stout •674. 

— Byproduct coking. American v-s. British. 

— Byproducts. 1917 

— Coke and its byproducts 

— Prices fixed 

— Production. 1917. 1918 

— Rainey-Wood byproduct coke operation. 

Gans " 

— Retort tests of Orient coal. McBride and 

Brumbaugh * 

— South Africa. Coke industry 

— Table coke plants in Ohio 

College graduates here and abroad 

Colloidal fuel 

Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. (Photo) 

— Wages 

— School buildings -xi',',' ' 

Combinations in restraint of trade. Hall. . 

Combustion 487, 

Combustion. Velocity of 

Community amusement building. Baker...' 

Compass. Baltimore sighting ' 

Compensation 35. VZo. 169. 253. 382. 

Concentrating tables. Coal washing on. 


Concrete. Breaking up 

Concrete hardening 

Concrete linings 

Concrete, Nemacolin plant 

Concrete. Reinforced, in mines of Gt. Britain 

Concrete, reinforced, railroad car 

Concrete, reinforced, septic tank ' 

Concrete, Sectional, cribbing ' 

Concrete tank 

Concrete, use of plain 

Condenser, sectional surface 

Conservation of coal. Morrison ' 

Consolidation Coal Co, — Tipple, new, 

Brasack ' 

— Hoist motor ' 

— Tipple at Ida May ^ 

— Jack Bun drainage ditch 

Consumers' lockouts •■■■■■••■, 

Conveying apparatus in Pittsburgh mine , , 
Conveyor, Hamilton portable strippmg. 
Conveyor, Steam jet ash. ''- '■'— 
Consumption, coal. U. S. 

— New Zealand 

— Chile 





Dryers, centrifugal 10 

Dumping rock cars. Device for. Mayer. . . •263 

Dust barrier apparatus 343 

Dutch East Indies, coal production 76 

Educational pitfalls 342 

Education, Another factor of 858 

Education. Necessity for mining and indus- 
trial. Stock 850 

Efficiency in underground haulage. Bowron dbO 

Efficiency, mine workers , . . . .... 204 

Discussion 286. 418, 4bl 



Peebles . 


between byproduct coke ovens 


iiachine mining. Discussion 

It. Steck 

tor. Willey * 

Laying out short radius 





— Arc weldiim 
— Cable. Splh 
— Circuit bi I I 
— Cost of ■•]. 
— Current iii 

Kjellgren '52 

.\ C. vs. D. C. 

Electrical. In mines. Steck 

— Dynamoter. arc-wedding * 

— Electrification of mine hoists. Sage. . . .* 
— Hazards on low-voltage 'circuits. Kimball 
— High-tension lines. Installing (inq.) .... 


— ^Lighting at working face. Electric. . 849. 

— Lighting, Mine electric. Croft 

— Locomotives, Storage battery, Discus- 

— Shorl .in 
— Signaling 
— Sparking 
— -Substati 

iiimr service. Steck ... 

I nunc. Rule 

il I l.-ctric system. Croft, 
lit uKiicator. Sakon . , . . 

ele^'tric. Croft 

3f electric motors, (inq.) . 
Outdoor. Young 

-Terminal block, Rearranging 45 

— Thoughts on mine electricity. Beddow . . . 399 

— Transformer, outdoor ^47 

— Tr.niismission of power in and about 

mines. Farnham 48 

— Voltmeter switch. Nolan *350 

— Welding, electric, (inq.) Stafford •505 

— Wiring, mine. Croft *480 

Elm (irlu Mill. Co. — Hoist motor. * " 


Humphrey. . . 
. . . modern large coal 
and Young "820. • 

<■ :rnd business training. 

Cnkr Co.- 


wick mine. Mayer* 
r. A. — Locomotive. • 
166. Bartholow. . 

Cnke Co 
1 1.' r.,,;,l shortage 
I..- 1.1. ing coal fa: 

near] coal and coke tariff 

lination — Finding mine door set open 
i inq. ) Bowen 


„ jination of mine. Gosnell 

Discussion . . 244. 385. 334, 503, 693, 

Examination, Physical, previous to em- 

plo.vment. Willis 


— Ala. first class — Dead hole in blasting, 
anemometer, breaking down of fan. 
care of safety lamps, removal of gases 
338. Safety in machine mining, detec- 
tion of mine gases, removing firedamp, 
naking coal dust 

Dair-i'niu- htliins. Some 

D:;"r, I,, -,,,,,_ |-,w 695.706 

rii-iiii- II" 1 1 Mill bl,ackdamp. Baker .... '885 

I)i-,-liiii III ml' list in public utilities 937 

Decii.Mtioii ol Bureau of Mines building. 

liakor 320 

Degradation of coal. Shubart '401 

Dis.ussion a'*'* 

Di-ni'i' I :i' V I.nhnr and "2 

I„_, .„_:,,„, 544. 938 

n. Ill, I, II I. . " ,1 -ituation 591. 729 

l)i-|.l. ihiii ,111.1 .1. in-eeiation coal raining prop- 

i-rtus. i;iii,li,k 185 

Dciiil. siifi-ty. Johnson '433 

Development y llow about b->3 

Diffcrpiicc and rciison o"'» 

II i^torv mine southern West Va t405 

Pi., i.. .... iiliriiii.nal. Hall 133 

In.,,,,-.: ,1 111 I 111- rock and slack 241 

11., ,- w... ^^..lll.l lie done by 410 

II,, 111; i:i.,, & Coke Co's new plam..'29.T 

Door iiriitfctor. Mine '88 

Door set open. Finding mine, (inq.) Bowen. "46; 

Discussion •••«^^«.««0, 757, •7.59. 80o.^^^^ 

Door. Sliding, for rope opening- Humphrey. •4.» 

Dorr thickener and classifier. Griffen '146 

Drafting-room hints. Haverstick 478 

Drainage prnhlcm o( Edna No. 2 solved. 

Unkir '434 

lliMiii Will, wet roof •iJ'i'o 

j.Mll .I..!,,. li:,Md •1.52 

1 1 iiij i.,iiiii,iiii in mine ^644 

11,-n, T,,i, iiwer *40(! 

Drum iiuiliollcr '935 

harmless, humidifying 
-Anthracite foremen — Si in 
brake on drums. sh;,ri 
ing, mine gases, ventil , 
ing engineer qualifi, .ii 







iiii^', rubbing 



I'cnn.l lir 
T signals. 

cbosses — Mine 
safety lamps. 

■I'l.]! |. 

bosses — Natural furnace 
i-al ventilation, rniniping. 

rescue work. 
•Mine manager? 

,1.11, _•,■,- .,1 , 

n'"z\ i','r"ot 

■i,,_.s ;(?' Di- 
.1 regulator, 
■1 ,if gaseous 
i:l. Duties 



.,1 1. - 




-Misc.— F;,,. ,,,'1 hiin.i..' 1. ,ilil,,li..ii size 

of airw:,v- „.,■ ,-„i,v,.r.- I,, ^l, 105 

-Misc. — Length .and width of airw.iys. 

ventilation, flame temperature 307 

—Misc. — Tank capacit.v, manometrical 
efficiency of fan, rescue in intake air- 
way. ventil,iti<m. water gage 463 

— Misc. — Ventilation: creep and squeeze: 

rescue 590 

— Misc. — Weight of double cylinder engine: 

haulage 629 

— Tenn. foremen — Duties of mine foremen. 

gases, ventilation, explosions, fans 664. 

Gases. timbering, blasting, relative 

humidity, ventilation 694 

Examiners, coal mine 78, 528 

EXPLOSION. See also "Dust." "Gases. 
Mine." "Ventilation." 

— Alderson. Okla 191 

— Baltimore tunnel 36. 'SS. 63. 78 

— Bogle mine 905 

— Carswell, W, Va 191 

— Exam, questions 380, 664 

— Explosions. Notes 36, 135.385 

— New River & Pocahontas Coal Co 294 

— Rock Island Coal Min. Co 79 

Explosives. British and German military 

mining 488 

Explosives. Permissible. Miller •335 

Explosives, Permissible. Thompson 94 

Export. See "Trade." 

Exposition. International mining machinery. 238 

Face the worst first 22 

Fan. See also "Ventilation." 

Fan. Automatic starter for booster (inq.) 

LvLxton 724 

Fan. Design of ventilating. (inq.) "724 

Fan. Electrically driven (inq.) Wilson.. .. •290 

Fan. Reversing 691 

Fatalities in coal mines '228 

Fatalities. West Va 862, 946 

Filing systems. Baker 736 

Financing plan, coal 893 

Firebosses as state officials 31 

Discussion 119, 345, 334 

Fire, Amsterdam ^792 

Fire prevention in anthracite mines. Price. . 651 

Fire, Use of pyrene 632 

Fires, Mine rescue apparatus, Ryan 741 

Fires 36, 170. 468^511, 553. 906 

Fires — Spontaneous combustion (inq.) . . . 419 


— Alabama. Bell '275 

— Ebensburg meet ^576 

— JelUco, Tenn '578 

— Kansas, Rutledge 275 

— Norton, Va 277 

— Pittsburgh, Penn 318, ^614 

— Pond Oeek Coal Co, Daugherty 445 

— Rembrandt Peale ^447 

— Susquehanna Coll, Co 446 

— Vancouver Island Mine Safety Assn, 

Dunn ^577 

— Vesta Cnal Co ^445 

First-Ill, I ir.iiniiiii Kenvin 566 

Flanii' . ,i|.- Il.i-hts of (inq.) •540 

Flow ~li.-, 1 I,, I washery 98 

Fluid nun, ,■ ini,| i 337. Correction 663 

Flushing 787 

For better or worse (cartoon) 413 

Foundry at a coal mine. Liggett •SST 


— Coal situation 166 

— Credit, V. S 280 

— Impnvtinir American coal 76 

— Mlllliii: ...Il 335 

— Prn.hl. Il..n .',:il 493 

— Sliniii^. ,..,il III No, Prance 729 

Free Silv, r SImFI electric hoist '770 

Freight rates . ,76, 79, 108. 168. 200. 431. 

550 907 

Frick. H. C. Obituary: portrait 83o 

Frick Coke Co. H. C. — Coal barge loading. . 833 

Frogless crossover. Mayer •575 

Frog rerail '3 

Fuel experiments. British 711 

Fuel inspection system ; . . 856 

Fuel supply from engineering standpoint. 

Chance •793 

Fuel. Unconsumed v^^ 

Fulton Coal Co. — Timber-arch span. Walk- 

inshaw *363 

Fund. Pitting industry with a flywheel. . . . 281 

Furnace temperature • ■ ~ '4 

Fusibility of ash in burning Penn. coals. 

Discussion ; * w ' - ' "" 

Future developments in use of fuel. Kreis-^ 

Garages, community 786 

Garfield. Dr. resigns »3-> 

Gas. Artificial, and byproducts. 1917 2.8 

Gas. coke oven ■ ■ ■ 184 

Gas. natural, production in U. S 441 


— Barometer vs. outflow of gas. Discussion 

l.-,n 503 

— Bl:i<.U,i:ini|i 834 

m,i. k.hiiiip Tw,i deaths from. Baker ..•88,") 

E(f, . I .1 '." .Kiiiii of coal on emission of 

:.■ , I I 20 

Emiii, Oil, sii,,iis ..33, 338, 380, 420, 

,-,ii,i -'. , 664 

— Flame caps. Heights of (inq,) •546 

— Scaling up abandoned workings. Discus- 
sion , , 333 

Gears, Turbine reduction •ISS 

July 3 to Dec. 27, 1919 



Gears. Welding split, to axle, (inq.) 73 

Discu^^ion 203. 336 

Gentiv shntflror : '-ISg 

Gcolci-ii il & MiM. Soc. of India — ^Paper. . . *787 
Gi-uliiji. il Siii\"v. U. S. — Artificial gas and 

hvi.r.Mu.l- 1317 . .- 378 

— Pr.i.liPlinn r S., 1918 485 

— .Miir, ,1 (.~M„r,es oi U. S.. 1918 573 

--C.i.I i:MT 70B 

— (nk. iiMi 11- b.vproducts 719 

— Will 1.1 , ('.111 iiroduetion 753 

— Leslu-i- It-avt's Survey •935 

Geolofry — Pocahontas. Alberta •522 

Germany, coal ."Situation 167. 908 

— Coal resources. Discussion 332 

— Coal miniiiK 464 

Coal shortage (cartoon) 454 

— Production 492 

— Resources, coal *^n^ 

German Austria, ooal situation 591 

Get ready. Lantz 574 

Gompers, menace that is ^684 

Goodvkoontz. W,, remarks 367 

Granby Cons. Min. & Sm, Co, — Coal rights. 423 
Grand Junction Min, & Fuel Co. — Storage 

battery locomotives *T^^ 

Great and growing hazard of mine 654 

Grindstones 721 


Hamilton portable stripping conveyor .... ^404 

Correction 451 

Hammers, Safety guard for power •875 

Handling, coal *188 

Holland, coal produced ai\d imported 167 

HAULAGE — See also "Hoisting." "Power." 
"Electricity." "Safety." "Rope." "Locomo- 
tive." etc. 

— Anchoring bullwheel, Mayer ^19 

— Coefficient of rolUng friction. Discussion 28 

— Coupling hooks •SSO 

Discussion 759 

— Crossover, frogless, Mayer •575 

— Crows Nest Pass, Dunn ^273 

— Electric mine haulage, Sherman (inq,) . . 861 

— Exam, Questions 629 

— Grade in motor haulage, (inq,) 249 

— Hook, Self-coupling •219 

— LatcJi, spring. Bower ^88 

— Locomotives. Storage battery. Appleton^744 
— Lof;orootives, Work of gathering (inq,) 164, 

Discussion ^416, •500 

— Markers on mine trips (inq.) 379 

Discussion, 503. 543. 693, 758 

— Mather Coll. Baker ♦783 

— Mine-haulage proposition 27 

Discussion ^70. ^202. 417 

— Roller bearings for mine cars 545 

Discussion 805, 901 

— Roller brackets. Three-in-one, Mayer,. ^521 
— -Track curves. Resistance of mine, (inq,) 589 
— Underground haulage. Efficiency. Bowron . 360 
Health — Physical examination. Willis . . . 313 

Heavenly twins, (cartoon) 371 

Hecla Coal & Coke Co, — Community build- 
ing. Baker ^603 

He dreams of peace ^937 

Hillman Coal & Coke Co, — Drainage at 

Edna No, 3 Mine, Baker ^434 

Hillman 4 Sons Co,. J. H. Photo 364 

Hog fuel 751 

HOISTING. See also "Haulage." "Power." 

"Electricity. "Safety." "Rope." etc. 
— -Accident, rope breaking (inq.) Johnson •ISO 
— Controlling apparatus for elevators. 

Goodnow •406 

— Coupling hooks •520 

— ElcctrifK-ation of mine hoists. Sage .... •770 

— Exam, questions .506 

— Hook, Self-coupling ^319 

— Illinois and Indiana 822 

— Ncmaiolui. hoisthouse •.^KO 

— SiKrialiiii.-, Kli-.-tric, Croft •308 

— St. Vin.cnt nunc. Rule •264 

Holder (nr K.lisi>ri battery tail light .... •218 

llomc-s, Colo. Fuel & Iron Co ^365 

Hooks, Coui.liiig •.520 

Hook. Self-coupling ^219 

Hoover. Coal shortage abroad 292 

Horn, safety •730 

Horses, at Harwick mine 317 

Houses. Mather Coll 786 

Houses, miners- •267 

Houseti. Repainting (inq.) 419 

Housing standards at Dawson. New Mexico, 

Willis •220 

Hudson Coal Co, — Baltimore tunnel dis- 
aster, Kneeland "So, 63. 78 

— Ijorce breaker •352 

— Strike 455 

Hydraulic stowing. Hendry '787 

Hydpocarbons. Decomposition 23.5 

.18. 48. 04 

Illinois— Pj 

,|.,l,, ( „|j ■ ...'..' 


—Low suli 

.hiu .( C.idy 


— Hi-Ll.-vill<- 

dl,Htrict 338. 


— C'lul inin* 

' (lower plantH, Steck 


lion Coal Trade Bureau 


— .11 

lal mine 


— Kiiirini-cri 

riif features modern mlnea. 


t and Yoimg 




India, coal production 492 

— Stowing 'TS? 

Indiana ooal production 171. 383, 

— Wages 261 

— Wabash River, coal under 468 

— Engineering features modern coal mines. 

Herbert and Young ^820 

Industrial expansion 653 

Industrial goodwill. Commons •40o 

Industries using bituminous coal 441 

Insatiable i.oa] baron again 110 

Inspir.i I i oil rnii - , Copper Co. — Automatic! 

ni:ini iM.i^t. 'TTS 

Instil IN. . . -ini.. Msation 466. 593 

InsuiMin,-. ;!.!;u-ii/.;l cost 277 

Insurain I ul di.-_'jharged soldiers 240 

Internatiuiial mining machinery uxposition 238 
Investigation of coal industry. . . . 15."), 193. 

279. 366. 40S. 450. 492, 579 
Italy, coal situation 167. 464. 549, 592, 730. 942 

Jack. Lever or road. Bowen '44 

Japan, coal production 424, 492 

Jasper Park Coll.. Ltd. McMillan ^522 

Jones dust barrier *S73 

Joy loading machine •853 


Kansas State first-aid meet. Rutlcdge 375 

Kentucky Min. Inst, — Papers, ,., ^90, 185, 

•225, '744 

Kentucky, State holdings developed 395 

Keg fund- Discussion 859 

Keystone ' Coal & Coke Co, — Community 

work. Baker '634 

Kingston Coal Co, — Playground 277 

— Ciaylord mine *683 

La Belle Coal & Coke Co, — Car rctarder, 
Mayer 44 


— Agreement, New River 243. 384 

— Appeal to reason. Hall 917 

— Bolshevism in America, Discussion, 

31 333, 376. 588. 635. 693, 860. 901 

— Boy law, effect of 170 

— Certification and safety. Discussion, 

29. 68. 203, 245. 288 

—Child labor in mines . .... 24 

Discussion 457. 585. 661 

— Coal operators as agents of public. Hall 867 

— Contract. 14 points, new 413 

— Convention N. M. W. of A , , 496 

— Co-operation among mine ofRcials, Dis- 

— Country of privilege 7.54 

— Creed of service. Braley ___8_^ 

— Docking ,- - • 727 

— Efficiency of mine workers, Di,scussion, 

204, 2.S6, 4 IS, 461 
— English speaking vs, non-English speak- 
ing employees. Fay 777 

— Foreign born mine employees 77* 

— Labor and democracy. Discussion ,,, ,73. 

544. 938 
— Labor now and twenty years ago. Dis- 

,.,i..i„n 305. 584 

— L:iIhu lii.ii.hni ill coal mining. Pay.... 833 



raw coal and their removal. 150 

— M. 

— MiM.r-^ 111 .MifMJun 2o4 

^Mobile labor 368 

— National Labor Conference .538 

— Nationalization of coal mines 283 

— Nationalization of Great Britain's coal _^ 

— Phjsical exiimiiiaTion. Wi'liis' .' 313 

— Prize is still the same 327 

— r»ron)otion of ambitious workers. Dis- 

,.„vw,„„ 375. 638, 897 

— R.--,.. hill. .11- r M w r'lcveland 583 

— Kcsi...ii-ii.iiiii.- i,.ii...i 1 ml its. Piez.. 882 

— -|i..ii ir.iii 458 

_Scrl<- MS 111. .mil.. ;iiiiii-ii,-e 431, 4r>3 

— Shortasc of miners 513 

— Shorter days 242 

— Situation. Hall. 34. 64. 111. 158. 199. 

243. 283. 370, 413, 454. 538, 583, 690 

— Strike affects Italy 796 

— Strike, Even country storekecporB may. 

Hall 789 

— Strike is about. What the coal. Hall, . , 819 

— Strike negotiations • 8i)8 

— Strike probed by Senate committee 857 

—Strike, Steel .; - 1 1 1 ' i oo ''^^ 

cttrikes 2j>. Ill, 199. 

"'"'"'" 243! 384, 330, 414 455. 498 

— Tables — nationality, occupation ....... 777 

— Violations of mining laws. Discussion.. 286 
— Wage advances. Fiilr stand against unfair. 

Hall 3"! 

— Wage conference;, mine workers'. .. •(in?. (100 

-Wage scale ,• .64. 190 284 

— Wage increase. Canadian Western Fuel 

Co 467 

— Wages. Australia 208 

—Wages. Colo. Fuel & lion Co .184 

-Wages, 14 per cent, increase , Hj.7 

— Wages, high, anil ram (Cartoon) 455 

— Wages, larger and shorter days 342 

—Wages, and, Disiusslon 584 

— Wages, Some inequities in hinh 453 

— Wages to English coal trimmers 76 

— Wages vs, work hours. Discussion B84 

LABOR — Con tin ucd . 
— What about rest of United States? 

(Poster) 415 

— Worker against worker. Hall ,,,..... 261 

— Workman is worthy of his hire 581 

Laboratory, fuel testing '829 

Laboratories, dedicate Bureau of Mines.. •SOS 
Latch, Spring, Bowcn •SB 

LAW. See also "Compensation." 
— ^Legal decisions. 51. 103. 148. 190. 335. 
307, 318, 361, 403, 436. 489. 531, 

659. 716, 786, 835 886 

— Postal zone law. Capper 604 

— Violations of mining laws. Discussion , , 286 


— Exam, Questions 33, 338 

— ^Flame caps. Height of (inq,) •546 

• — Safety lamp. Height of gas cap. Young •486 

Landlordism, new type 411 

Leasuig coal deposits 240, 512 

Leg of mutton, i Poster) 373 

Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co, — Lansford 

explosion 125 

— Night schools for employees 270 

Lesher, C. E„ leaves Geol, Sur ^935 

Lever or road jack, Bowen ^44 

Lewis, J, L„ photo 657 

Light, extension wall, Willey •263 

Light, Holder for Edison battery tail. 

Mayer •218 

Lifht, portable utility '929 

[.1,'litiiii-- ri.Jt ni .-i.-.-in.- (inq.) 32 

1 ,1,1,. I'l.-, I, . .1 v>...kiMg face. .849. 858 

I , ,1 , ,, ,, ,, I , , (inq.) Cain, , 940 

L, ,,!,,, >!:■ . ,11, Croft 8 

1 , -la- -I 111. .11.. I ■- . I'. 111.' 411 

Lignite d, posits 111 liclaiRl 362 

Lignite industry, Texas, Gentry 'og 

Line material. Advances in overhead 272 

Living conditions at mines. Discussion 115, 377 

Living costs, (Poster) , . 325 

Loa(iing, coal, machine at Montour No, 10, 

Mayer *ioi 

Loading machine 581 

Loading problem. Young 404 

Locomotive, See also "Haulage," 

Locomotive repaired by welding •;>;- 

Locomotive, Storage-battery, to operate 

pump (inq.) ., ■ 20(1 

Loconi.ilivr> lliMi 11. 11.. I ;ii-anng for mine 

Loconi..iiv. - mill. 400 

Loconii.ln . -■ M..r . . l-..M.i,\'. Discussion ^938 
Loconiiilivrs Sim I-. l.itliry, Appleton. . , ^744 
Locomotives, To iitiini. to track, Povich,, 218 
Locomotives, Work of gathering, (inq,) , , 164 

Discussion •416. •oOO 

Longwall. See "Working." 

Lubricants for roller bearings. (mq.) 

Hampton 419 

Luxury trades and ours 936 

Lyon. D. A. (Photo) 393 


livator '406 

nil Corp. — Safety powder car. 

^ Ihiation. Chailgc in (inq.) Cain ^735 

I 833. 900 

I Fallacies in 654 

H, (Photo) 393 

,,l:,,is , 934 

ii,.|.ls i.r fJcrmany 548 

II. .^111 1 I. V counties 676 

1. .11.1 I. numinous coal 60 

, !,,,!,. iiion 030 

.....k- h..uld be sized 685 

iniiic (lips, (inq.) 379 

II 503. .543. 693. 758 

11(1 Prevalent disorder 684 

lines. Baker ^783 

• P.riil; Co, — Stripping, Baker ^379 
1. mil. 111. lit. Increased efllcieney 23 

I 1- ....mpers •684 


.Mrth,uu-, SmljllitJ- ..I .... . . • ■ ■. 

Midvalc Steel & Or.lnance Co, — Pensions. . 


Mine Ispectors' Inst. — Meeting 

Minneapolis, Minn, fuel testing laboratory, 
Missouri, Curious coal dei)Osits, Brodie , , 

Mitchell, J, Obituary 

Modulus of elasticity (inq,) 

Moffat Brothers mine. Potter 

Monorail for chain block • 

Monthly Labor Review — Prices of com- 
modities 271. 

Morrow explains 1917 profits 

Mnrliiii I. Sketch; portrait 

,M .Mil,.- type, Moseley 



Mount I'l.iiKant By-product Coal Co. — St. 

Vincent mine. Rule 

Mulberry Fork survey 

Mule. Work and str.ngth. (inq.) 



Naples. Mark.'t .•nn.liiimis for coal 


Nationalization. Oui .•Mi.rii'ncc- In 


National Sal.'ly— I'oster 


^"ariers . 645, (isi. ilStl. 741, 

Nemacolin plant. Baker 

Netherlands, Coal production 

New River & FocahonloB Ooal Co, — Ex- 

New Zealand, Coal ..-Muatlon 


— Shortage 


Vol. 16 

News from capitol. Wooton. 21. 108, l.'>*, 
193. .:H<). 879. 335. 366, 408, 450, 

40a, .-)79. 850. 893 934 

New York Stale Federation of Labor — Re- 

uort 431 

Nokomis Coal Co '638 

Nova Scotia. Bunlter aiid car^o coal 730 

Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. — Okl boiler. . "933 



Oakdale Coal Co. — E.Kulo.sioii 

Obsolescence, Accelerated 

Ohio. Coal of. Stout *B74, 707 

Ohio production, 1918 467 

Ohio. Stripping plant. Creamer ^134 

Oil, Superior, in air compressor 533 

Oklahoma,, explosion 191 

Old Ben Corp. — No. 9 mine 609 

Onacheta Coal & Cla.v Products Co '880 

Once again we greet you. Hall 599 

One may not question fate or economics. . . 338 

Operators protest settlement 935 

Origin of coal. Hippard 104 

Discussion 460 

Outlook in coal mining. Discussion 347. 288 
Oxyacetylene process in collieries and 

shops. Phelps '887. *9.30 

Paraguay, market for American coal .... 

Patent office. Strengthening of 

Pay for coal confiscated by railroads. . . . 

Penn. — Accidents 1907-11 ' 

Penn. coal. Fusibility of ash from. Discus- 

Penn. coal production 


Pemambuco. Market for coal in 

Petroleum, distribution, production 

— Exhaustion in U. S 

Phelps-Dodge Corp. — Housing standards, 

— Physical examination. Willis 

Pillars. See also -Working" 

Pillar drawing. Modern. Hesse 

Pillars, boundary 

Pillars. Robbing, anthracite mines. Dis- 

Piney Run. mine — Two deaths from black- 

Pipe' line welded 

Pipe. Rack for bending large. Adair .... 

Pipes, stowing 

ing water 

o. — Holder for tail light 

— llni-l ,il M.>.|l,.ur No. 3 

— L.jmIim- nil. I :il MontoUT No. 10 .. 

l'itt-,iiiii -li. I'll -I. ml and mine rescue .... 

Pit w,i;:uli li.i^ ^itjwing pains 

Playground made in record time 

Price is still the same. 

l'n<'e. low. era 

Price, regulation . . . . 
Prices and wages. Disc 

Australia . . . . 



if hiL-h 

War-time" studie 




Prices win. High 

Problem in coal extraction 

Discussion '416, *457. 541, 662, 722, 





— Australia 

— Belgium 

— Bulgaria 

— Canada 

— Dutch East Indies 

— •Fr.T.nce 

— Germany 

— Gt. Britain 

— India 





-N( tJKirlajids 

— Poland 

— South Africa 

—Spain 107, 

— United States 380. 421. 440. 467. 

— Venezuela 

— World 440. 

P'oduction be limited? Shall 

Profiteers, Who are the 

Profit sharing. Failures in 

Promotion of ambitious workers. Discus- 
sion 375. 628. 

Pulverized fuel. Advantages claimed for. 


— Drainage 
— Elimiiiati 
— Exam. 1 1 
— Hj-draiili 
— Prohhni- 
— Prote. tin 

problem at Edna No 


1,1 n-est 


Poetry 43. '87. 217. •533. •5o9, 

Poland, coal production 493, 

— Shortage 

Pond Creek Coal Co.. first-aid contest. 


Postal Zone law. Capper .......... .... 

Posters 36. 67. 114, 324, 373. 

Powder car. Safe. Honaker .y 

Powdered coal l'.-o.^ 

Powder house 

Powder kegs. Defective • • . - 

Powder keg. (Posters) . . o7. 

Powder in mines. Transporting. Discussion 
Powdered coal 

POWER. See also "Boiler." "Engine." etc. 

— Costs, power plant. Steck . . .... 

Electrical energy transmittetl to Italy 

from Belgium •^: ■ • ■ • 

— Electrically-driven fan. (inq.) Wilson • 

Electrifiiation of mine hoists. Sage. . . . ' 

Hieh-tension lines. Installing, (inq.)... 


— Motor starters 

— Motors, direct current -■, 

Power i)lants. Crows Nest Pass Coal Co. ' 

— Power plants, savings possible 

— Selection of power for mine service. 

Steak -.■A- ; 

— Substation of Sullivan Pond Creek Coal 

— Substation, outdoor. Young ....•307. ' 

— Transformer station ' 

-Transmission of power. Electrical. Fam- 



— Bituminous coal. Preparation. Pro 

chaska '0, '96 

— Breaker, Rebuilding Loree. Hutchin- 

— Conveying a,pparatus in Pittsburgh mine •7.52 
— Degradation of coal. Shubart '401 

Discussion 580 

— Removal of impurities in raw coal .... 150 

— Southern Illinois plants •870 

— Thickener and classifier. Dorr. Griffen . . ^146 

— Tipplti Cons Coal Co. Brasack •678 

— Waahery, plan of 100 

— Washability of a coal. Frazer and 

Yancey ^702 

— Washing, coal, on concentrating tables. 

Morrow 533 

Prcsei-vation of mine timber (inq.) 164 

Discussion 377. 459. 760 

I'rcvalent disorder in material yaril 684 

Price. C. W. Sketch; portrait 605 

.iniijs against acid mine 

water. Goodnow 

— Pumps on hand 

— Star Junction plant * 

— Storage battery locomotive to operate 

pump, (inq.) 

Pyrite ■ 

Pyrite from coal. Commercial recovery. 


Pyrite in coal. Ohtake. (inq.) 

Pyrite in Illinois coal beds. Cady * 

Pyrite. preparation 




Rooms, without sights. Turning, Discus- 
sion 387 

Roundup Coal Min. Co. — Coal hoisted . . 385 

Russian coal situation 399 

— Imports, Fuel 464 

SAFETY, See also "Rescue," "First Au\." 
"Accident," "Exam, Questions," "Laniii," 
"Explosion," etc. 

— Accident prevention 673 

— America giows less careless '600 

— Appliances ip mining operations. Sher- 
lock 319 

—-Car. Safe powder. Honaker *o6o 

— Certification and safety. Discussion 

39. 68. 303. 345. 388 

— Don't handle powder kegs roughly. 

( Poster) 67 

— Examination of a mine. Gosnell 18 

Discussion 244. 285. 334. 503. 693 

— Exam, questions 33 

— Guard for power hammers ^870 

— Horn. Safety . . .,v "^SO 

— Importance of safety. Plank •238 

— Markers on mine trips (inq.) 3 "9 

Discussion 503. 543, 693, 758 

— Mine-i'ar a.-.ideiits 055 

— N ilic.ii il s, Cnuncil poster 490 

— . I'l riiii-.ilili I ■,, iil.i-i\rs. Miller •335 

— I'liwil-i , II ^ilit,\ Deuvell ^433 

— U(-, iir i|ip,ii,ini~ in fighting mine fires. 

Ryan 741 

— Shotfiiing in mines. Device for . . ^489. 693 
— Size of safety as an industrial issue . . 453 

— Some dangerous ' conditions 195 

— Timbering. Safety in mine. Discussion 

163. 378. ^541. 587. •860 

Salesmanship, Contrast in 494 

Sandpaper holder •SGI 

Saward's Annual t405 

Scales and correct weights. Care of. 

Dodge 103 

Scholz substation •713 

School buildings. Berwind Canyon •034 

School. Night, for employees 270 

S.otch for T-iron road '88 

Screen. Kohl-Simon ^12 

Seasonal industries are many 754 

Securities, Coal and coke 84, 132, 176, 

216, 200, 299. 346. 390 

Sell coal abroad. How to 537 

Septic tank •OSS 

Scz Uncle Sam '533 

Shaft bottom at Valier. elevation ^822 

Shaft mine at Amsterdam, Ohio. Ball . . ^40 

Shaft press ^433 

Shantung. Coal production 34 

Sharp. W. G.. Obituary 333 

Shelf supports lor mine foreman's office. 


iitrolled check 

for bending, (inq.) 

line bond. Steck . 

of mine. Beck . 






Shellac container. Willey •520 

Shipbuilding ways. U. S 719 

Shipments. Coal 36. 271, 907 

Shipping rates on coal to European ports 465 

Shortage, Coal. Hall 177 

Shortage. Coal, No, France 729 

Shovels ^397, '785 

Siamese coal market and imports 464 

Sidewalks a mining town necessity 157 

Sit-nal board. Block, Mayer ^89 

Si.iLil s, II. LiiiK-er 489 

> - ,M II.- electric. Croft '308 

> i: I ^880 

S|.;.!.-.- |-.,..x.-iv •lO 

Smallware drawer. Willey ^432 

Smokes. Valley of a thousand 453 

Snapshots ^ 323. 364. 683 


Railroads — Coal consumed 

Railway administration reports coal car 


Rainer. G.. photo ^ 

& Coke Co. — ^Foundry. 

— Amer. Inst. Mg. Engi-s. Meeting 

— Building. Engineering Societies 

— Canadian Mir. Inst.. Western branch. 

products of college life 894 




pay tribute to 

KniKi I'l il., lirst aid meet ... 

R..|.,Hiilni- lL..n-r< linq.) 

Rcrail Automatic. Mayer ''■ 

Rerail. Frog 

Rescue and first-aid contest in British Col. 

Dunn *• 

Rescue apparatus in fighting mine fires. 


Rescue apparatus in U. S. Moms . . . . * 

Rescue — Breathing apparatus • 

Rr-.;.-nc. Mine, stations. West Va 384. 

K. <. uc training. Standardizing. Parker.... 

i;. .11. work 15. 291. 077. 091. 

711. 743. 753. 

Rr-. Ill- work. Aeroplanes for mine 

R<'s<-ue work. Instruction in 

Rescue work. Organizing for 

Research laboratory 

Resources. Coal 

RSsumg of theories of origin of coal. 


Rice. G. S.. returns from Europe 

Roads. Good, in mining to-HTis 

Robbing pillars anthracite mines, Discus- 
Rock and slack. Disposal ol 

Rocky Mtn, Inst, — Meeting 

. — Views taken during trip * 

— Papers ^401, 

Roller bearings for mine cars. Discussion 

545. 805. 

Rom.-in.v gypsies. (Poster) 

— Interior Dcpt. headed by engineer 

— National Safety Council, Congress .... 

— Rocky Mtn. Inst. — Meeting 

— Tr.aining for engineers 

Soldier gets a new start 

Some men are big enough to ignore facts. 


South Africa coal 339. 

— (ioke industr.v 

— Production. C^oal 

Spain. Coal production 167. 592. 

Span. Timber-arch. Walkinshaw . ' 

Specific gravity determination of coal. Dis- 

Spitzbergen, Coal in 

illi hog 

s;.., ! . ,iiitiii-(ion in mines, (inq.) 

Si.i,M 11, III, II . 'l,., mill!.'. '' willey '!!!!!.! .'■ 
S|. III. (ill. 1,1 -Mm. Co. — Cement gun.. 

Stabilizing coal trade 

Standard Oil Co. of Ind. — No. 2.. •831. 

Standardizing mining equipment 

Starving public utilities 

Statistical sidelights on our national fuel 

problean ' 

Statistics, Appropriation for collection of 



street crossing. Mayer 



July 3 to Dec. 27, 1919 


Storage battery locomotives in mine work. 

Appletoii •744 

Storage, Coal 717 

Stover coal bank "877 

Strainer. Pipe line ••'I 

Strikes. See "Labor." 

Stripped coal should be carefully prepared o.'lO 

Stripping. See "Working:." 

Stucco applying machine '720 

Substation, outdoor. Young •307. •71'^ 

Suo<-ess and failure 884 

Sullivan Pond Creek Coal Co. Gilliam . . •48K 
Sulphur compounds in coal. Thiessen . . . , •ti68 

Sulphur in coal 606. •70*.: 

Sulphur. Low, coal in Illinois. Cady . . •187 

Sump. Contents of mine, (inq.) •337 

Superheaters at British collieries. Mere- 
dith 267 

Superior Coal Co. — No. 4 mine •8'20. •STO 

Supply of coal producing countries of world 440 

Survey, Good way to make rouffh •529 

Survej-ing — Laying out short radius curves. 

Hanst •219 

Survejing — Magnetic declination. Cain •725 
Surveying, Pj-aotice. En-ors in. Discussion ^246 
Surveying — Sights, Turning rooms without. 

Discussion 287 

Surveying without instruments. Discussion 159 
Susquehanna Collieries Co. — First-aid 

contest 446 

Switch. Homemade voltmeter. Nolan . . . .•351) 

Switch throw. Homemade. Povich •350 

Switches, Aid to slewing a mining machine 

into •'Ms 

Switzerland. Imports ;!;il) 

TRADE — Continued. 

— Imports. Russian fuel 464 

— Imports. Switzerland 339 

— Irish coal trade 943 

— Marine strike affects exporters 122 

— Market. Argentina 421. 912 

— Market. Italy for Amer. coal 908 

— Market. London 943 

— Market. Naples 729 

— Market, Paraguay 549 

— Market. Pernambuco 75 

— Refund to American coal exi)ortcrs 154 

— Saward's anniial t405 

— Sheffield coal trade. 1918 392 

— Shippers and operators should combine. . 

Wynkoop 75 

— Shipping rates to European ports .... 465 

— Shipping tied up. Japanese 943 

— Siamese coal market and imports .... 464 

— Spain 942 

— Stabilizing ■'<-.. ■,^ tr i.Ir 685 

— Tariff, Ki - ;■ .il and coke 292 

— Trade i - > i i i i . . 755 

— Yorkshii. .h ::.;< 168 

Traffic beai . U Ixai \m11 : 582 

Trolley wire 180 


— Handling, coal •ISS 

— Material transported after explosion..... 485 
— Raih-oad adnunist ration providing ade- 
quate transportation 857 

— Water transportation. Need of inland. 

Jovce ^437 

Trieste. Coal trade 631 

Trull Coal Min. Co. — Locomotive •749 

Turninii^ a room without engineers. Monico ^89 

Tax. Coal. Ala . . , 
Tax revision. Penn, 

iracite. Joyce . 
Sketch, portrait 

09, 394. 383. 551. 945 



..93. ^308 


T( mperature and heat .\\ . .\ . . '. . 

TciHi. Coal Iron & R.R. Co. — Muscoda divi- 

Tester for '-im.,- ,-,i- :vh- 

Testing— I'. '-■■ mm , 

Testing — I . , i 

coal. y] ;:■ ... I; 

Ttsling— l-i.-il.uliu ui .1,-1 
Testing — Washability of 


Tests and comparisons of permissible explo 

sives Thompson 

Texas lignite industry. Gentry 

Thickener, Dorr 

Thrift habit. Perpetuating. Discussion 501 

(- i>i Orient 
,^li • 

Frazer and 


— Preservation of mine timber (inq.) .... 164 

Discussion 377. 459. 760 

— Safety in mine timbering. Discussion. 

163. 378. •541. 587 ^860 

— Quality of mine timber. Discussion.... 201 

— Terms in mme timbering (inq.) 505 

Tijjple. See also "Preparation." 

Tipple and engine house ^53 

— Grows Nest Pass ^373 

— Paterson mine •364 

— Cons. Coal Co •678, ^794 

—Superior Coal Co ^820 

— Star Junction ^838 

■ — Montour No'. 10 ^853 

Tit for tat 895 

Toledo power drive ^406 

Track curves. Resistance of mine (inq.).. 589 
Tracks, ballasting of mine 536; Discus- 
sion 756 

Tracks — Frogless crossover. Mayer ^575 


— Amer. coal export trade 803 

— Bunker and cargo coal in Nova Scotia 730 

— Bunker coal. Prices 631 

— Bunker rules, cancellation 155 

— Bunker prices, foreign 907 

— Chaos in British coal trade 34 

— Chilean market for fuel 507 

— Combinations in restraint of trade. Hall 633 

— Corporation to export coal 838 

— Export British coal to Marseilles forbid- 
den 75 

— Export trade. Low^er cost ol output helps 123 

— Exporting countries. Coal 492 

— Exports. Australia 592 

— Exports. CoaL 168. 393. 381. 421. 508 

549. 796 907 

— Exports. Coal. Great Britain 421 

— Exports. Coal. U. S 431. 493.943 

— Exports dependent on return cargoes. . . . 132 

— Foreign buyers. Cards for 75 

— France imports American coal 76 

— Freight. Hines asks for cooperation .... 580 
— Freight rates. 76. 79. 108. 168. 309. 431. 550 

— Freight rates. Foreign 907 

— Imports. Argentina 421 

— Imports. Italy 593. 943 


Underground machine shop •()42 

Union Coal & Coke Co. Photo 304 

Union Colliery Co. — Kathleen mine 8ai 

Union Paeiflc Coal Co. — Amusement hall 

and auditorium 'Sfll 

Union, Why not the? 110 

Unloading machine. Rapid 'IKS 


— British fuel experiments 711 

— British InYestments in Argentina 4I)j 

— Coal output decreasing, Gt. Britain's . . a.'il 
— Coal production, Gt. Britain . . 4-.J1, 493. 730 
— Concrete. Reinforced, in mines of Gt, 

Britain 113 

— Exported, coal, 1918, Gt. Britain 421 

— Gt. Britain facing huge coal problem. . 381 

— Iceland, Lignite deposits 362 

— Mining methods in Gt. Britain 711 

— Nationalization ol coal mines 24 

— Plunderbund 327 

— Scotland, coal mining, 395: Discussion 

.580, 899 

— Sheffield coal trade, 1918 292 

— Shipbuilding, tons short 3,t1 

— Superheaters at British Collieries. Mere- 
dith 267 

— Situation, British. 158, 100, 194, 199, 509 

— Trade, Chaos in British coal 34 

— Wellesley colliery. New. Meredith 750 

— Yorkshire coal-mining 251 

— Yorkshire strike •329 

UNITED STATES. See also "Bureau of 

Mines" and "Geological Survey." 
— Arbitration board for public protection 

during strikes 108 

— Cancellation fuel agreement . . , , 15-5 

— Census Bureau, mortality statistics ... 'bOO 

— Coal production ;,''"?• ■*"• 

— Congress. Employees must not talk to 

— Exports, Coai ' ,' .' ,' .' ,' .' .' .' ' ' ' • ,' ,421. •19-- O-}-,' 
— Inilustries using bituminous coal ..,..■. 441 

Mill,. I,..,, i[,|i.ii:iins in U. S. Morris *649 

Xiii h, it ('Ill experien<!e in..., 495 

\ iiiii il I- |,r t. luin and consumption 441 

— i'.iM.ii .' ■ l,i.> <',iMper '359 

— iUahoad uw.n.l .,u.s 3^6 

— Refund to coal exporters,.,.....,,., 154 
— Senate inquiry coal situation. 379. 380. 

■ 408. 450, 492, 579 582 

— Shipbuilding ways 719 

— Uses of coal 441 

— Value of mineral products 441 

— Water power develoiied 44'.. 

United States Coal & Coke Co. — Electric 

lighting at working face 849 

V;.licr Coal Co '>i^. 871 

Valley Camp Coal Co, — Conveyor at No.^ ^^ 

3 mine 7ii'o 

Valuation. Coal land 123 


Value of mineral products ol U. S 441 

Value of 191.H production 485 

Varying standards of durability 085 

Venezuela, coal 421 

— Production. Coal 464 

VENTILATION. See also "Gases. Mine." 

— Booster Ian. Automatic Starter for. 

(inq.) Luxton 724 

— Door set open. Finding mine. (inq.) 
Bowen, 'Ki-l; Dis.-nssion, '020. 000. 

757 .SO.-. •>!>r. 9.39 

— Exam. .HI.-' - Tl 121. 105. 307, 

338. :'.N" IM ,-,06. 590. 004, 807 

— Pan. De.siffii m \ . m il.iting (inq.) "724 

— Fan, Electri. ,ill.\-aiucu (inq.) Wilson .. ••J9() 

— Fan. Reversing 091 

— Reducing ventilation at firing time. Dis- 
cussion 203 

Versailles Coal & Min. Co 881 

Vesta Coal Co. — First-aid meet '445 

Vicious circle. Strohm '559 

Vienna pinched by lack of coal 798 

Violations ol mining laws. Discussion. . 286 
Virginia. First-aid contest '377 


Wages, Sec "Labor." 

Wagon, Old mine •.>'w 

W:i!l <^ti-- n:rth. T-iTi'.- rfliiiniir.-- ., 4o 

\^r;jtl. ,1 ,n:t',' i;. if- .^i-n'.ii.i! concrete 

■\^■;il■ 1 ,111, ^-.h;. 111..- 1,1 ■ II. il and coke 572 

Wa=U..i.ility ul .1 ..j-ii l-'.i") and Yancey •702 
Washcry, See Preparation." 

Washrooms. Ohio law 1)90 

Was he a Hebrew ? 77(i 

Washington Coal & Coke Co. — Cement gun ^837 

Waste of coal. Discussion 09 

Waste heat 093 

Water clarification _10 

Water drain for wet roof '575 

Water transportation. Need of inland. Joyce •4.37 

Weight, coal, cubic foot 140. 312 

Welding, arc. dynamotor •7.51 

Welding, bond ^237 

Welding in mines. Electric arc. Kjellgren. ^52 
Welding — Oxy-acetylene process. Pheliis 

•887. ^930 

Welding repair job •087 

WeldiniT split gears to axle (inq.) 73. 

D,,i ,i--,i'ii, 203, 330 

Wclt.iii Putin - into mine office 281 

Wi.|i, -iin ciillt.iA New. Meredith 750 

Wclhiiaii i.|.,ii...l bucket '743 

Wcstcrai niitiiii;; villages 195 

West Va.. Carswell. explosion 191 

— Report. 191T 253 

— New coal companies 296 

— Con'iscation 947 

West Va. Coal Min. Inst. — Meeting. Hall.. 826 
What about the rest of the United States'; 

I Poster) 415 

What in the world can you expect? 

Strohm •SOO 

What the coal strike is about. Hall 819 

When the boss loses his control .350 

Where there are no forces there can be 

no resultant 156 

Who is chargeable for short time? 717 

Who's who in coal mining •149, •330, •OOS 

Why not explain ? 936 

Wilson. Secretary, photo 657 

Winton, views of 323 

Wiring, mine. Croft • ^480 

With your kind permission 85.S 

Worker against worker. Hall 261 

WORKING MINES. See also "Cutter. ' 
"Hoisting," "Haulage," "EleotrioHy." 
"Power." "Pumping." "Timbering." 

— Extraction. Problem in coal '234 

Dis<.ussion •410. ^457. 541. 663. 733. 

.S(I4 859 

— Jtispcr Park Coll. Co. McMillan •523 

— Longwall system, modifled. Discussion 

301, 500 

— Method of working •300 

— Mining methods in Gt. Britain 711 

— Pillar drawing. Hesse , , ^84;) 

— Pillars, Robbing, anthracite mines. Dis- 
cussion ^37, 11 ;> 

— Southern Illinois minqs ,T 

— Stripping conveyor ^404 

CoiTPr'tlon , . . 4ol 

- — stiiiiiin- flint in Ohio. Creamer ^134 

Siiiii|.iii- Sitiiiison •880 

— siiifiiin- with heavy overburden. Baker ^397 

Woriuu.iii i> \M.ilhy of his hire 581 

World is poor. When 405 

Wynkoop. C. B., Coal markets 7i> 



— Mine Are . . 

Ill Co. — Mine at 


Vol. 16 



ADAIR. A. D. Rack for bending larg-e 
pipe •478 

Allan. A. A. Firebosses as state officials. . 334 

Child labor in mines 457 

Appleton. J. Storag-e battery locomotives. . *744 
Ashley, G. H. Use-classification of coal...*918 
Atkins. C. W. Problem in coal extraction. . 602 

r>AIN. A. O. Mine haulag-e proposition. . . 417 

Modified system of lougwall 500 

Problem in coal extraction 541 

Finding a mine door set open *6'26 

Coal mines in Scotland 899 

Baker. D. J. Dedication Bureau of Mines 

building 321 

Stripping^ with heavy overburden "397 

DriiHiage problem solved '434 

Ncmacolin plant •560 

Cnmmunity amusement building •60'2 

Comnuniity work •634 

Filinjr sy.stema : '736 

No. 1 plant Mather Coll "783 

Use of cement gun •SSe 

Two deaths from blaokdamp •885 

Ball. J. L. Modern shaft mine at Amster- 
dam. Ohio *46 

Barth. K. C. Preservation of mine timber. 377 
Bartholow. P. Coal shortage in Europe. . . 85*2 
Beard. J. T. Meeting Mine Inspectors' 

Inst '144 

Beddow, M. S. Mine electricity and elec- 
tricians 399 

Beck. C. C. Bonding mine rails '90 

Bell. F. R. Ala. first-aid and barbecue. . . . **275 
Blakeley. A. G. Determination of coal. ... 70 

Fusibility of ash in Penn. coals 344 

Bock, H. Coal resources of Germany. . . .*3S'Z 

Bowen. JR. Mine haulage proposition 28 

Lever or road jack *44 

Spring latch •SS 

Robbing pillars 115 

Violations of mining laws 286 

Bolshevism in America 333 

Work of gathering locomotives •416 

Origin of coal 460 

FuKhng mine door set open ^462 

-; Degradation of coal 586 

Promotion of ambitious workers 628 

Safety in shotfiring 692 

Bowron, C. E. Efficiency in underground 

haulage 360 

Braley, B. Creed of service •87 

Brasack, W. Tipple Cons. Coal Co •678 

Brodie. W. M. Curious coal deposits in 

Missouri ^876 

Brown, A. M. Unpractical examination 

questions 588 

Brumbaugh. I. V. Experimental-retort tests ^567 

Buggy. J. Simple climber ^433 

Burdick. D. C. Depletion and depreciation 

of mining properties 185 


lUiiiois coal 

CADY. G. ] 
beds * 

Low-sulphur coal in Illinois * 

Cain. G. Change in magnetic declination. .• 

Electric lighting equipment 

Callen. A. C. Unpractical examination 


Capper. Senator A. Postal zone law. .•359. 

Caramazi. A. Wages vs. work hours 

Carruth. C. W. Work of gathering loco- 
motive • 

Chambers. W. M. Elli. m [,. \ ,,t nmi'- workers 

Chance. H. M. Pn-. ,, I -n;.p!v • 

Commons. J. R. JihIh-i nil _ Iwill t 

Coxe. E. H. Sealing up .itMiaiuncd workings 
Creamer. S. B. Opciating coal stripping 

plant • 

Croft. T. Mine electric lighting 

Selection of electric system • 

Electric signaling . * 

Mine-wiring • 


Rainey-Wood byproduct 

Gassman. H. M. A. C. vs. D. C. current..* 

Gentry. B. Te.xas Ugrnite iudustiT 

Gilliam. M. W. Sullivan Pond Creek Coal 

Co • 

Goodnosv. H. Protecting- pumps against 

aciil riiiiir w;itrr 

Controllih- II 

Gosnell. S Kximi 
Griffen. J. [u.u i 

- for elevators 
of a mine. . . . 
and classifier 




1, R. D. Bolshevisn 


rtag-e 177 

W..ik-, ,. M,i-l «,.ike,.." 301 

Stan. I .luaiti^i uiilair wag^e advances.. 391 

ShMll the coal industry be bond or 

tree? 478 

Our problems and theirs .'ilS) 

Once again we greet vou 599 

Clii.a-n nicptni? A I M. E (iOO 

Salri> iiHh HI. -.a at Cleveland 'GIS 

1' liiniihiii- 111 I. -II, lint of trade.... fi33 

I,"al .i|"lal.i|- a- i^riits Of PUblic . . . 667 

Even country storekeepers may strike. 769 

Amer. Min. Congress 797 

What the coal strike is about 819 

West Va Coal Min. Inst, meeting 826' 

Coal Min. Inst, meeting 839 

Appeal to reason 917 

Hampton. S. R. Lubricants lor roller 

bearings 419 

Hanst. J. F. Laying out short radius 

curves •219 

Harris. B. W. Roller bearings lor mine 

cars 54.5 

Haverstick, S. G. Drafting room hints. . . . 478 

Hendry. C. A. Hydraulic stowing *787 

Hennigan. J. Preservation of mine timber 760 
Herbert. C. A. Engineering features modern 

coal mines 'SCO, '870 

Hesse. A. W. Modern pillar drawing prac- 
tice •845 

Hippard. C. W. Resume of theories of 

origin of coal 104 

Hogarth. T. Certification and safety 69 

Honaker. H. H. Safe powder car.... •565 

Hughes. T. O. Welding spht gears to axle. 336 
Humphrey. E. P. Sliding door for rope 

opening •45 

Boiler house economies •570 

Hunter. D. Unpractical examination ques- 
tions 374 

Hutchinson. W. S. Rebuilding the Loree 

breaker ^Sii'Z 

JOHNSON. M. Fatal hoistmg accident. . '130 

Safety derail '433 

Jones. E. E. Tester for loose car wheels. . *45 

Jones. J. T. Outlook in coal mining 348 

Jones. J. W. Promotion of eager workers. 897 
Joyce. W. E. Need of inland water trans- 
portation •4.37 

Taxing anthracite 844 


ENTIN, J. First-aid trainii 

Kimball. G. E. Electrical hazai 
Kjellgren. J. G. Electric arc 


Welding split gears to axle. 

Kneeland. F. H. " '"' 


McNalt. .J. I. Unpractical examination ques- 
tions 375 

McNeill, J Problem in coal extraction... 859 

Marsh.ili i; i niiMwses as state officials.. 31 
l..i I ■ I ' ition of a mine 334 

Kill.; iiii:m' door set open .] 757 

Mayer, K \^ Vin lioring bullwheel of 3500 

Imm -' [Hiw.-i- haulage "Ifi 

Eith HMi ■■■.iv fft;irder '44 

Bin. k M^iKil huard '89 

Car duur liltur •143 

Holder for tail light •218 

Device for dumping rock cars •263 

— ■ — Automatic rerail ^307 

Coal mine on Allegheny River •316 

Stepping-slone street crossing •351 

Automatic car door opener •479 

Three-in-one roller brackets *d21 

Frogless crossover •575 

Shell sniM"'Vt~- •637 

Handlin- I ...h,.].:^ 682 

Loadin;; m - 1 M untour No. 10 . . •853 

Meredith, M. 1; 1 1: t . . micrete in mines 

ol 'in .,r Dili,, in 113 

— — Superheali T- 267 

British and German military mining 

explorsives 488 

Pulvenzetl fuel 531 

Ammonia from coal 563 

New Wellesley colliery 750 

Miller. J. E. Permissible explosives ^225 

Monico. J. A, Turning a room without the 

engineer ^891 

Moore. T. Coal seams. Comiellsville Dist. . . 940 
Morris. P. P. Mine rescue apparatus in 

U. S •649 

Morrison. J. A. Conservation of coal •306 

Morrow. J. B. Coal washing on concentrat- 
ing tables 532 

Morrow. J. D. A. Soft coal prices 366 

Moseley. L. C. Mine type motor •6 

NOLAN. J. J. Homemade voltmeter 
switch ' 

Noone. W. H. Safety in mine timbering. . 

Efficiency of mine workers 

Transporting powder in mines 

Markers on mine trips 

Problem of coal extraction 

Norman, F. Cement gun at Cadogan mine. * 



HTAKE. K. UtiliEation of pyrite : 

pARKER. D. J. Standardizing mi 

^ training 686 

Payor. J. P. Child labor in mines 585 

Peebles. T. A. Steam jet ash conveyor. . . .•658 
Phelps, C. C. Oxyacetylene in colliers and 

shops ^887, '930 

Piez. C, Labor and its responsibilities 882 

Plank. W. B. Importance of safety '328 

Potter, W. P. Moffat Brothers' mine ^53 

Povich, J. Return of motor to track 218 

Homemade switch throw '350 

Price. M. W. Fire prevention 651 

Prochaska, E. Preparation of bituminous 

coal ^9. '96 

■n ANDOLPH. I. Corps 

Riggs, L. A. Eliminating mine pumps. . . .• 

Riley, J. Safety in mine timbering • 

Roddie, J. M. Certification and safety. . . . 
Rodenbns.h, C, Finding a mine door set 


Rule, P. B 
Rulledge. ^ 
Ryan, J, T. 

thrift habit. 

DAUGHERTY. G. K. Pond Creek Coal Co. 
first-aid contest 445 

Markers on mine trips 758 

Davis. S. H. Commercial recovery of pyrite. 776 

Deuvell, G. Safety powder car •iss 

Dickson, A. T. Co-operation between fire- 
bosses and assistant foremen. . . . .538 

Dodge. E. C. Care ol scales 103 

Douglas. J. A. Coal mines in Scotland. . . . 580 
Dmilap, W, H. Turning rooms without 

sights 287 

Creek control at Kingston, W. Va •4.39 

Dunn, R, Effect of breaking of coal 21) 

Plants of Crowsnest Pass coal field . , , •373 

Rescue and first-aid contest in British 

Col "577 

of power . 

Fay, A, H, M ,1. 

F.iy, 0, L. LiIn.i I 
Perrin, A. W , i i 
Fox, J. P. 

Electrical transmission 

Frazer, T, 

ANTZ. G. N. Get ready. 

— . Finding 

Liggett. A. A 
Luxton W II 

the llirift h.ibi 





BRIDE, R. S. Experimental-retort tests ^567 

olt. T. Fircbosi 



SAGE R. S. Electrification of mine 
hoists '770 

Sakon, F. W Short-circuit Indicator •433 

Seaburg. N. H. Quack analyses 193 

Sherlock, C. C. Appliances In mining oper- 
ations Sift 

Sherman, C. F. Electric mine haulage. . . . 861 
Sherman, T. S. Removing old babbitt metal 400 
Shubart, B. AvniHahlc dc-ri.lalinii nf coal '401 
Skoff. J. Robliin- nillM- ani In i- Mi- mnie-s. •27 

Certiticat umI -al.i> 289 

Smith, J. O. I iiii-ual uil.liii-: 1. r 111' job, ,^087 
Smith. R, A. I'liina.liial i\.i miiia 1 ion ques- 
tions , 285 

Somers, J, Storage battery locomotives, .. ^938 
Stafford, C, W, Half-soling mine car brake- 
shoes '505 

Stafford M Tn-liIIln. Iii-!i t.ii~i..ii lines,. 376 

Stc.'k, 10 





McMillan, . 

II, ;; 111., lliialt habit, , 

111 ol ,ii,il cMiaution '804 Sclc.tlnn ol mnm i,a iimu' sLTVice,, 

ill mine timbering *800 Stock, H, H. Mining and industrial educa- 

vism in America 901 tion 

I H, Mine-haul.lge proposition. '70 Stout, W, Coals of Ohio and their limita- 

cter vs, outflow of gas 502 tions for byproduct coke. . . •674. 

Jasper Park, Coll, Ltd •533 Stuart. O, Problem in coal extraction, . . . 

July 3 to Dec. 27, 1919 


Slrohm. R. T. Cheer up 


Sez Uncle Sam 

Vicious circle 

What in the world can you expect? 

TAYLOR. J. H. Firebosses as state offi- 
cials 119 

Teemer. W. J. Seamless tube wheel bush- 
ings '2 

Thiessen. R. Sulphur compounds in coal. . *6fi8 
Thomas. J. R. Living conditions at mmes. .115 

Bolshevism in America 588 

Thomas. L. R. Finding mine door set open '896 
Thomas. R. Efficiency of mine workers. . . 204 

Mine-haulage 417 

Finding mine door .set open 939 

Thompson. J. C. Tests and comparisons of 

permissible explosives 94 

Tillson. B. F. Need for definite technical 

sel*vice 645 

Touhey, J. Co-operation among mine offi- 
cials 900 

Trubie. A. Firebosses as state officials. . . 119 

rlRGIN. R. Z. Barometer 

WADE. A. T. Lawful examination of 

mine 693 

Walkinshaw. D. R. Timber arch span....*363 

Walls, J. Finding mine door set open 806 

Wesnedge. W. Certification and safety. . . 30 

Surveying without instruments 159 

Barometers vs outflow of gas •161 

Reducing ventilation at firing time... 20.3. 

Efficiency of mine workers 418 

Labor and democracy 544 

Prices and wages 584 

Bolshevism in America 860 

White. J. C. Outlook in coal mining 247 

Markers on mine trips 693 

Ballasting mine tracks 756 

Coupling hooks in rope haulage 759 

Wiley. J. H. Cost reduced in mai-hine 

mining 116 

Certification and safety 288 


Willey. C. H. Clamp for work bench. ...'. . '89 

Extension Willi light '263 

Handy cl. Miiing spray •306 

Smallwarr .Irawer •433 

Cotter key i-.vtractor ^478 

Shellac coiitanier '530 

Willis, C. F. Hcjnsing standards at Dawson, 

New Mexico •320 

^Physical examination previous to em- 
ployment .313 

Wilson. U. S. Electrically-driven fan •290 

VANCEY. H. T. Washability of a coal..^703 

York. G. D. Lawful examination of mine. 244 

Safety in mine timbering 587 

Young. A. M. Loading problem 404 

Young. C. M. Height of gas cap in safety 

lamp '486 

Engineering features modern coal 

mines •830, ^870 

Young. H. W. Outdoor substations. .•.SO?. ^713 
Youngling. L. S. Errors in sur^-eying prac- 
tice '246 


Volume 16 

New York, July 3, 1919 

Number 1 

Bolshevism — Not a Principle. 
But a Passion 

By R. Dawson Hall 

lOLSHEVISM is not a creed, it 
is a condition. It is a souring 
of the mind. The person that 
has it is a man diseased, a man 
whose judgment is warped by 
hatreds. The nearest evil 
akin to Bolshevism is Junkerism. The 
rich man who does not want to see the 
poor man thrive (and there are such men) is 
the analogue of the workingman who be- 
grudges to the capitalist the profits of his 
good judgment and intelligence. The well-to- 
do employer who will never believe in the 
good intentions of the average workingman is 
the counterpart of the Bolshevist who pro- 
claims all rich men robbers. 

Put a Bolshevist in clover and forthwith he 
becomes a Junker. Bolshevism never was a 
principle with him but a passion ; and like the 
dog, as soon as he gets the bone for which he 
has been barking he loses interest immediately 
in his loudly proclaimed principle of sub- 

To judge by what they say, the Bolshevists 
mistake all capitalists for Junkers ; and Junkers 
believe all workingmen Bolshevists or little 
better, though the great majority of the 
haves are not Junkers nor a large part of the 
have nols Bolshevists. 

Our great need is to see matters sanely, to 
catch a glimpse of the essential healthiness of 
private and national life, to watch for and 

note the many services that are rendered 
without pay or hope of advantage. Times 
without number within the compass of a 
single day every man is the recipient of favors 
for which he gives no requital and for which 
the giver expects nothing but thanks. Selfish- 
ness has its part in life, but with most men it 
is not the only motivating nor indeed the 
leading factor. 

The mind of the Bolshevist and Junker is 
like the stomach of the dyspeptic. In that 
which delights the normal man he finds 
fermenting and distressing possibilities. No 
one need fear that the Bolshevist will rule if 
we suppress all attempts at revolution, for 
he is hopelessly in the minority and he knows 
it; and he will continue so to be. The only 
possibility is that he may stir up such a re- 
action in those he unjustly attacks that they 
may overestimate the importance of the 
Bolshevist and by inconsiderate action and 
thoughtless words estrange and anger the im- 
mensely more numerous men who are of more 
temperate mind. 

It is certain that the United States 
democracy is not prepared to cast off the 
principle of compensating services by their 
worth, nor will it permit the man who con- 
tributes nothing to human welfare and boasts 
about the little he does to share equally with 
the man who, by constructive effort, adds to 
the product of the world and therefore to the 
well-being of all men. 


Vol. 16, No. 1 




Flexible Coupling Between Engine and Fan 
Eliminates Trouble with Bearings 

Frequently a mine fan and its driving unit are lo- 
cated near an air shaft or at some other point where 
a settlement of the ground may occur. In modern 
practice a fan and its driving engine or motor are 
placed on the same steel shaft; when this shaft is 
thrown out of alignment trouble is caused with the 
bearings. It is for this reason that a fle.xible coupling 
is provided between the engine and the fan. The 

8, /i"Bolf:s 

Seamless Tube Wheel Bushings 

By William J. Teemer 

Pittsburgh, Penn. 

Recently I read an article in Coal Age, by E. P. 
Humphrey, regarding the bushing of worn mine-car 
wheels with wrought pipe. This practice is good, but 
it may be considerably improved. Some time ago ex- 
periments were conducted upon the use of a "mechan- 
ical seamless tube" for the purpose. This tube is made 
of a high grade of openhearth steel with a carbon con- 
tent that admirably fits it for this kind of work. Many 
large mines are now using this kind of bushing material 
with highly satisfactory results. 




arrangement shown in the accompanying illustration 
has been used by an English firm for a number of years. 
The drawings give the details of the coupling and also 
its relation to the fan and engine. The engine shown 
is of the two-cylinder tandem, compound vertical type. 
The arrangement of the coupling is as follows: At the 
end of the engine crank shaft is a flange forged on solid, 
to which a small flywheel is 
bolted. On the fan shaft is 
another similar wheel. Be- 
tween these two flywheels is 
a short shaft about 2 ft. 6 in. 
over all, with a flange forged 
solid on each end; on these 
flanges are bolted two steel 
plates which are also secured 
to the two flywheels in the 
same way. The thin steel 
plates forming the flexible 
connections between the 
shafts allow a slight settle- 
ment in the fan or engine 
foundations without injury to 
the shaft bearings. The 
coupling is now being manu- 
factured by an English con- 
cern.- — The Engineer. 

Frog Rerail That Prevents Cars from 
Leaving the Track 

Cars that are off the track may be rerailed by the 
frog here described. The device also prevents the cars 
from leaving the rails. It does not interfere in any 
way with cars running through it on the rails. 

The timber outside the rail, the guard rail on the 
inside, the braces between the guard rail and the wing 
rail are duplicated on each of the rails opposite the frog. 
One of the large coal-mining companies has installed 
this type of rerail device at all the frogs on its main 
haulage roads. The cost of installation is small, the 
upkeep cost being practically nothing once it is placed. 
The delays prevented and time saved by the installa- 
tion of this rerail at one particularly bad frog on a 
curve was more than sufficient to pay for its installation 
on all the main haulage roads. 

To make this apparatus the wing rails of the ordinary- 
frog are extended. Straight pieces of track rail from 
4 to 6 ft. long are used for this purpose, the length 


July 3, 1919 


depending upon the gage of the track. These are butted 
against the ends of, and extend diagonally across the 
track in a line with, the wing rails of the frog. They 
are spiked firmly to the ties. A better job results if 
a fishplate is bolted to the end next to the wing rail. 
Inside of the opposite rail an ordinary guard rail is 
placed. The curved ends of this guard rail should be 
elongated, so that they reach to the end of the extended 


wing rail. Several hea\Y timber braces should be fas- 
tened between the guard and wing rails. Outside the 
track rail a heavy plank or timber should be placed 
tightly against the rail. The top of this timber should 
be on a level with the top of the rail, and each end 
should extend several feet beyond the end of the guard 
rail. This timber raises the flange of the car wheel 
to a level with the track rail. The extended wing of the 
frog on the opposite side of the track pulls the car 
over, and into the frog. As the wheel passes through 
the throat of the frog, the flange is lifted until the 
tread is on a level with the rail. At the same time the 
wing rail crowds the wheel over onto the rail. 

Cars that get off the track on the opposite side are 
also rerailed. Heavy planks or timbers are securely fas- 
tened between the point rails of the frog, with their 
tops level with the top of the rail. These raise the 
flange of the car wheel level with the top of the rail. 
The guard rail on the opposite side of track pulls the 
wheels over onto the rail. A timber or an iron plate 
between the guard rail and track rail raises the wheel 
flange on that side, until the tread of the rail will slide 
over onto the track. 

Electrical Distribution in Mines 

By E. Steck 

Hillsboro, ininois 

The bituminous mine.s in the central states have a 
general practice of connecting the entire electrical dis- 
tribution system underground to a circuit breaker on 
the surface. This practice has a number of shortcom- 
ings. If the circuit breaker trips all the locomotives, 
cutting machines and other motors are stopped. As 
soon as the breaker is put in all the motors are thrown 
on the line, creating a heavy overload on the power- 
plant equipment. All the machinery below is idle whiio 
the circuit breakers are out. 

When heavy grounds occur there is no indication of 
their location. The entire mine is idle until the trouble 
is found and that section in which the short has oc- 
curred is cut off, or the trouble remedied. 

By the use of circuit breakers underground trouble 
can be located much quicker. Only a small portion of 
the mine will be idle at such times and the starting over- 
load on the plant will be greatly reduced. Take for 
example a mine having two main entries : A switch- 
board panel can be placed on the bottom with two cir- 
cuit breakers and switches, each controlling one-half 
of the mine. The lights on the bottom can be connected 
in behind the circuit breaker so that no matter which 
breaker trips the lights will still be in service. The 
circuit breakers should be of the switchboard type. This 
makes each half of the mine independent of the other. 
This scheme can be further carried out by the location 
of railway-type circuit breakers at convenient places 
back in the mine. With such a layout in case of trouble 
a small part of the mine only is effected and the diffi- 
culty quickly located, as it must be behind the circuit 
breaker which has opened. 

The small breakers pay for themselves in a short time 
because of the shorter shutdowns and the lower number 
of locomotives and machines affected. The wear and 
tear for this reason is not so great on the power-plant 
equipment. If power is purchased, especially where the 
maximum demand charged is based on short-time peaks, 
a decided saving in the power bill can be made because 
all of the equipment cannot then be thrown on the line 
at once after the main circuit breaker is closed on top. 

Wire Brush and Pipe Line Strainer 

The wire cleaning brush shown in the accompanying 
illustration upper view is made from short pieces of old 
\-'\\\. hoist cable. The two ends are brought together, 
forming an eye, the strands being wired in three places 
and the binding wire soldered. The ends of each part 
of the cable are then untwisted and spread apart in a 


fan-shape so as to make the brush. These brushes 
have long life and are useful for cleaning machinery 
parts. The lower illustration shows wornout horizontal 
swing check valve made over into a strainer for a small 
oil line. The swing gate was removed and a strainer 
made of brass wire mesh was soldered into the valve 
cap, as shown at A. This strainer is cleaned easily. 


Vol. 16, No. 1 

Burning Steam Sizes of Anthracite with or 
Without an Admixture of Soft Coal* 

THE "Burning of Steam Sizes of Anthracite with 
or Without an Admixture of Soft Coal" is the title 
of a bulletin which describes, in the simplest 
terms, how to burn steam-size anthracite, or mixtures of 
this, with soft coal so as to get the most steam from 
the least fuel. An effective means of promoting fuel 
economy consists, frequently, in the substitution of a 
cheaper for a more expensive fuel. This bulletin de- 
scribes briefly what modifications of furnace design and 
operation may be made in order to insure efficiency in 
burning mixtures of anthracite and soft coal in fur- 
naces designed for one or the other of these two varie- 
ties of coal. 

While the essential difference between the burning 
of anthracite and the burning of soft coal consists, in 
the case of anthracite, in the use of a somewhat smaller 
volume of air per pound of fuel and a stronger draft, 
slight alterations in the method of firing and in the 
furnace itself (designed for one or the other fuel) are 
also necessary in case mixtures of soft and anthracite 
coal are used. 

There are four sizes of anthracite used for steam 
generation. These are commonly known as "buck- 
wheat" and are generally classified as follows : 


of Round Mesh 

Average Heat Values 


Which Screened, 

per Lb. of Coal, 

Size of Coal 



No. 1 buckwheat -...,. 



No. 2 buckwheat (rice) 



No. 3 buckwheat (barlev) 


No. 4 buckwheat 



No. 5 buckwheat 



Fig. 1 gives the approximate British thermal units 
per pound of anthracite of known ash content. A mix- 
ture of these sizes known to the trade as "boiler fuel" 
is sometimes used. No. 3 of good quality can be and 
is burned with excellent efficiency under proper hand- 
fired conditions. No. 4 is not so suitable for hand-fired 

The furnace equipment required for burning various 
percentages of steam anthracite and soft coal is noted 
in the following cases: 

1. Twenty Per Cent. Anthracite — With ordinary 
furnace equipment designed for soft coal, up to 20 per 
cent, "buckwheat" or fine sizes of anthracite may ordi- 
narily be burned without any change of equipment or 
firing practice. Owing to the fact that most boiler 
furnaces are operated below their normal capacity on 
soft coal, the foregoing percentage of anthracite can be 
added without decreasing the capacity of horsepower 
output of the boiler plant. 

2. Twenty to Forty Per Cent. Anthracite — If a 
greater percentage of anthracite screenings, 20 to 40 per 
cent., say, is mixed with the soft coal, it will be neces- 
sary, in order to obtain full boiler horsepower, to pro- 
duce air pressure under the grate. One of the simplest 
and best methods of obtaining the necessary pressure 
of i to 2 in. in the ash pit, is to install a blower of the 
turbine type for each boiler. Such a blower may be 

installed very easily and quickly since it may be fitted 
into the side wall of the ash pit. It should not use 
over 3 per cent, of the steam developed by the boiler 
when operating at full capacity. The cost of a steam 
turbine blower is approximately $200 for a boiler of 150 
hp. or more. 

A steam jet blower may be used instead of the steam 
turbine blower mentioned above. This is cheaper, and 
the more economical types of steam jet blowers are 
quite satisfactory in producing the desired results. In 
purchasing a steam jet blower it is most important to 
investigate its steam consumption. The best type of 
these blowers will operate on about the same steam as 



- 12,500 

" 12,250 



C 11,750 


0- 11,500 


-3 11,000 
























25 5 75 10 12.5 15 175 20 22.5 25.0 275 
Per Cent. Ash (by Analysis) 


•Issued by the United States Fuel Administration in collabora- 
tion with the Bureau of Mines. Based on an article by William 
P. Frey, Fuel Engineer. 

that required by the turbine blower, whereas the poorer 
ones may take from two to five times that amount of 
steam, in which case they should not be installed. The 
cost of the steam jet blower should be from $50 to $75 
or more for a single boiler of 150 hp. and up. The tur- 
bine blower, or the steam jet blower, should be con- 
trolled by means of an automatic-draft regulator of the 
"partial throw" type, in order to obtain efficient results, 
although fair results are obtainable by hand regula- 

3. Over Forty Per Cent. Anthracite — If more than 
40 per cent, of small anthracite is used the equipment 
recommended is forced draft plus "buckwheat" grates 
and a good automatic-draft regulator. The grates 
should vary in the matter of diameter of air openings, 
draft area and total surface in accordance with the 

July 3, 1919 


specific fuels used and their proportions in the mixture. 
Some plants are able to run efficiently on 100 per cent, 
of a good quality of fine anthracite if properly equipped 
for this purpose. The table given below furnishes ad- 
ditional data as to mixtures of various sizes of anthra- 
cite and soft coal that may be burned under different 
conditions of draft. 

The proper mixing of soft with anthracite coal is 
most essential. It can be done either by delivering in a 
wheelbarrow alternate and predetermined portions of 
the two kinds of coal, and then mi.xing by not less than 
two "turnovers" with a shovel before dumping in front 
of the furnace, or, on a larger scale, by a similar de- 
livery of car-load lots to the coal tipple where the mix- 
ing is done by machinery'. 

Grates for the fine sizes of anthracite have small air 
openings which vary in form from round holes, as in 
the pin-hole grates, to elliptical holes and straight 
slots, the width of slot or the diameter of the hole vary- 
ing from J of an inch up to f\ inch. The percentage of 

CFor Hand Firinir^ 

No. 1 buckwheat 
No. 2 buckwheat 

No. 3 buckwheat 
No. 4 buckwheat 

f Forced draft 
I Natural draft. 
I Forced draft. . 
I Natural draft. 
I Forced draft 
I Natural draft . 
f Forced draft . . 
, Natural draft . 

draft area through the grate would vary from 3 to 30 
per cent. 

Stationary, shaking, or dumping types of grates for 
burning the fine sizes of anthracite may be obtained. 
The dumping and shaking types facilitate the cleaning 
of fire with less drop in steam pressure, which is an 
important feature. A large ash pit is advisable so 
that fires may be cleaned by dumping or shaking grates, 
without the necessity of opening the ash-pit doors more 
than once in 24 hours. The ash-pit doors with forced 
draft are, of course, sealed to make them air-tight, and 
therefore, the less often they have to be opened the 
better. Or still better, separate the undergrate air 
chamber from the ash pit and install a dead plate in 
front of grates to dump ashes. 

Owing to the slower rate of combustion, the grate 
area for small sized anthracite is made larger than for 
bituminous coal in order to develop the same horse- 
power, except in cases where the soft-coal boiler already 
has an unnecessarily large grate, which is ordinarily the 
case. The relation of the grate area to the heating sur- 
face is also of importance. This relation is shown in 
the table below: 

For No. 1, 1 to 40. For No. 3 buckwheat. 1 to 30. 

For No. 2 buckwheat. 1 to 3.5. For No. 4 buckwheat, 1 to 2.5. 

The fuel bed should not be less than 6 ft. from any 
point of the boiler-heating surface. There should be 
from 2.5 to 3 cu.ft. of combustion space to 1 sq.ft. of 
grate area. Another detail of furnace con.struction 
which is important is that of the division of the heat- 
ing surface into the so-called passes. As the furnace 
gases in passing from the fuel bed to the stack are con- 
tinuously cooling, their volume is consequently decreas- 
ing continuously so that the area of the passes should 

be diminished in the same proportion to cause a uniform 
flow. The relation between the area of the various 
passes should be so as to include total boiler-heating 
surface about as follows : First pass, about 43 per cent, 
of total heating surface ; second pass, about 32 per cent, 
of total heating surface; third pass, about 25 per cent, 
of total heating surface. As the width of the gas pas- 
sage is uniform, the necessary reduction in the volume 
of the passes is made by reducing the thickness of the 
gas stream about as follows : In first pass, from 100 to 
G8; in second pass, from 68 to 52; in third pass, from 
52 to 50. 

Anthracite coal must be fired evenly in small quanti- 
ties, and at frequent intervals, the intervals of clean- 
ing depending upon the nature of the coal, rate of com- 
bustion, and the skill in spreading thinly and evenly. 
The leveling bar must be used sparingly, and only for 
the purpose of keeping the fuel bed level and to keep the 
thin spots covered up. As a rule it is bad practice to 
let a fuel bed of No. 1 "buckwheat" grow thicker than 
8 in. and No. 2 "buckwheat" should not go over 10 
in. and preferably not over 6 or 8 in. respectively. 
Where an automatic damper regulator is installed, it 
is important that coal be supplied to the fire in propor- 
tion to the air supply; that is to say, as the blower 
speeds up the firing should also be speeded up, and as 
the blower slows down the rate of firing should be de- 

Proper Method of Burning Steam Anthracite 

With a good grade of steam anthracite, it is possible 
to obtain almost as high an efficiency as with bitu- 
minous, provided the equipment and operation of the 
plant are suitable; frequently, moreover, large savings 
in cost of fuel to generate steam are effected by sub- 
stituting steam sizes of anthracite for the more e.xpen- 
sive bituminous coal. The best results cannot be ob- 
tained unless the changes indicated are made so that the 
furnace becomes efficient for the anthracite. It is ex- 
tremely important in burning the steam sizes of anthra- 
cite to provide against a large excess of air to the fire. 
The ideal way to bum this fuel is to use undergrate 
draft and to throttle the uptake damper to a point 
where the volume of air will be reduced to a minimum 
for proper combustion. The necessary pressure for 
penetrating the bed of fuel is supplied by means of the 
blower, and the volume is regulated by means of the 
up-take damper. With this equipment an automatic 
regulator should be connected for the pui^pose of con- 
trolling the draft in accordance with steam require- 
ments, all of which is ordinary standard equipment 
which readily may be obtained for the purpose. 

It must be emphasized that the greatest loss in burn- 
ing the fine anthracite is on account of too much air for 
the fire, and the principal way to keep this air down to a 
proper minimum is by using the up-take damper, 
throttled as much as possible so as to produce the high- 
est CO, without the formation of unburned gases. Loss 
from this source is much less probable than in the case 
of soft coal, with its high volatile content, so that with 
good installations, the CO may be run at 15 or 16 per 
cent., under correct supervision and regulation. This 
percentage of carbon dioxide indicates that practically 
no more saving can be made by closing the damper 
.still further. 


Vol. 16, No. 1 

The Mine Type Motor 

By L. C. Moseley 

Sclienectady. N. T. 

SYNOPSIS — The severe conditions of mining serv- 
ice, particularly as regards vibration, dust and 
dampness, has led to the design of a type of alter- 
nating current motor particularly adapted to mine 
service. This machine is entirely inclosed except 
for ventilation holes and is strongly and heavily 
built to meet exacting conditions. 

DUE to the character of the work in and around 
a mine requiring motors in different construc- 
tion from the standard open type of induction 
motor, a special machine has been designed to meet min- 
ing requirements. Since this motor was to be applied 
to special service, the matter of its design was dis- 
cussed freely with engineers familiar with mining re- 
quirements, and in its development their suggestions 
were incorporated. 

A brief review will be made of the conditions under 
which such a motor has to operate. The drive of an 
anthracite coal breaker is about as severe as any to 
which an electric motor has been applied. The breaker 
buildings as a rule are immense structures which sway 
and vibrate, and as a result the motors are subjected to 
excessive vibration and many shocks. Constant vibra- 
tion tends to crystallize the shaft, loosen the lamina- 
tions, break the bars of squirrel-cage rotors, and chafe 
the insulation on the coils. 

The atmosphere surrounding the motor is charged 
with everything from fine coal dust to dropping pieces 
of coal, and all exposed parts are covered with dirt and 
dust. The fine, sharp coal dust works its way into the 
windings of an open tube motor; and while this dust is 
a good insulator as long as it is dry, it becomes a good 
conductor as soon as it is moistened. This may occur as 
water is used in the process of separating the slate from 
the coal. Another factor to be taken into account is the 
starting duty, which is heavy, because shutdowns occur 
with the machinery full of coal. 

In the bituminous fields, much of the coal is shipped 
as run-of-mine or is screened only. There is, however, 
an increased tendency to furnish washed coal and as 

•Abstracted from General Electric Review. 

a result washeries are being installed. Motors applied 
in these washeries are subjected to conditions quite 
similar to those in an anthracite breaker. In the mines 
themselves, motors are frequently subjected to damp- 
ness and dripping water. 

One distinctive feature of the mine-type motor is its 
heavy construction. Another feature of the motors built 
in sizes up to and including the 75-hp. at 900 r.p.m. 
is the mounting of the back-gear bracket on the stator 
frame. Fig. 1 shows a motor having this back-gear 

The frame is of the box type, without openings, and 
is made of cast iron of heavy section. On machines up 
to and including 150 hp. at 720 r.p.m. the bosses for the 
back-gear attachment are cast on one side of the frame; 
and in order that the bosses shall be far enough apart 
to make the support of the bracket rigid and to give a 
sufficient width between the feet to make a rigid sup- 
port for the motor, the frame is made exceptionally wide. 
By having the bosses cast on each frame, the back shaft 
can be mounted at any time desired. 

The back-gear bracket is made of one casting which 
is attached to the frame by four large bolts placed as 



far apart as possible, as shown in Fig. 2. The bearings 
are lined with hard babbitt and are arranged for waste 
lubrication. They are split horizontally, have broad 
seats at each end, and are interchangeable but not self- 
aligning. By using this construction, the back shaft 
can be removed without disturbing the alignment of the 
bearings, and the bearing can be replaced without re- 
moving the shaft. The motor bearings can be replaced 
without removing the rotor or the lower half of the 
shield, and the rotor can be removed on the end opposite 
the gear without disturbing the back-shaft attachment. 
Both end shields are split horizontally and are held 
together by large square-head bolts which are placed 
so as to be readily accessible. The shields are totally 
inclosed with the exception of openings at the bottom 
for the inlet and outlet of air. These holes may be left 
open or a short length of pipe may be attached in order 
to bring in fresh air. The shields are interchangeable on 
the two ends of the squirrel-cage motor, but the wound- 
rotor machine has a longer shield on the collector end 
than on the other and is supplied with a hand hole and 
cover in the top half to give ready access to the brushes. 
The pulley end shield on both wound-rotor and squirrel- 
cage motors has a shroud attached to assist in the ven- 
tilation of the machine, and the upper half of each end 
shield has two tapped holes for air-gap measurement. 
On the wound-rotor machines, the brush studs are se- 
curely bolted to the end shields. 

July 3, 1919 



In all cases large bearings are used, split horizontally 
and interchangeable, being the same on both front and 
pulley end. Each bearing has two oil rings and two 
broad seats, one at each end of the lining, hence they 
are not self-aligning. Considerable trouble had been 
encountered on bearings having a single seat when used 
on a geared motor for very severe service due to the 
vibration pounding the seats out of shape. Special 
attention has been given to make the bearings both dust- 
proof and as free from oil leakage as possible. The oil- 
well covers are lined with felt and are held closed by a 
spring. Both bearings have overflow oil gages. 

Both the motor and back-gear shafts are of heavy con- 
struction, so as to minimize the vibration and lessen 
the tendency of the shafts to crystallize. In order to 
make the rotors interchangeable, the motor shaft is 
made for pulley extension, whether the motor is to be 
used for belting, gearing or otherwise. 

In the design of the rotor, special attention has been 
given to making it as rigid as possible in order to resist 
the shocks and vibrations arising from gearing. The 
rotor spider has an extra long bearing surface on the 
shaft, to which it is securely keyed. The squirrel-cage 
rotors have electrically welded end-rings of large section 
and ample radiating surface, and the conductors are 
forced into the slots without any slot armor or wedges, 
thus insuring a rotor that is practically indestructible 
unless injured by some mechanical means. The wind- 
ings of the wound rotor motors are similar to those used 

on standard machines, except that the windings have 
special moisture-resisting insulation. The collector rings 
are made of brass and are shrunk on the shell over 
insulation, the shell being pressed on the rotor shaft. 

As straight slots are used on the stator, the coils 
are exactly shaped, form wound, molded and completely 
insulated before being placed in the slots, the same as 
are those used in standai'd motors with straight-slot 
stators. All stator windings are insulated to resist 
moisture. Space blocks welded to adjacent punchings 
are used to separate groups of laminations and thus 
form ventilating ducts. 

Since the continuous rating of an electrical machine 
depends on the amount of heat that it will dissipate, 
special attention has been given to the ventilation of the 
mine-type motor. Sheet-iron fans are attached to the 
rotor flange on the pulley end. These fans draw air 
from the outside through the ventilating hole in the bot- 
tom half of the end shield. To prevent the air from 
being forced through the spider and out the other 
side of the machine, thus failing to strike the windings 
and punchings, a deflector is placed on the end of the 
rotor opposite the fan. The air current is thus divided, 
part of it being forced up over the stator windings 
and part being forced through the rotor ducts, thus 
keeping the temperature of the machine at a safe oper- 
ating value. It is desirable to have only clean air cir- 
culate through the machine; and to accomplish this, a 
short length of pipe is attached to the holes in the end 
shields to bring in air from the outside. 

The mine-type motor is used for driving crushers, belt 
conveyors, shaker screens, and picking tables, under- 
ground hoists; pumps, crushers and similar machines. 
Because of the heavy character of the work and the 
dampness usually encountered underground, many in- 
stallations require a motor of the mine type, the inclos- 
ing features tending to keep the dripping water from 
the windings and the heavy construction tending to re- 
duce vibration. 

Although primarily designed for mining service, these 
motors can be applied to other classes of duty which 
require an inclosed ventilated motor of heavy construc- 
tion. A considerable number of mine-type motors have 
been installed for steel mill auxiliary drive, such as ap- 
proach tables, straighteners, soaking pit covers, etc., 
where the character of the work is closely akin to mining 
requirements. These motors operate in buildings where 
the atmosphere is filled with dust and small bits of metal, 
and where in some cases the temperature of the air 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

may be considerably higher than is ordinarily encoun- 
tered. To meet this later condition, if found necessary, 
the stator and rotor windings are given a special heat 
resisting insulation. 

In logging operations, motors of the mine type have 
been installed on the donkeys for dragging the logs 
from the woods to the loading platforms. These donkeys 
are portable and the motor installed on the rig is sub- 
jected more or less to outdoor conditions, thus necessi- 
tating the use of an inclosed ventilated motor. The 
service is somewhat akin to hoisting, in that frequently 
high torque is required for starting, and to meet this 
requirement a wound-rotor machine is applied as it can 
give a starting torque considerably in excess of normal. 

Mine Electric Lighting 

By Terrell Croft. 

University City. St. Louis, Mo. 
iCopyright — All Riofits Reserved) 

IN LIGHTING a mine electrically no definitely for- 
mulated rules can be followed. There are, how- 
ever, two general principles which should be observed: 
(1) Where feasible equip the lamps with shades so as 
to minimize or eliminate glare. (2) Provide sufficient 
light at the locations where men work constantly so that 
the possibility of accident will be minimized. In some 
coal mines it is the practice to light the main entry 
with 25-watt lamps spaced at 300-ft. intervals, the 
object being to insure the silhouetting of objects which 
may obstruct the passageway. At side-entry junctions, 
use is made of two units, one to illuminate the switch 
and junction while the other illuminates a portion of 
both the main and side entries, and thereby tends to 
eliminate collisions. 

Electric lighting safety requirements are expressed 
in the following Rule 51 from Bureau of Standards 
"Standardization of Electrical Practice in Mines": 
"In any part of a mine where there is danger of ignit- 
ing gas or coal dust, electric lamps, if installed, must 
be of the inclosed vacuum type, and they shall be in- 
closed by gas-tight fittings of strong glass and shall 
have no flexible cord connections. Electric lamps shall 
be replaced only by an authorized person. In all ma- 
chine rooms and other places in gaseous mines where 
the failure of electric light is likely to cause danger, 
some safety lamps or other proper lights, not fewer than 
the number to be prescribed for such place by the in- 
spector, shall be kept for use in the event of such 

Incandescent lamps are now used to the exclusion of 
electric light sources of all other types for mine illumi- 
nation. While carbon filament lamps which have the 
low efficiency of 3.1 watts per candlepower are still 
used to some extent in mine service because they pro- 
vide long life on varying voltage, they are gradually 
being displaced by the more efficient tungsten lamp 
The metallized-filament or gem lamp has a filament oi 
carbon which has been so treated that its electrical prop- 
erties resemble those of a metal. It has an efficiency 
of about 24 watts per candlepower. It is probable that 
in the near future both the gem and the carbon fila- 
ment lamp will be withdrawn from the market. 

The tungsten-filament vacuum or Mazda Type-B lamp 
has an efficiency of about 1 watt per candlepower. It 
is obviously more efficient than either the metallized or 

carbon filament lamp, but has the offsetting disadvan- 
tage of being considerably more fragile. The nitrogen- 
filled or Type-C Mazda lamp has an average efficiency 
of about 0.75 watt per candlepower. The Type-B lamps 
are ordinarily obtainable in the following wattages: 10, 
15, 25, 40, 50, 60 and 100. Type C lamps are now ob- 
tainable in the following wattages: 75, 100, 150, 200, 
300, 400, 500, 750 and 1000. When ordering incan- 
descent lamps, the manufacturer should always be ad- 
vised if the lamps are for mine circuits, on which a 
considerable voltage variation may be expected. 

In lighting around a shaft near the switch where the 
breaking and the switching is done 40-watt lamps with 
shallow dome reflectors may be placed above and be- 
tween the tracks. The units can be spaced at about 
7 ft. intervals and mounted about 7 ft. above the rails. 
The resultant initial illumination is about 4- or 5-foot 
candles at the floor. 

Frequent whitewashing of the walls of underground 
offices, mule stables and the like will increase materially 
the illumination of these parts of the mine — or a greater 
illumination will be available with a smaller energy ex- 

Underground rooms, mule stables, and the like may 
be illuminated with 40-watt lamps equipped with angle 
reflectors mounted on the wall and as high as possible. 
One unit can be used for each two stalls. In front of 
the stalls opposite the angle units, 25-watt lamps with 
deep bowl reflectors may be used to illuminate the feed 
boxes and the passageway. Underground mine offices 
are usually small rooms containing a telephone. One 
25-watt lamp equipped with a shallow dome reflector 
will furnish illumination for the interior, but some 
means should be provided for lighting the entrance so 
that it can be easily located in the case of flre or 
accident. Either an angle or a shallow dome reflector 
with a 25-watt lamp can be used for this purpose. The 
fire board in the office at the foot of the shaft should 
be well illuminated with one or two 25-watt lamps 
equipped with angle reflectors, the number depending 
upon the size of the board. 

Electric lighting circuits should always be arranged 
so that the lamps operate at from 100 to 125 volts be- 
cause this pressure is the most economical for in- 
candescent lamps. Two hundred and twenty-volt lamps 
are uneconomical. The three-wire system is desirable 
where an incandescent lamp load is considerable. Such 
a system may be obtained readily from an alternating- 
current circuit by using a balance coil. Where it is nec- 
essary to light from 250 or 500-volt direct-current cir- 
cuits the usual practice is to connect in series two 125 or 
five 100-volt incandescent lamps across the circuit. 

The effect of an increase in the impurities in domestic 
sizes of anthracite coal is much more serious than in steam 
sizes. While good results are obtained with pea coal, con- 
taining 8 per cent, of slate and the same amount of bone, 
yet this means a total of 16 lb. of impurities in 100 lb. 
of coal purchased. When the impurities exceed this amount 
to any great extent the result may be satisfactory, but 
it necessitates more frequent removal of ashes; also, the 
fire requires more attention — this in addition to the in- 
creased cost of the fuel to the consumer. Pea coal con- 
taining 20 per cent, of slate is practically worthless for 
low-pressure boilers; in high-pressure work, reasonably 
good sei-vice is possible; but also in this case ashes must 
be removed at more frequent intervals and more attention 
given to the fire. 

July 3, 1919 


Preparation of Bituminous Coal — VI 

By Ernst Prochaska 

St. l-.ouis, Missouri 

SYNOPSIS— A/7ec coal has been washed it 
must he freed from adhering moisture before it 
can be shipped. Draining bins, elevators, con- 
veyors and centrifugal dryers are some of the 
means employed for this purpose. The water 
must also be clarified or the amount necessary 
will he excessive. The sludge must he dried and 
if possible pyrite recovered. 

WASHED coal must be freed from adhering mois- 
ture before it can be shipped to market. Coal 
larger than 4 in. can be dewatered easily by 
simply passing it over draining screens, but the de- 
watering of finer sizes is a different problem and the 
methods used at present do not give entirely satisfactory 
results. We should not overlook therefore any efforts 
for further development and improvement in the process 
of dewatering the fine coal. 

Before we we can discuss intelligently the methods 
used at present, we must first determine the purpose 
of the dewatering process and the scope of the demands 
made by it upon the apparatus used. The final purpose 
of dewatering is to produce a coal of the highest pos- 
sible value. This will permit us to predetermine in 
each separate case the most economical degree to which 
the dewatering should be carried. Some typical cases 
are as follows: 

Coking Coal. — A moisture content of from 6 to 8 per 
cent, is the most suitable for the coking process in re- 
tort ovens when utilizing the byproducts. Therefore 
the coal, if the character and size will permit, must be 
dewatered to this extent. If this is not possible, other 
means must be employed to help out. Dry-screened 
dust may be mixed in or even dry-screened fine coal. 
The amount of the unwashed coal which can be thus 
mixed in depends upon the percentage of ash it con- 

Fuel Coal. — The degree of dewatering of fine coal de- 
pends upon the demands of the consumer, but the mois- 
ture should not exceed 10 per cent. Mixing in of dry 
unwashed fines will also be of some benefit, but the 
recrushing of coarse coal for this purpose should be 
avoided ordinarily on account of the greater value of 
the coarser sizes. 

The following may be considered, taking into account 
the difficulties of dewatering and the rapid increase of 
these difficulties with any decrease of the moisture in 
the final product. As much as the conditions permit, 
the drying of the fine coal should be aided by the mix- 
ing in of dry raw coal. 

In most cases greatest possible dryness of the coal is 
required. The requirements of this dryness should be 
established beforehand by a guaranty in regard to the 
permissible upper limits of moisture in the final product, 
so that the washery as well as the consumer may have 
fixed data to go by. 

Simplicity of installation demands the smallest pos- 
sible space, low power consumption and small cost of 
installation and operation. The dewatering of the fine 
coal, appearing at first sight to be easy, thus becomes a 

difficult problem made more difficult by the inclination 
of the fine coal to pack together in dense cakes contain- 
ing a high amount of water. 

The continuous stream of coal coming from the mine 
does not allow, except at high cost, the devoting of much 
time to any one separate stage of its preparation. One 
process must follow another without appreciable inter- 
vals or interruptions. Even in the storage bins the coal 
does not remain for any length of time. It must be 
loaded out continuously. A coal washery knows only 
the following alternative — few swiftly operating pieces 
of apparatus or a great number of slower-working ma- 
chines. For all previously enumerated apparatus the 
principle of quick operation is easily accomplished ; the 
treatment of fine coal offers serious difficulties which 
still remain to be solved satisfactorily. 

The methods to be employed for drying coal must be 
adapted to the character of the material. This require- 
ment demands especial consideration. It is impossible 
to prefer one method above all others at first sight. 
The character of the fine coal from different mines 
shows many variations. With a hard, not easily shat- 
tered slate the fine coal, and especially the sludge, are 
innocuous. The dewatering is comparatively easy and 
can be, at least partly, combined with the water clarifi- 
cation process. But if the slate, or what is even worse, 
the slate and coal are disposed to produce a microscop- 
ically fine pulp held in suspension in the water, the 
process of dewatering must be carried on in an entirely 
different manner. The separation of the fine coal from 
the pulp must be accomplished in the early stages of the 
process if it is to be carried out successfully. 

Methods of Drying 

Considering the requirements set forth we have the 
following methods for drying in use at the present 
time: (1) Dewatering in bins or pits; (2) dewatering 
on slowly moving conveyors; (3) centrifugal dryers; 
(4) filters (for sludge only). 

Draining pits were fuly described in Vol. 14 of Coal 
Age, pp. 1072-1075. In addition to this description it 
might be mentioned that the dewatering of the fine coal 
is also accomplished to some degree in the commonly 
used storage bins. A storage of 48 hours will reduce 
the moisture in the coal to from 10 to 12 per cent. In 
Europe draining bins are commonly employed and the 
draining off of the water is accelerated by the use of 
filter bodies made of expanded metal, which open up 
the densely packed mass of fine coal. The following re- 
sults have been obtained with this type of bin: 


Washery Contents 

Degree of 

Time Required Capacity of Moisture 

Filling-Dewatering All Bins in the Dried 

lU Tons of Bins Number of One Bin in Tons Coal. 

per Hour in Tons of Bins in Hours per Hour Per Cent. 

100 600-1200 4-12 „ ,, 

150 1200-2000 8-20 2-5 20-48 20-120 8-13 
200 1400-3000 10-24 

The disadvantages of draining bins are as follows: 
On account of the large surfaces the sludge settles out 
of the water, considerably delaying thereby the process 
of dewatering. On account of the lack of other drying 
apparatus, all sludge produced must be sluiced into the 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

draining bins, there to be dewatered. The dela.vs also 
the rapid draining off of the water. In emptying the 
bins, the coarse coal flows out more rapidly than the 
fine coal and the sludge, which later clings to the walls. 
When the bins are emptied this sludge hangs to the 
walls for some time and drops off suddenly in large 
masses. This destroys that uniformity of the coal which 
is desirable for the coking process. The bins also re- 
quire considerable space in all directions, and if the 
ground area at disposal is limited it will bring about a 
cramped or less desirable arrangement of the other 

Draining conveyors work on quite a different prin- 
ciple. They dewater the fine coal on its way to the 
storage bins. No special dewatering device is necessary, 
as the conveying apparatus required in any case is 
adapted to dewatering the coal. Conveyors or elevators 
can be used for this purpose, depending upon the jux- 
taposition of the jigs to the storage bins. When these 
machines are employed the washed coal can be sluiced 
from the jigs directly into the conveyors. With ele- 
vators the coal must be sluiced into a settling tank out 
of which the elevators feed. The drained-off water, car- 
rying fine particles of coal in suspension, is sluiced into 
separate clearing tanks. Dewatering elevators and con- 
veyors must be built heavy, depending upon the char- 
acter of the coal, the required capacity, and the dis- 
tance over which the material must be conveyed. This 
is the more important since the speed of the conveyors 
must be slow in order to give the water time to drain 

The following table gives some data on dewatering 
elevators and conveyors: 

the resulting sludge caused by the grinding action of 
the centrifugal force upon the coal is another and se- 
rious drawback. At present, however, centrifugal dry- 
ers are the most efficient pieces of apparatus we have 
for the purpose of reducing the moisture in the washed 
coal below 10 per cent. It should also be stated that 
the coal feed to the dryers must be partially dewatered 



'-Dimensions — . 

Type Width Length. 


conveyor 32in.-l3ft. 50- 1 30 ft. 0-40 lS-12 5-50 

elevator 20in.- 6ft. 50-l30ft. 40-65 3 -32 10-60 

Speed, Capacity watered 

Feel per to 

per Hour Power, Per Cent. 

Minute in Tons Hp. Moisture 


Centrifugal dryers, on account of their high speed, 
are restricted in regard to the dimension of the diam- 
eter of the revolving parts. To accomplish a satisfac- 
tory capacity only centrifuges with continuous feed and 
discharge can be considered. At present only two types 
of centrifugals are in use. In one the dried coal is 
discharged continuously, being scraped off the screen 
plates by knives which rotate at a speed different from 
that of the screens. In the other type scrapers are not 
used and the coal is discharged from the screens 
through trapdoors which open and close intermittently. 

The results with the centrifugal dryer, as far as the 
delivery of dry coal is concerned, are very satisfactory. 
The moisture in the dried coal is reduced to an average 
of 6 per cent. The power requirements are not exces- 
sive, dryers with a capacity of 60 tons per hour using 
from 35 to 50 horsepower. 

The greatest disadvantage noticed in the operation of 
centrifugal dryers can be traced to the rapid wearing 
of the screen plates which, on account of the small per- 
forations, must be made of thin steel. A solution of 
this problem would be to use a protecting grate inside 
of the screens and to allow a thin layer of coal to re- 
main on the screens. This would act as a filter bed and 
protect the screen against the abrasive action of the 
coal. Besides the frequent renewals of screen plates, 
which require the installation of at least one spare dryer. 




to at least 15 per cent, moisture, which can be easily 
accomplished by means of a dewatering elevator. 

Filtering apparatus can only be used for fine coal and 
is best adapted for the dewatering of sludge. Such de- 
vices will be described in connection with sludge re- 

The clarification of the wash water and sludge recov- 
ery are carried on side by side in one process. The dirty 
wash water is separated into clear water on tJie one 
hand and concentrated sludge on the other. The clear 
water flows to the pump cistern and from there is put 

July 3, 1919 



into circulation again by pumps. The concentrated 
sludge is either mixed with the washed coal, with or 
without further treatment, or stored away in separate 
bins for boiler-house use; or even in the worst case 
wasted on the refuse dump. The materials to be con- 
sidered consist of the overflow water from the settling 
tanks and the dewatering apparatus. 

The process of clarifying is carried on either in large 
settling basins or in a series of pointed boxes {spitz- 
kasten). The employment of clearing basins has been 
almost abandoned for reasons previously given. The 
use of spitzkasten has never become popular on account 
of the large floor space required and the difficulty of 
removing the concentrated sludge. In a few isolated in- 
stallations conical clearing tanks of large dimensions, 
similar to the Callow tanks, have been built but the re- 
sulting sludge could not be drawn off in a sufficiently 
concentrated state or with any degree of regularity. 
The Dorr thickeners which were taken over from ore- 
dressing plants have given thus far the most satisfac- 
tory results. 

The clarification of the wash water must be carried 
out to such a degree, that considering the necessary 
addition of fresh water no increase in specific gravity 
shall occur. Since the quantity of fresh water required 
to make up for the loss caused by evaporation, the water 
carried away from the coal, refuse and sludge and by 
leakages, can be easily determined, we can state: The 
water clarification is to be carried to such a point that 
the addition of fresh water shall not exceed the loss of 
wash water. This means that no water shall be wasted 
on account of its being too dirty to be put back into 
circulation. The reason for this is that the cost of 
water, on account of the immense quantities used, is 
quite a consideration. A washery treating 2000 tons 
in eight hours circulates in that time over li million 
gallons of water. 

Methods of Conveying Sludge and Water 

The cost of water clarification and sludge recovery 
should be as small as possible. Little has been done in 
the way of improvement in this direction. The ap- 
paratus employed for settling out the sludge should be 
arranged in such a way that unnecessary power require- 
ments for the conveying of sludge and water may be 
avoided. Two methods can be used to accomplish this : 
(1) The settling apparatus may be located at such an 
elevation that the overflow water from the tanks can 
flow by gravity to the clarifying apparatus. This will, 
however, require in most cases a lifting of the cleared 
water and the concentrated sludge to their respective 
places. (2) The clarifying apparatus may be placed 
sufficiently high so that the cleared water as well as the 
concentrated sludge can flow by gravity to the places 
where they are to be used. In this case the overflow 
water from the settling tank must be lifted to the top 
of the clarifying apparatus. This latter arrangement 
has the advantage that it avoids the troublesome ele- 
vating of the concentrated sludge and furthermore that 
it makes the space underneath the clarifying apparatus 
accessible. The materials used for the construction of 
the settling tanks are usually either timber (redwood), 
steel or reinforced concrete. The concentrated sludge 
can be conveyed by means of centrifugal pumps, dia- 
phragm pumps or by compressed air. Centrifugal 
pumps can be used when the sludge must be 
elevated above the permissible height of suction. 

Diaphragm pumps can only be used on suction lifts and 
are really used more often as a device wherewith to 
regulate the flow of sludge than as a conveying medium. 
Compressed air has been largely used in Europe for 
conveying the sludge from the clearing basins. In 
Fig. 20 the arrangement of such an installation is 
clearly shown. The four discharge points of the clear- 
ing basin A are connected by the pipes P with the 
tank T. Communication between any of the four dis- 
charge points of the clearing basin and the tank T can 
be made and interrupted by the valves V located in the 
pipes P. From the tank T the pipe J leads to the air 
compressor C. The three-way cock D permits connec- 
tion of the tank T through the pipe / either with the 
atmosphere or with the compressor C. To start opera- 
tion, the pipe J is connected with the atmosphere and 
the valve V is opened at the same time. This permits 
the sludge to flow into the tank T. Should the sludge 
not flow as freely as desired, the cock D can be turned 
in such a way that the compressor takes the air from 
the tank T, creating thereby a partial vacuum in the 
tank. This accelerates the flow of the sludge. A float 
indicates the amount of sludge in the tank. As a 
further safeguard the pipe / is carried well above the 
top of the clearing basin, so that no sludge can enter 
the compressor. When the tank has been filled with 
sludge, the valve V is closed, the compressor started, de- 
livering compressed air into the tank through the pipe N. 
Now, by opening the valve M the sludge is forced out 
of the tank. 

Pump Versus Compressed Air 
The question yet remains as to whether pumps or 
compressed air is preferable for the conveying of sludge. 
Conveying by means of compressed air is mechanically 
more perfect. The sludge can be thicker than if handled 
with pumps, without increasing the wear and tear 
on the apparatus. But the cost of the installation is 
considerably higher and the operation requires more 
careful attention. Smaller washeries will therefore 
prefer pumps, especially if the nature of the sludge is 
such that the wear and tear on the pumps is not exces- 
sive. Larger washeries having great quantities of 
sludge to handle should consider compressed air as a 
medium for conveying it, especially as an air-com- 
pressing plant is more or less a necessity around a 

The following table shows some results obtained with 
spitzkasten clearing basins: 


Washer Surface of 
per Hour Spitzkasten Number Minute 
in Tons III Sq.Ft. of Boxes in Gallons 

100 850-1520 
150 1075-2152 
200 2152-3230 

3- 5 
5- 8 

Cleared Concentrated 

Water Sludge Power Required 

per per to Lift 

— '- Minute Sludge, Water, 

Gallons Hp. Hp. 


4.4-22 5-15 60- 80 
9.0-33 6-30 70-100 
17.5-44 10-30 90-130 

As mentioned previously, the process of clarifying 
the water is carried on either in large settling basins 
or in a series of spitzkasten. In actual fact, however, 
little has been accomplished in this respect. In most 
cases the same water is used over and over again until 
it becomes too thick for any further use. It was, and 
still is, the common practice to run a washery with one 
filling of water, according to the nature of the raw coal, 
say for from three days to two weeks, and at the end 
of this period to empty all the jig and settling tanks 
and fill them up again with fresh water. This is a crude 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

method, but for the lack of something better it was 
tolerated even if every washerman condemned it. 

This deplorable condition remained unchanged until 
the advent of the Dorr thickener. This apparatus em- 
bodies a highly efficient, economical and mechanically 
perfect device for settling out the fine impurities. The 
Dorr thickeners make it possible to recover as a clean, 
granular coal material which normally goes to waste, 
and at the same time furnishes a wash water as pure 
as originally supplied to the system. The operation of 
these thickeners is entirely automatic and continuous. 
Power and operating cost are almost negligible. They 
may be installed in any form of circular tank or basin 
up to 200 ft. in diameter. If the nature of the ground 
permits, simple excavations with concrete overflow rims 
are often used. 

The settled solids are continuously discharged in the 
underflow as thick sludge. The operation of the thick- 
ener may be so controlled as to deliver an overflow either 
entirely clear or containing a certain percentage of 
solids. For an installation of given size, the natural 
settling rate of the material being handled and the 
rates of feed and of underflow determine the amount of 
solids in the overflow. 

It has been found that the thickener works best if 
the feed does not contain material larger than 20 mesh. 
As the overflow from the washed-coal settling tanks, and 
more especially from the centrifugal drj'ers, contains 
a good deal of coal bigger than 20 mesh, it is advisable 
to put in a classifier ahead of the thickener for the pur- 
pose of removing the coarse particles of coal in a de- 
watered state and to pass only the fine slime to the 

Details of Dorr Classifier 

The Dorr classifier, as shown in Fig. 21, consists 
of a shallow, rectangular tank with a sloping bottom. 
The tank may be set at any desired slope, usually about 
2i in. to the foot. The feed to the classifier is contin- 
uous ; all granular material settling to the bottom of the 
tank is raked up the incline by reciprocating rakes and 
discharged at the high end above the water level. The 
fine and more slowly settling solids overflow with the 
excess water at the opposite end. Broadly speaking, the 
slope of the bottom, the speed of the rakes, and the 
dilution of the feed determine the character of the two 

The classifier serves to dewater the granular coal 
and to remove the remaining small amounts of coal 
slime, which can be settled out in the thickeners. Fig. 
22 shows a Dorr thickener of 70 ft. diameter with con- 
crete tank. The flow sheet given in Fig. 23 shows 
a typical arrangement for a water-clarification and 
sludge-recovery plant. 

The power required for operating a 70-ft. Dorr thick- 
ener is about 1.5 hp., and the speed of the rakes is 
approximately from 4 to 8 revolutions per hour. 

Under normal conditions of the overflow water from 
the washed-coal settling tank 30 gal. per minute can 
be cleared per 100 sq.ft. of settling area, so that a 
70-ft. thickener will be able to handle the overflow water 
from a washery treating 100 tons of coal per hour, if 
we asume that the water required for washing will be 
three times the weight of the coal, or 723 gal. of water 
per ton. The overflow can be easily cleaned so that it 
does not contain more than 2 grams of solids per liter 
(approximately 117 grams per gallon) or only 0.2 per 
cent, of solids. The underflow or the sludge can be 


concentrated so that it will contain up to 58 per cent, 
of solids. This is about the limit of density that will 
still permit the handling of the sludge through pipes or 
with pumps. 

A sludge containing too much impurity to be mixed 
in with the washed coal entails great losses upon the 
economic operation of a washery. Furthermore, this 
sludge, if wasted upon the refuse dump, will fire in 
course of time and is liable to cause thereby much 
trouble and damage. 

The loss of combustible with the sludge is of greater 
importance with coking coal, where the fines are of 
greater value than with fuel coal. Therefore, efforts 
to treat the sludge for fine-coal recovery are advisable. 
Many different methods have been tried, but thus far 
the results obtained have been only mediocre. This is 
not surprising, considering the fineness of the material. 
The possibility, however, of a separation can be based 
upon the fact that even the smallest particles of coal 
show a granular structure, whereas the fireclay or the 
crushed slate are of such a fineness that the particles 
are held in suspension in the water. 

All Firecl.w Should Be Remo\'ED 

Successful separation of coal from the sludge de- 
mands a distinct difference in the size of the grains. 
The requirements are that the fireclay shall be re- 
moved from the sludge as much as possible without 
great loss of coal. Up to the present time the only suc- 
cessful method for such a separation depends upon a 
swift current of fresh water in the shape of sprays, but 
the tendency at present leans toward the use of ap- 
paratus now employed in the ore-dressing plants, such 
as slime tables or Dorr classifiers. 

One important piece of apparatus at present operat- 
ing at least halfway successfully is the Kohl-Simon 
screen, shown in Fig. 24. The screens having fine 
brass-wire mesh (65 mesh to the inch) are hung at their 
upper ends on the swinging rods A and on their lower 
ends on the bails B. The eccentrics C give the screens 
a reciprocating motion and at the same time the double 
cams D impart to the screens a forcible vibrating mo- 

The sludge to be treated is sluiced onto the screens 
through the launder E. Fresh-water sprays are forced 
against the sludge through the pipe F, which has i-in. 
holes over its whole length on the under side. These 
sprays wash the fireclay, which has finer grains than 
the coal, through the screens into the launder G. The 
fine coal freed from the fireclay travels over the screens 
and is collected together with part of the wash water 

July 3, 1919 



in the launder H. The following results were obtained 
with this apparatus: 

Daily Fresh 
Input Solids Water 
In Per Used in 
Gallons Cent. Gallons 
iO.OOO 10.39 63.000 

Clean Coal Produced Resulting Dirty Water 

-\8h Moisture, Amount Solid Matter 

Per Per of Water Ash Coal 

Tons Cent. Cent, in Gallons Per Cent Per Cent 

4.78 8.16 14.78 120,000 39.74 60.76 

Instead of shaking sreens, revolving screens are also 
used. These screens have a perforated zinc mantel with 
a fine brass-wire mesh fastened securely thereto on the 
inside. The fireclay is washed through the screen by 
fresh-water sprays, just as with the shaking screens. 

The use of slime tables is still in an experimental 
state, but judging from the results obtained in the ore- 
dressing plants a successful operation can be expected. 
The Dorr classifier has been used in the anthracite 
region to recover coal from the breaker slush. Over 
55 per cent, of the coal contained in the slush was re- 
covered and the ash reduced from 30 per cent, to 22 
per cent. This was further reduced to 16 per cent, by 
treating the recovered coal on tables. 

All known methods of treating the sludge can only be 
used to a limited extent. Success can only be expected 
if the impurities are in finer grains than the coal. This 
requires preliminary investigations, which will also give 
data in regard to the size of the screen perforation. 
Sludge with 30 to 40 per cent, ash treated over screens 
with sprays gave a recovery of about 20 to 30 per cent, 
of coal with from 8 to 10 per cent of ash. 

Drying of the Sludge 

The sludge, treated or untreated, must in every case 
be dewatered before it can be mixed with the washed 
coal. On account of the fineness of the material centrif- 
ugal dryers cannot be taken into consideration. Heat 
dryers are not an economical proposition and therefore 
we must have recourse to filters. The requirements for 
filters are identical with the requirements for all the 
other apparatus used in a washery — that is, continuous 
operation, high efficiency, simplicity of construction, low 
cost of installation and operation, and durability. 

Nobody will expect that any one piece of apparatus will 

h;i; thickexer. 70 FT. IN dia.mi;ti:i'.. with concketk tank 

fulfill all of the foregoing requirements, but in regard 
to filters the continuous drum-type comes nearer to 
doing it than any other. Sludge containing 35 per cent, 
solids and 65 per cent, liquid has been dewatered with 
it to only 20 per cent, moisture. This will make it ap- 
pear feasible that a sludge with 56 per cent, solids and 
only 44 per cent, liquids can be brought down to at 
least from 12 to 15 per cent, moisture. This would put 
the sludge in such shape that it could be mixed with 
the washed dried coal without increasing the moisture 
content of the final product to any appreciable extent. 

Pyrites are found in the coal either in the form of 
sulphur balls or in the shape of fine scales and grains 
disseminated throughout the mass. The separation of 
the pyrites from the coal does not offer any appreciable 
difficulties on account of the great difference in the 
specific gravities of the two materials. The specific 
gravity of pyrites is from 4.9 to 5.2, and even the slate 
carrying fine flakes of sulphur has a specific gravity of 
only slightly below 3. 

A more serious problem is how to prepare the pyrite 
if it occurs in considerable quantities. This can be 
best accomplished by wet separation, and the following 
methods are used: 

1. If the pyrite appears in large pieces or is con- 
tained within large pieces of slate, hand picking and 
subsequent separation into pure pyrite and mixed 
products is advisable. 

2. Instead of hand picking, the heavy pyrite can also 
be recovered in coarse coal jigs, which have an auxiliary 
screen sloping toward the center. The pyrite is re- 
moved from the lowest point of the screen through a 
kettle valve. In some instances nut coal jigs have a 
separate bed for the separation of the pyrite and three 
products are made in the following manner: (a) Py- 
rites through an artificial bed and screen into the hutch; 
(b) slate through a slate gate, located at a somewhat 
higher level, and (c) clean coal overflowing in front of 
the jig. 

3. Rewashing of the refuse is a method especially 
advisable for large size pyrites. 

4. For fine pyrite the methods under (b) and (c) 
can be adapted by using a fine coal jig. 

5. If the pyrite is so finely 
disseminated that it partially 
goes over with the sludge, it 
settles out in the clearing 
basins and the sludge rich in 
pyrite can be treated on 
tables. On account of the 
small quantities of pyrite in 
coal the economic results 
gained by its recovery usually 
lie within narrow limits. The 
great price fluctuations of 
sulphur are also discouraging, 
and under normal conditions 
a lasting profitable operation 
is ai best doubtful. In a wash- 
ery the jigs use most of the 
water required, but depend- 
ing upon the different in- 
stallations water is also used 
^^^^ for spraying, in dust col- 

3|WB|k lectors, and in sludge treat- 

.^j5iiifci. ment. In a general way it can 

be assumed that about from 
three to six tons of water are 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

required for each ton of coal, or from 725 to 1450 gal. 
of water must be put in circulation for each ton of coal 
treated. But the amount of water actually necessarj' 
varies a great deal with the charater of the raw coal, 
the number of sizes made and the expected output. The 
last point demands especial consideration. 

The water consumption increases immensely if the 
washery is overloaded. In such cases the water "must as- 


sume part of the work which the overloaded jigs can- 
not perform to the required degree of exactness. The 
table below will show what quantities of water are 
required in a washery. We assume a mine hoisting 
3000 tons of coal per day and that 80 per cent, of this 
amount will be handled in the washery. The table shows 
the different sizes of the washed coal made and the 
required quantities of water. If the washery is de- 

Size of Coal centag 

Lump coal 20 

Nut coal, s to 3 in 35 

Fine coal. J to | in 30 

Sludge to i in 15 

Fresfi water for spraying nut coal 

Total 100 


Required Water 

Amount in Gallons Required 

in per Ton in Gallons 

Tons of Coal per Day 

1.050 965 1,013,250 
900 1,440 1,296,000 
450 240 108,000 
24 25,200 



signed for a daily capacity of 200 tons— that is, for a 
12-hour shift — the hourly water requirements are 203,- 
537 gal. or 1017 gal. of water per ton of coal. 

It thus becomes clear that only in extremely excep- 
tional cases can the clarification and reuse of the wash 
water be neglected. Assuming the cost of water at 
only 0.005 of one cent per gallon (which means 20,000 
gal. for $1), the water alone would cost 5.09c. per ton 
of coal and the daily expenditure for a washery with 
an output of 2400 tons of coal would be $122.16 for 
water alone. Therefore, every effort should be made 
to clarify and recirculate the water without appreciaole 

Water losses can be divided into unavoidable and 

avoidable ones. Unavoidable ones are brought about 
by evaporation and by a certain amount of water being 
carried away with the washed coal, the refuse and the 
sludge. These losses are increased by any necessity 
for rapid operation, which gives little time for drain- 
age. Only in the bins has the coal time to lose some 
of the water. With the installation of mechanical dry- 
ers, however, this loss has been greatly diminished as 
most of the water adhering to the coal is returned to 
the system. But there still remains the loss of water 
caused by the moisture in the outgoing refuse and 

The loss of water that drains out of the bins is 
avoidable through collecting it in gutters. Avoidable 
also are the losses caused by leaky tanks and sluice- 
ways. These losses increase with the age of the wash- 
ery and can hardly be entirely eliminated. The use of 
steel, cast iron and concrete for tanks and sluiceways 
will cut down this loss considerably and will also make 
the whole plant a good deal cleaner. The idea that a 
washery must be sloppy is not only erroneous, but 

The amount of the water losses varies widely with 
the construction of the washery, its age and the mate- 
rials used in its construction. It is safe to assume such 
loss as amounting to from 8 to 10 per cent, of the total 
quantity used. This amount must be taken into con- 
sideration in figuring upon the necessary fresh-water 
supply. Whether these figures will be sufficient depends 
entirely upon the efficiency of the water-clarification 

If mine water which is acidulous or salty is used, 
greater quantities must be wasted so as not to increase 
the acidity of the water beyond a safe point. If con- 
crete is largely used in the construction of tanks and 
sluiceways, care must be taken to keep the acidity of 
the water within close limits, as acid water has a 
disastrous effect upon concrete structures. 

In general the degree of water clarification desirable 
depends upon the proportionate cost of power and water, 
the possibility of clarifying the water and of allowing 
the dirty water to run away without damaging adjoin- 
ing property or polluting streams. 

Pumps and Cisterns Usually Employed 

For water circulation in the washery centrifugal 
pumps are almost universally used. The character of 
the water, the requirement of lifting large volumes of 
water under comparatively low heads and the floor space 
at disposal forbidding large pumprooms, render cen- 
trifugal pumps especially advisable. It must be em- 
phasized also that the whole washer operation depends 
upon the uninterrupted service of the circulating pumps; 
therefore, it would be mistaken economy to leave a 
spare circulating pump out of the washery equipment 
merely on account of lack of convenient space or a short- 
age of money. 

The fact that water clarification is the final process 
places the pump cistern at the lowest point of the wash- 
ery. It is important to make the pump cistern big 
enough to take cai-e of all the water in circulation when 
the pumps are shut down and, on the other hand, to 
give the pumps sufficient water from which to draw at 
the beginning of the ojeration. It has been found 
advisable to interpose between the circulating pump 
and the jigs a water tank or high-level reservoir for the 
purpose of supplying the jigs with water under constant 

July 3, 1919 



pressure and at the same time to provide further storage 

The power required for the circulating pumps varies 
considerably, depending upon the volume of water to be 
circulated and upon the difference in elevation between 
the pump cistern and the jig tanks. Approximately, it 
can be assumed that for a washer having a capacity 
of 100 tons per hour there are required 70 to 125 hp. ; 
for 150 tons per hour, 100 to 150 hp. ; for 200 tons per 
hour, 140 to 170 hp. ; for 250 tons per hour, 160 to 250 
hp. Besides the circulating pumps several other pumps 
are required to handle the sludge from the thickeners 
and the clear water and the sludge from the clearing 
basins. It is also advisable to install a high-pressure 
pump for fire protection and for the purpose of wash- 
ing off the floors and washing down the accumulated 
dust from the roof trusses. 

The amount of power required depends primarily 
upon the capacity of the washery. The following must 
be considered to determine the total amount of power 
required: The methods of operating the screens, the 
jigs, the dust collectors, the crushers, etc.; in short, 
all of the mechanically operated equipment. This in 
turn depends upon the character of the raw coal and 
its impurities. The power required for each piece of 
apparatus designed for a certain capacity and material 
is known; therefore, the summation of the power re- 
quired for all the apparatus gives the total power neces- 
sary. To this total, however, must be added a certain 
percentage to take care of the power losses sustained 
in transmission. 

Local conditions and arrangements of the machinery 
influence power consumption. To reduce the power re- 
quirements to a minimum it is desirable to either use 
the natural elevation or to raise the raw coal to such 
a height that the flow of the materials can be carried on 
by gravity alone or with the aid of sluicing water. In 
a level country there are some limitations to this ideal 
condition on account of the difficulty encountered in 
designing and operating heavy elevators of great ca- 
pacity in an economical manner. 
V The power required per ton of coal treated will vary 

between considerable limits. Average values taken 
from e.xisting installations are given as from 2 to 3 
hp. per ton of hourly capacity. Some modern installa- 
tions, however, with a complete system of water clari- 
fication and sludge recovery, require as much as 5 hp. 
per ton of hourly capacity. 

From the foregoing discussion it can easily be seen 
that only after a careful examination of all the details 
will it be possible to decide upon a suitable general ar- 
rangement. Furthermore, the cost of power plays an 
important part in the proper selection of the machinery. 
A mine paying only Jc. per kilowatt-hour can consider 
in the .selection of the machinery other advantages than 
a mine paying IJ cents. 

The following table gives the average power re- 
quired for the different pieces of apparatus used: 

ower Required for a Waahery 

Having a Capacity per Hour of 



Description of Apoaratus 1 00 1 50 200 

1. Dust collector in screen house 5 to 18 6 to 18 7 to 18 

2. Screens in tipple 6 to I 5 8 to 25 1 5 to 40 

3. Picking tables and loading booms. .. . 10 to 15 10 to 25 15 to 30 

4. Conveying rock and picked-out slate. 6 to 15 6 to 1 5 6 to 1 5 

5. Convevors from screen to fine 

coal bin 5 to 10 6 to 12 8 to 15 

6. Crushers 80 to 120 100 to 160 150 to 200 

7. Raw coal elevator 1 5 to 30 20 to 50 30 to 60 

8. Con veyors for raw coal storage bin. . . 5 to 10 5 to 12 5 to 15 

9. Magnetic separator 5 to 10 5 to 10 7 to 15 

10. Preliminary screens 5 to 10 7 to 15 10 to 20 

11. Dust collector 5 to 10 5 to 1 5 6 to 05 

12. Coarse coal jigs 15 to 25 20 to 40 40 to 52 

13. Coarse refuse elevators 5 to 10 7 to 12 10 to 15 

14. Rescreening of nut coal 5 to 8 5 to 12 7 to 15 

15. Conveying nut coal to storage bins... 5 to 6 5 to 8 6 to 10 

16. Conveying middle products 5 to 6 5 to 8 6 to 10 

17. Crushing middle products 10 to 30 20 to 40 30 to 60 

18. Rewashjigs 5 to 10 10 to 15 1 5 to 20 

19. Finecoaljigs 10 to 15 1 5 to 20 20 to 30 

20. Concentrating tables 7 to 12 10 to 15 1 5 to 20 

21. Fine refuse elevators 2 to 5 3 to 6 5to 8 

22. Conveying fine coal to storage bins. . . 8 to 20 1 2 to 30 1 5 to 30 

23. Drying of fine coal 60 to 100 100tol50 150to200 

24. Sludge recovery 5 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 20 

25. Water circulation 70tol25 I00tol50 140tol75 

{to be concluded) 

With the object of recovering living men within a 
mine after a disaster the first effort should be to ascer- 
tain, from a reliable source, in what parts of the mine 
men were working, and to locate those parts of the 
mine to which the men might 
go to get the best air. The 
rise and dip and the location 
of pillar work and wet places 
would be clearly shown on 
the mine map, as would the 
position of pumps. Any 
pumps driven by compressed 
air may make available a sup- 
ply of fresh air. Presum- 
ably, entombed men will go 
to those parts that are natur- 
ally damp or wet or where compressed air machinery 
may be in use, and the first efforts of rescue should be 
directed to those districts of the mine in which there 
seems to be the greatest likelihood of finding men alive. 
If any parts of the mine have been liberating explosive 
gas, it may be presumed that the explosion originated 
in one of those. The report of the fireboss should be 
examined to ascertain in what sections of the mine he 
has previously found explosive gas. In the absence of 
such information, the exploration should be made first 
along those entries of the mine that show indications 
of least violence and heat. If men got out of the mine 
immediately or shortly after the explosion, an effort 
should be made to reach that part of the mine. 


Vol. 16, No. 1 


Engineering Council Condemns 
Low Salaries 

Declares Compensation for Services Has Not 

Risen with Living Cost and Seeks a 

Classified Salary Schedule 

REPORTING at the recent regular meeting of En- 
gineering Council, the committee on classification 
.and compensation of engineers presented the fol- 
lowing analysis of the situation and suggested the lines 
of its future action. Reports from separate sections of 
the committee are also briefly abstracted herewith : 

In attempting to formulate standard rates of compen- 
sation for professional engineers, the first task is to find 
what rates are actually in force, especially in those fields 
where attempts at standardization have been made. The 
second task is to inquire what adjustment should be made 
to correspond to the great change which has taken place 
in the cost of living, or, in other words, in the value of 
the dollar. How great this change has been during the 
past twenty years is realized by few. Fortunately, an 
accurate determination is available in the statistical records 
of average prices which for many years have been gathered 
and published by leading commercial organizations. 

A record of average prices of the necessaries of life kept 
by R. G. Dun & Co. shows that prices have increased con- 
tinuously for 22 years. A certain quantity of staple neces- 
saries could have been purchased July 1, 1897, for $72.45. 
By Jan. 1, 1905, the same quantity cost $100.32. On Jan. 
1, 1914, before the outbreak of the war, the cost had risen 
to $124.53; May 1, 1917, to 
$208.43, and Oct. 1, 1918, to 
the maximum of $233.23. 
This enormous increase in 
prices of the necessaries of 
life has been accompanied 
by an increase in wages, es- 
pecially among workers 
organized in unions which 
had the power to compel at- 
tention to their demands. 
In the unskilled labor mar- 
ket the relations of supply 
and demand raised wages 
during the war to points in 
some cases exceeding the 
increase in the cost of liv- 
ing. No such increase has 
taken place in the compen- 
sation of salaried workers in 

the professions. It has been assumed that these workers, 
living in a different social environment, had a margin of 
compensation sufficient to enable them to meet the in- 
creased cost of living. This assumption is not justified by 
the facts. Where salaries have been increased during the 
past three years, there are few cases in which the increase 
has been at all commensurate with the increase in prices of 
the necessaries of life, which the salaried worker, like the 
wage worker, has to purchase. That this is a correct state- 
ment is amply proved by many direct comparisons which 

have been made of the wages of the workers in various 
skilled trades and the salaries of the rank and file of 
technical and professional workers. 

There is little doubt that an unprejudiced investigation 
would show that a large proportion of the salaried workers 
in professional occupations during the past three years 
have been unable to pay their living expenses from their 
earnings and have been obliged to rely on income from 
property owned or to use up savings of other years in 
order to maintain themselves. 

A serious question is whether the present scale of prices 
is here to stay. There has been a general belief that with 
the coming of peace and the resumption of pi-oductive in- 
dustries a heavy fall would occur. It has been assumed that 
the salaried worker would have to wait for this so that he 
could again live within his income. It now appears, how- 
ever, to be the opinion of many financiers and economists 
that the present high prices of necessaries are likely to 
continue for a long time, probably for several years. The 
salary of $2000 a year which a man received from 1902 
to 1905 will now buy less than $1000 worth of necessaries. 
This has been the case for two years. If this is to continue 
for two, three or four years to come, then surely the 
salaried worker, in a professional or any other occupation, 
has an equitable claim to have his compensation brought 
back in purchasing power to where it was fifteen years ago. 
There is another aspect of the compensation of the pro- 
fessional worker which has been frequently misunderstood, 
but which, with present knowledge, ought no longer to de- 
ceive. The pay of professional engineers has for many 
years been influenced by the idea that a young man in the 
earlier years of his work should expect moderate compen- 
sation because of the future to which he might look for- 
ward. In Great Britain this idea found expression for 
many years in the custom 
of the young engineer pay- 
ing a premium during a 
number of years' service in 
order to learn the business. 
There was justification for 
this idea during the period 
when the development of 
engineering was so rapid 
that a large proportion of 
the men who were turned 
out from the few engineer- 
ing schools or the engineer- 
ing workshops were able 
eventually to rise to posi- 
tions of large responsibility 
and importance, command- 
ing high salaries. That 
condition has been altered. 
Of the men who begin 
technical engineering work today, only a very few selected 
ones can rise to positions of responsibility commanding high 
salaries. The rank and file must inevitably be ten times 
as numerous as the captains and lieutenants, and a hun- 
dred times as many as the majors and generals. 

The man of exceptional ability, indeed, may find it worth 
his while to work for low compensation because of the fu- 
ture awaiting him. But to hold up to the rank and file 
of technical workers the idea that they can afford to work 
for insufficient salaries for the sake of some future high 

Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 
39th St., New York City, is a body which con- 
siders and promotes the interests of engineers 
as a whole. Its member societies are the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers, the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American 
Society of Electrical Engineers, and the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials. J. Parker 
Channing, a mining engineer, is chairman and 
Alfred D. Flinn, secretary. M. O. Leighton is 
chairman of the National Service Committee. 

July 3, 1919 



position, which they have not one chance in twenty or fifty 
of attaining, is a gross deception. 

The committee believes, therefore, that in adopting stand- 
ards for the compensation of workers in all technical fields 
due consideration must be given to the great increase in 
the cost of living which has taken place. The dollar of 
salary must be considered with regard to what it will pur- 
chase today and is likely to purchase next year, and not 
with regard to the value' of the dollar ten or fifteen years 

This increase in compensation is necessary not merely 
as a matter of justice to the engineer, but in order that 
engineering work may be maintained on the plane that it 
must be to secure economical and efficient work. Not only 
the leaders but the rank and file of technical workers often 
have it in their power largely to affect the cost of the work 
in their charge by the quality of the efi"ort they exert. 

There is no economy in paying such men at rates inade- 
quate for their support, for this leaves their minds bur- 
dened with anxieties, when they should be free to give their 
best efforts to the work in hand. Moreover, such a rate 
automatically tends to drive the abler men into other oc- 
cupations and to leave in charge of the woi'k only those 
of less ability who are unable to make a change. 

The municipal and state section of the committee, 
Arthur S. Tuttle, chairman, reported that it was formu- 
lating a standard classification of positions and duties, 
and a schedule of titles and qualifications has been pre- 
pared to be incorporated in a questionnaire for circula- 
tion among engineers of all states and the more im- 
portant cities. 

The Federal Government section, John C. Hoyt, chair- 
man, reported that a survey of Government activities 
shows 28 offices that employ Government engineers. 
A letter was sent to each member of the Cabinet re- 
questing a list of engineering bureaus in his department, 
and favorable responses were received from all except 
the Secretary of War. 

The railroad section, Francis Lee Stuart, chairman, 
reported that a questionnaire had been prepared to be 
sent to the chief engineers of the railroads under Fed- 
eral control, but after conference with Director General 
Hines it was decided to send it to members of the 
founder societies connected with railroads. A letter 
outlining the work of the committee and suggesting a 
simple general classification into eight groups accom- 
panied the questionnaire. These eight groups of engi- 
neers are as follows : 

(1) Chief administrative officer having full charge 
of organization, including determination of policy; (2) 
head of major subdivision in responsible charge of large 
unit; (3) head of intermediate subdivision in respon- 
sible charge; (4) head of minor subdivision; (5) on 
general duty under direction but requiring special edu- 
cation and special training and the use of initiative and 
originality; (6) on subordinate duty requiring special 
education or training but not requiring special orig- 
inality; (7) on subordinate duty not requiring special 
education, training nor originality; (8) on special duty 
of responsible character requiring particular qualifica- 
tions and initiative. 

Interior Department Will Henceforth Be 
Headed by an Engineer 

Far-reaching changes in the executive machinery of 
the Federal Government were proposed in the bills in- 
troduced in each house of Congress on June 25. The 
Federal Department of the Interior will become the De- 

partment of Public Works, if the legislation proposed 
is enacted. The main idea is to assemble all engineering 
activities of the Government in one department. 

Such bureaus of the Interior Department as are not 
of an engineering character are to be placed under the 
jurisdiction of the appropriate departments, while en- 
gineering bureaus from other departments are to be 
included in the Department of Public Works. The bill 
proposes that the Patent Office is to be removed from the 
Interior Department and placed under the Department 
of Commerce. The Bureau of Pensions is assigned to 
the Department of the Treasury. The Bureau of Edu- 
cation goes to the Labor Department. The Bureau of 
Indian Afltairs also is transferred to the Department of 
Labor, with the proviso that the engineering and con- 
struction work and the land and mineral surveys now 
performed under the direction of the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs are to be prosecuted under the Department of 
Public Works. St. Elizabeth's Hospital and the Freed- 
man's Hospital in Washington, D. C, are assigned to the 
Treasury Department. Columbia Institution for the 
Deaf and the Howard University go to the Bureau of 
Education, under the provisions of the bill. 

On the other hand, the Department of Public Works 
is slated to absorb the Supervising Architect's Office 
of the Treasury Department; the Construction Division, 
River and Harbor Improvements, Mississippi River Com- 
mission, and California Debris Commission of the War 
Department; the Bureau of Standards and the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce; 
the Bureau of Public Roads and the Forest Service of 
the Department of Agriculture. 

The bill provides that the Secretary of Public 
Works "shall by training and experience be qualified 
to administer the affairs of the Department and to 
evaluate the technical principles and operations involved 
in the work thereof." The measure excepts from the 
foregoing provisions the Cabinet Officer who is the 
head of the Department at the time of the passage of 
the bill. 

Four assistant secretaries, each to be paid $7500 per 
annum, are provided and their duties outlined. One 
assistant secretary is to have administrative jurisdiction 
over all matters of engineering design and construction. 
Another is to have charge of architectural design and 
construction. The third is to have jurisdiction over all 
scientific work and surveys, while the fourth assistant 
secretary is to be in immediate charge of all land and 
legal matters. The assistant secretaries are charged 
with the duty of coordinating and bringing into efficient 
relationship all the activities of the department, so 
that it may be harmoniously and efficiently administered. 
An important feature of the bill is the proviso that 
engineer officers of the United States Army detailed on 
non-military work are to be assigned by the Secretary 
of War to like duties under the new department, for not 
over two years. This enables the Secretary of Public 
Works to make gradual transfer of improvements and 
instrumentalities to civil administration without detri- 
ment to public interest. Members of the Corps of En- 
gineers may, under the direction of the Secretary of 
Public Works, be detailed by the Secretary of War to 
temporary duty in the new department for such instruc- 
tion, training and experience as is desired. 

The bill was introduced in the upper House by Sen- 
ator Wesley L. Jones of Washington, and in the lower 
House by Representative Frank C. Reavis of Nebraska. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

Proper and Lawful Examination of a Mine 
by the Mine Examiner* 

The Mine Inspector or Examiner Should Be the Most Efficient Official About 
the Mine. The Law Prescribes What the Examiner Must Do While Making His 
Daily Inspection, But Does Not Restrict His Additional Activities in the Interest 
of Safety. An Inspection May Be Entirely Legal But Not Proper or Adequate 

By Steve Gosnell 

Hallidayboro, Illinois 


AFETY FIRST" has been the great slogan of 
kail the leading industries of the United States 
"for the last few years. Much has been written 
upon this subject and many safety devices invented for 
the protection of life and property. Many articles have 
appeared and are appearing in our leading mining 
journals relative to the efficiency of mine officials, and 
it is needless to intimate that these have not neglected 
the mine examiner. 

If there is an official about the mine that should be 
efficient, it is the mine examiner, for upon him de- 
pends the safety of every man underground. Especially 
is this true in gaseous mines. Now let us apply "Safety 
First" in the examination of a mine, since such an ex- 
amination cannot be "proper" except it be safe. Also 
note the distinction between "proper" and "lawful" ex- 

For example: The Illinois statutes permit the mine 
examiner to begin his examination eight hours before 
the men's entrance into the mine. Is this "proper" or 

I contend that it is not, for the reason that many 
things may and do happen within the space of eight 
hours. Sixty per cent, of the mines in southern Illi- 
nois generate explosive gas in dangerous quantities, 
and I am safe in saying that almost all of them employ 
a night shift which begins duty anywhere from 4 to 
11 o'clock p.m. and retires as late as 7 o'clock a.m. The 
day shift going on duty at 6 : 30 o'clock a.m. per- 
mits the examiner to begin his examination at 10:30 
o'clock p.m. the preceding day. 

Suppose that several entries generate explosive gas 
in dangerous quantities, which, of course, is taken care 
of by ventilation: Upon beginning his duties, the ex- 
aminer proceeds to examine certain sections of the mine, 
finds everv-thing in good order and ready for work; but 
after his departure some members of the night shift 
have business in this particular section, and upon leav- 
ing it carelessly leave a trapdoor open, short-circuiting 
the air current. This door stands open somewhere from 
two to six hours, or until the day shift goes on duty. 
The entries fill up with gas, the mine manager has no re- 
port of this gas until the miners working in this section 
arrive at their working place, and, with their open lights 
ignite it. He then gets the report that an e.xplosion 
has occurred and 2, 6, 10 or maybe 100 men are burned 
or killed. 

Now this examination was conducted strictly accord- 
ing to the Illinois mining laws, but was it proper or 
safe? True, the law gives the state inspector of mines 

•Paper presented before the spring mPeting of the Illinois Min- 
ing Institute. 

the authority to require in writing the addition of other 
examiners for the purpose of examining the mine, in 
shorter periods, but this also possesses a disadvantage, 
as there are few examiners that will go to the trouble of 
enforcing the law. 

The mine examiner is required by law to see that the 
air is traveling in its proper course and in proper quan- 
tity; and to measure with an anemometer the amount 
of air passing the last crosscut or breakthrough of each 
pair of entries, or in the last room of each division in 
longwall mines, and at all other points where he may 
deem it necessary; and to note the result of each meas- 
urement in the mine examiner's book kept for that pur- 

He must inspect all places where men are required in 
the performance of their duty to pass or to work, and 
must obsen'e whether there are any recent falls or 
dangerous roof or accumulations of gas or dangerous 
conditions in rooms or roadways; examine especially all 
roadways leading to escapement shafts or other open- 
ings for the safe exit of men to the surface, the edges 
and accessible parts of recent falls, old gobs and air 
courses. As evidence of his examination of rooms and 
roadways, he must inscribe in some suitable place on 
the walls of each, with chalk, the month and day of the 
month of his visit. 

When working places are discovered in which there 
are recent falls or dangerous roof or any other danger- 
ous conditions, he is to place a conspicuous mark or 
sign thereat as notice to all to keep out; and in case 
of an accumulation of gas, to place at least two con- 
spicuous obstructions across the roadway not less than 
20 ft. apart, one of which shall be outside the last open 

Upon completing his examination he is required to 
make a daily record thereof in a book kept for that pur- 
pose, for the information of the company, the inspector 
and all other persons interested; and this record is com- 
pleted each morning before the miners are permitted to 
enter the mine. 

He is required to take into his possession the entrance 
checks of all men whose working places have been 
shown by his examination and record to be dangerous, 
and to give such entrance checks to the mine manager 
before the men are permitted to enter the mine in the 

This, if carried out, constitutes a lawful examination; 
but to properly and safely examine a mine, the mine 
examiner or examiners should begin their inspection 
not more than three hours before the men's entrance 
into the mine, and then only when all other persons are 
out except it be men employed near the shaft bottom 

July 3, 1919 



whose duties do not take them off the main entry or 
through trapdoors. 

Each examiner should be allotted a certain territory, 
an amount that will permit him to make a thorough ex- 
amination and close observation of all conditions under 
his jurisdiction. Upon his arrival at the mine he should 
see that the engineer and fireman, if such are employed, 
are on duty and that the fan is running at proper speed. 

A dusty condition of the mine should also be observed 
by the examiner. This factor alone is highly dangerous 
in the presence of gas, or where shots are fired with 
black powder. 

Dirty haulage roads, and poor and improper timber- 
ing are other dangerous conditions that should receive 
the strict attention of the examiner. He should not 
only mark working places as evidence of his examina- 
tion, but should mark all trapdoors and regulators which 
are used for guiding the air current. 

When places are found in either new or old workings 
in which an accumulation of gas exists, this should at 
once be removed by a special curtain or brattice erected 
under direction of the mine examiner before the men 
are permitted to enter the mine for the day. 

Anchoring the Bullwheel of 3500- 
Horsepower Haulage 

By Ralph W. Mayer 

California, Pennsylvania 

AMINE with an output of 7000 tons of coal a day 
uses a 3500-hp. engine to drive its rope haulage. A 
IJ-in. cable is employed. The trip consists of from 120 
to 1-50 cars, holding from three to four tons each, mak- 
ing a load of from 400 to 500 tons of coal in each trip 
exclusive of the weight of the cars. A single track is 
used, except at the turnouts and partings. It is neces- 
sary that the bullwheel be set so that neither it nor the 



rope shall interfere with the motor haulage which de- 
livers the cars to the rope-haul parting. 

This object is accomplished by anchoring the bull- 
wheel underneath the rails. Placed in this position, it 
would carry away possibly several miles of track and 
delay the operation of the mine for an indefinite period, 
if it should pull loose. This contingency is guarded 
against by anchoring the bullwheel so that it is prac- 
tically impossible for it to pull out. 

The anchorage is constructed as follows: Heavy 
16-in. I-beams, about 3 ft. centers, are placed across the 

parting, underneath the rails of both the tracks, and 
set into hitches cut into the rib for a distance of 6 ft. 
or more. The bottom is also taken up and the beams 
let down into the floor, so that the top of the bullwheel 
is below the bottom of the track ties. When the beams 
had been put into place the hitches in the rib were 
filled with concrete, as was also the space excavated in 
the floor. Underneath the wheel the concrete is only- 
brought up level with the top of the beams. A pit with 
concrete walls made considerably larger than the wheel 


was formed so that the wheel might be removed from 
underneath the track without disturbing the rails. The 
ends of the beams are covered over level with the top of 
the floor. A baseplate 3 ft. square and two or more 
inches thick is bolted to the I-beams. The bolts pass 
through holes on both sides of the beam web and 
through corresponding holes in the baseplate. Thus 
four rows of bolts across the plate hold it fast to the 
beams. Underneath the plate the concrete is not 
brought up to the top of the beams, a space of 6 or 8 
in. being left unfilled so that the bolts may be passed 
easily up through the holes in the beams and plate. 

A short pedestal in the center of the plate supports the 
spindle, which has a thread and nut on its upper end 
for holding the wheel down. The entire weight of the 
wheel rests upon the top of the pedestal and ball bear- 
ings are here located, upon which the wheel revolves. 
The spindle receives the pulling stress of the cable. The 
baseplate, pedestal and spindle are cast integral and an 
extra piece is kept on hand at all times to replace the 
one in use should it become worn out or unsafe. The 
bullwheel is 7 ft. in diameter. 

No ties are placed under the rails over the bullwheel 
pit as the rails are of 90 lb. steel and amply strong 
enough to support the load passing over them. Plates 
of i-in. steel cover the wheel pit. Each plate is long 
enough to extend the full width of the pit. They are 
cut so that they fit snugly between the rails and thus 
keep the dirt out of the pit. Although a car seldom 
gets off the track over the pit, the plates are sufficiently 
strong to carry the weight of a derailed car. Directly 
over the top of the wheel spindle a hole is cut through 
the plate for oiling the bullwheel. When not in use 
this hole is covered by a small plate a little larger than 
the hole. This is fastened to the larger plate by 
means of a rivet, which acts as a pivot, so that the small 
plate may be swung back to uncover the hole when oil- 
ing is necessary. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

Effect of Breaking of Coal on the 
Emission of Gas 

By Robert Dunn 

Victoria, B. C. 

SYN OF SIS — What effect has the bringing 
doton of coal upon the emission of gas? The 
attempt to ascertain the answer to this question 
in the Croxv's Nest Pass region has developed 
some unexpected results. Daily sampling and 
analysis of the mine air showed that the amount 
of gas in the mine air changed but little and 
seemed to bear no relation whatever to mining 

SOME attention has been given in the columns of 
Coal Age to the coal fields of the Crow's Nest Pass 
District, Eastern British Columbia. The special 
instance which I have in mind is an article appearing 
in the issue of Apr. 10, 1919, being a digest of a report 
by George S. Rice, chief mining engineer, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, on the subject "Bumps and Outbursts of Gas 
in the Mines of the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Field." In 
view of this interesting account of Mr. Rice's investi- 
gation and conclusions, it seems apropos to give some 
account of work that since has been carried on under 
the direction of George Wilkinson, chief inspector of 
mines for British Columbia, in connection with the 
mines of this district with particular reference to the 
flow of gas. 

Mr. Wilkinson set out to ascertain what bearing the 
breaking of coal has on gas emission. The evidence 
accumulated indicates that, v^fhile it has some effect, 
its extent is not important. The coal of the Coal Creek 
mines, the chief producers of the section under dis- 
cussion, is saturated with gas as a sponge may be with 
water, and is bleeding it constantly. This being the 
condition, Mr. Wilkinson's conclusion is that the best 
method of keeping the percentage down to well within 
the safety zone is to provide ample ventilation. More 
splits than usual are considered necessary with a com- 
paratively small number of working places in each split. 
This is his theory of the operating policy which must 
be adopted in order that the percentage of methane shall 
be kept down to the minimum. 

It is unnecessary, perhaps, to say that this course 
has been followed throughout the district. Further- 
more, the Coal Mines Regulation Act now provides that 
the withdrawal point not only in these but in all mines 
of the province shall be 2.5 per cent., so that when the 
percentage of methane in any working place is found to 
equal or exceed this figure the law insists on the imme- 
diate removal of the miners. It has been established 
that a i-in. gas cap in the Coal Creek mines equals the 
2.5 percentage of gas fixed as the point at which the 
men must be withdrawn. This was learned by measur- 
ing flame caps and comparing them with percentages of 
samples of mine air taken at the same time and an 
alyzed. It may be stated incidentally that a i-in. ga 
cap in the Crowsnest region represents a greater per- 
centage of gas than does the same cap in the mines of 
Vancouver Island. 

To return to the matter of gas flow, there have been 
taken and analyzed 380 samples of the mine air in the 
Coal Creek mines by officials of the Department of 
Mines since Dec. 15, 1916, which date coincides with 
that of Mr. Rice's visit to the Crowsnest district. From 
the records thus secured, one of the objects of which 
was to ascertain the relationship between the gas flow 
and the working of the mines, it is possible to show 
quite conclusively that the coal beds give off just about 
the same amount of gas at all times. This interesting 
investigation, it may be explained, has been facilitated 
by the fact that there have been periods when the 
mines have been idle through strikes and for other rea- 
sons. The daily taking of samples continued without 
interruption and consequently some rather striking fig- 
ures having to do with this point can be quoted. 

Taking No. 1 East Mine, Coal Creek, south side split, 
for the first illustration, a sample was secured after the 
mine had been idle for 45 hours that showed 1.82 per 
cent, methane. Another sample taken after the mine 
had been idle for 30 days showed 1.52 per cent., or a 
decrease of only 0.3 per cent, after 28 days of in- 
activity. Another sample taken after the mine had 
been in operation for nine days showed 1.66 per cent, 
or an increase of only 0.14 per cent. 

Other figures relating to the main return airway. No. 
1 South Mine, Coal Creek, are interesting in this connec- 
tion since they indicate that there was an increase in 
the amount of gas given off during an idle period. A 
sample taken after the mine had been inactive for 10 
days showed 1.24 per cent, of methane, and another, 
obtained 31 days after the men had been withdrawn, 
gave 1.46 per cent., or an increase of 0.22 per cent, 
after 20 days of idleness. A sample taken after the 
mine had been idle 19 days showed 1.62 per cent, of 
methane, or an increase of 0.38 per cent. The same 
quantity of air was in circulation throughout the period 
of this investigation. Samples taken from No. 1 East 
Mine, south side split, to demonstrate the change as 
to gas emission during the working periods, resulted 
as follows: 

9p. 1 

... 2. 02 per oent. methane 

. , . , 2. 20 per cent, methane 

2.08 per cent, methane 

change during period of brealdng coal 0.08 per cent. 


July 3, 1919 





George S. Rice Returns from Interesting 
Tour of European Coal Fields 

THE French are showing engineering ability second 
to none in the rehabilitation of their coal mines, 
according to George S. Rice, the chief mining engineer 
of the Bureau of Mines, who recently returned from a 
personal survey of the coal situation in France, Belgium, 
Germany and England. The reclaiming of the French 
mines, however, is being delayed by the French govern- 
mental policy, which Mr. Rice does not undertake to 
criticize. The policy to which he refers is that of 
opposing the purchase of foreign mining machinery 
owing to the overwhelming balance of trade against 

In Great Britain, Mr. Rice found that the financial 
interests are frankly calculating the effects of a total 
discontinuance of coal exports from England proper. 
Apparently, England needs all the coal she can produce. 
It is evident that present restrictions on local consump- 
tion of coal can not be continued indefinitely. Mr. Rice 
found powerful influences at work tending toward the 
nationalization of coal mines. Mr. Rice gained the 
impression, however, that the opinion of the majority of 
the people is that the time is not ripe for the nationali- 
zation of the coal industry. That sentiment, however, 
may not have crj'stallized to the point where it may be 
effective in preventing such a step. 

Mr. Rice went to Europe several months ago at the 
head of a Bureau of Mines commission. He now is 
engaged in writing a report on the great deficiency in 
the fuel supply of Europe. He also will reduce to a 
report other observations and conclusions that he 
reached as a result of this trip. In a running story 
of his survey, Mr. Rice says: 

On our arrival in Paris, thanks to Professor Probert, our 
itinerary was practically arranged. Thi-ough the kindness 
of Secretary Baker, a military automobile was placed at 
our disposal. This greatly facilitated our movements in 
a territory where ordinary means of transportation are 
partially disrupted. We visited first the Lorraine iron 
mines. Then we went to the French steel plants which 
had been destroyed by the Germans. We visited the min- 
ing areas of Luxemburg and those in the vicinity of Metz, 
after which we went through the Saar coal fields where 
we saw the German miners working under French military 
control, helping to supply, in part, the loss of production 
in the Pas de Calais field. We then returned to Paris via 
Verdun where we had the honor of spending the night in 
the citadel as the guest of the commandant. We had an 
opportunity to go over the whole battle area on which oc- 
curred the most intense conflict in the whole history of 
clashing arms. 

On our return to Paris, Dr. Cottrell left us to visit the 
air-fixation plants in Germany. Professor Probert and 1 
went to the Pas de Calais coal field. In addition to ex- 

amining the mines which had been willfully destroyed, we 
made interesting observations at the principal French 
mines which escaped that fate. These mines continued 
in operation during long periods when they were under 
shell fire. Professor Probert then returned to the United 
States. I was requested to take part in an advisory ca- 
pacity on coal matters in an Allied conference with Ger- 
man representatives at Cologne. The object of the con- 
ference was to obtain, information as to what Germany 
had to offer in exchange for foodstuffs. As France and 
Italy each was in great need of coal and coke, it was hoped 
that Germany might have a surplus of these fuels. It 
proved that Germany had no coal or coke from the West- 
phalian field to offer, other than that already going to the 
occupied territory on the west bank of the Rhine. Strikes 
and labor difficulties, ascribed partially to food shortage, 
had cut down the output. It was at this conference that 
the Germans complained that the French had made no 
accounting to them of the coal taken from the Saar valley. 
Major-General Gaillard, who presided, merely smiled and 
did not call attention to the fact that they also had re- 
ceived no bill for the damage done French coal mines. 
The bearing of the Germans on that occasion was not that 
of those who recognize military defeat. 

While waiting for the conference to convene, I had time 
to visit the mines on the west bank of the Rhine in the 
Westphalian field and the remarkable brown coal field near 
Cologne. On the return from Cologne I visited the mining 
region of Belgium from one end to the other — from Liege 
to Mons — and thence continued over the line into the de- 
vastated mining region as far as Lens. 

I was detained in Paris by some matters pertaining to 
the Economic Commission's work, but as soon as I could 
get away I went to the south of France to visit the St. 
Etienne, Marseilles and Alias coal fields. I was interested 
particularly in the latter where there are great outbursts 
of nearly pure carbonic acid gas M'hich appears to be held 
under very high compression in the coal. 

I then went to England, where I visited the typical iron 
mines in the Cleveland and Cumberland districts; the oil 
shale workings in Scotland, and various collieries. 

Fuel Administration Winding Up Affairs 

While the Fuel Administration passed out of existence 
June 30, the Labor Bureau will be continued during 
the life of the Washington wage agreement. Congress 
has been asked and doubtless will furnish $50,000 to 
keep this bureau alive since there are certain negotia- 
tions which must be continued as the Fuel Administra- 
tion is a party to the agreement which continues until 
peace is signed. In addition, the business office will 
require a few weeks to close up the books and records. 
The final report of the statistical division is now 
in the hands of the printer. C. E. Lesher, who has 
been in charge of that division, now will devote his 
entire time to the mineral fuel section of the Geo- 
logical Survey, of which he is head. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

Volume 16— July 3, 1919— Number 1 

Published by McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 

10th Ave. at 36th St., New York 

Address all communications to Coal Age 

Always Need for Skill in Mine Work 

AT no time has mining work been without its tricks 
l\ requiring a degree of practiced skill. Yet it is a 
question whether the modern methods make any more 
demand on the trained ability of the worker than those 
which preceded them. The main difference lies rather 
in the fact that present-day methods are new and 
constantly changing. If it were not for our multi- 
plicity of booklets and our machinery demonstrators, 
we should be at a loss to handle our new equipment. 

To illustrate with a few simple examples, the miner's 
torch was provided with a wick by the miners at 
no little expense of ingenuity and patience. To form 
one, to blow in the leading strand, to pull the wick into 
place without matting the cotton, to make it just tight 
enough and not too tight, long enough and not too long, 
to burn off the bunched ends, to regulate the length 
of the exposed wick by a deft blow below the spout or 
on the bottom, to keep the lamp burning in a draft — - 
these were a few of the tricks which a college graduate 
in mining found at first a little perplexing. For quite 
a while after his first initiation, he was obliged to 
leave the manipulation in the hands of his foresight 
man or defer a good deal to his advice. 

At some mines the paraffin-wax lamp was introduced 
and was a cause of no little puzzlement. It was always 
too hot or too cold. The novice held it too long over 
the blacksmith's fire and melted the solder, or, if that 
did not result, it got so hot he could not hold it and 
the grease would run out of the spout in a steady 
stream. Again the lamp would get too cold and the 
wax would harden and gum the wick, and when the 
flame burned low the wax would completely congeal and 
cease to flow, thus putting out the light. 

Then came the acetylene lamp. It had difficulties all 
its own but none more trying than those with the 
old oil torch. How difficult they were at first! How 
long the first carbide users struggled with the feed 
regulation and the cleaning of the burner! There were 
difficulties innumerable, not so much because the oper- 
ation was hard, but because the technique was new. 

The electric lamp is the simplest of all for the user 
though there is something to learn about protecting it 
from breakage and injury. Nor is the work in the 
lamphouse of any great complexity. The old safety 
lamp required probably just as much or more skill from 
the lam.pman and his assistants. 

And again, driving a mule was always more of an 
accomplishment than running a mine locomotive, but a 
certain amount of the ability was attained so early by 
boys who played around the mines or trapped at the 
doors, or b.v farmer boys who learned the art of 
judiciously handling such animals in their fathers' 
barns, that it never appeared that there was much 
of art in its exercise, and the knowledge seemed so 
innate as to be really hereditary. 

Taking care of mules in a stable, feeding them rightly. 

tending their wounds intelligently and dosing them 
prudently was a more difficult task than the charging 
of storage batteries. But information was available 
everywhere. It was not always correct information, 
but there was a lot of it. You could get it at any 
crossroads grocery, and farmers discoursed at length on 
the subject with the passers-tiy, giving dates and other 
details of painful experiences of their own. 

But about the storage battery, while much needs to 
be known, it is all simple enough to learn. What 
makes it perplexing is that it is new. It has to be 
acquired all at once and not in the space of years, and 
the information must come from only one or two; and 
instruction cannot, like mule lore or mine-pick learning, 
be obtained from all the wiseacres of the neighborhood. 
With something that is new, one holds oneself absolved 
if a mistake is made. But with old, well-tried instru- 
ments one cannot dismiss obligation nor avoid being 
laughed at when something goes wrong. That is why 
when a tool is well established every one is willing to 
do his utmost to use it with maximum efficiency. 

No, mining is hardly more difficult now than before, 
but because the art is new and changing and because 
we need more technical excellence than ever before, 
we need good schools for all classes of mine employees. 

Foreign trade is still looked upon as a means of 
dumping excess product on the foreigner — a spot trade 
to start as soon as the domestic trade lags and cease 
as soon as domestic trade recovers — but business of 
that kind is successful only in peculiar emergencies. 
To do a large business and do it profitably it must be 
of a permanent character and pursued unremittingly 
regardless of trade conditions. 

Face the Worst First 

EVERY man should be placed, as far as possible, so 
that he will do that work for which he has aptitude 
and liking. But unfortunately it is not possible, nor is it 
always efficient even where possible, to have such a 
division of labor, mental or physical, that a man will 
always be doing that for which he has a natural pen- 
chant or an inborn ability. 

But every man can, when new needs arise, develop 
new qualities to meet them; and sometimes it is only 
a lack of opportunity that has prevented a real apti- 
tude from making its appearance. Some men, for 
instance, shrink from interviews, pleasant or unpleas- 
ant ; some will even swoon when making a speech ; but 
after a little experience, either of these demands on 
their fortitude will rouse in them their sporting blood, 
and they will find a joy in meeting criticism with a 
deft diplomacy and in changing by a brilliant speech 
the points of view of a large audience. 

When a man is confronted with a necessity making 
an undue drain on his courage, perseverance and com- 
fort he should put this unpleasant duty first. "Face 
the worst first" is a good maxim. Many a business 
has been spoiled because the executive feared to tackle 
his bitterest task. Many a bright man has failed be- 
cause he left unpleasant matters till after he had ex- 
hausted all the labors that seemed to him pleasant. 
Many an industrious man who worked far into the 
night on some congenial task, congenial perhaps only 
to him, thought it strange that his work was not recog- 

July 3, 1919 



nized. But he could never succeed because he left the 
most important work day by day to do work that suited 
his peculiar temperament or tried perhaps to do his work 
in a way he had followed before and one that pleased 
him, rather than in the best and least laborious way. 

Many are the idiosyncracies of humanity. Some men 
who can no longer learn must have those idiosyncracies 
protected; others who can learn should be spurred and 
led by the bridle till they can overcome their unnatural 
fears. But the man who shies at the worst tasks will 
never be a good executive. In the unpleasant occasions 
of life often lie our easiest and greatest of opportunities 
when once we try them. 

Most of us have so much to do and such little time 
to do it in that we can coax ourselves into the belief 
that we are doing our whole duty when we let the multi- 
plicity of pleasant jobs fill up our time to the exclusion 
of the less pleasant. However, let us not d.eceive our- 
selves; we are never so busy that we can delay action on 
large matters to spend our time on more trivial issues. 

The nation's most prized possession is not its wealth 
but its smile. It is the incarnation of its hope, the 
symbol of its optimisyn and the warranty of its democ- 
racy. Our smiles are the springs by which we cushion 
the blows and jars to which we are exposed. Only ivith 
humor and a smile can we measure up the workaday 
world with sanity and meet its trials with composure. 

Cost of Mine Supplies 

terials and supplies on the basis of cost per ton, the 
discrepancy is materially reduced when computed on the 
percentage of costs to revenue. Figured on this basis, 
Oklahoma still stands at the head of the list with 
14^ per cent., but West Virginia is a close second with 
13 per cent. 

The matter of cost of materials is one that will justify 
the closest attention of the operator. It is e.xtremely 
difficult to provide any adequate check on mining sup- 
plies, particularly those used underground, where they 
are liable to be misplaced and eventually lost. The re- 
sumption of more normal conditions in the coal industry 
with the return of the old competitive basis of operation 
will make it necessary to follow up the question of costs 
carefully once more, and the mine manager will find this 
a profitable field for his attention. 

THE increasing difficulties that the hard-coal mines 
are facing are seen in the higher costs for sup- 
plies and materials necessary in the mining operations 
in that field. For instance, in 1909 the anthracite com- 
panies expended over 23 million dollars for supplies as 
compared with 40 million dollars spent in the bituminous 
field, where four or five times as much coal was pro- 
duced. The percentage of gross expenditures for sup- 
plies by the hard coalers amounted to 19 as compared 
with 12 in the bituminous field. 

Expenditures for supplies vary over a wide range, 
this being frequently due, no doubt, to the personal 
equation of the one compiling the statistics, though 
there are exceptions even to this. For instance, in one 
case where a mine official carefully estimated the cost 
of supplies at three different operations, it was found 
that these vary from 7c. to 20c. per ton of coal mined. 
The low cost was naturally obtained under favorable con- 
ditions where the mining was at relatively shallow 
depths, while the high costs represented unfavorable con- 
ditions such as deep shafts, large amounts of water to 
handle, pitching coal (resulting in difficult haulage) and 
gassy conditions. 

The distribution of the cost of material and supplies, 
according to the leading coal-producing states as given 
in the United States census reports for 1909, showed va- 
riations of from 8c. to 29c. per ton. The State of In- 
diana showed the lowest. Kansas was second, with 9c. 
per ton, and Illinois and Ohio both 10c. per ton. Ken- 
tucky and West Virginia both showed a- cost for sup- 
plies and material of lie. per ton. Oklahoma pays sub- 
stantially the highest price for her supplies and ma- 
terials, the figure given being 29c. per ton, the nearest 
approach to this being the State of Iowa with 17c. per 
ton. While Oklahoma shows this unusual cost for ma- 

A man may 
can get, or he 
getting. If it 
him. He must 
same measure 
believes there 
he should not 
industrial cond 

regard as his proper wage just what he 
can regard it as ivhat he is justified in 
is the first then no mercy can be shoivn 
accept reductions under durance in the 
with which he imposes advances. If he 
is a fair wage which he is entitled to, 
strike to obtain more, even when the 
ifions ivholly favor a demand of that sort. 

Increased Efficiency in Mechanical 

A CLOSE scrutiny of statistical data discloses some 
interesting features on the increased efficiency and 
broader application of mechanical equipment to the pro- 
duction of coal. Thus it is interesting to note that the 
Pennsylvania bituminous production, while showing an 
increase of nearly 28 million tons during the 1910-1916 
period, had at the same time a substantial decrease in 
the boiler power used. 

The total number of boilers in the bituminous field 
declined from 3200 in 1910 to 2731 in 1916, indicating 
the adoption of higher powered units and the more gen- 
eral use of the private central station, though the pur- 
chase of power may also have been something of a factor 
in this connection. 

The decline in the total horsepower of from 454,846 
i:: ISIO to 441,067 in 1916— in view of the substantially 
increased output during the same period — indicates a 
wh l3some improvement in the efficiency of the engine 
r.i.d power equipment generally employed around the 
mines; especially is this obvious when it is remembered 
that the increased mining depths have caused longer 
hauls and more difficult ventilating and pumping prob- 
lems during this time. 

A still more significant figure, perhaps, is the marked 
increase in the tonnage produced per boiler in use. The 
tons produced per boiler increased from 46,180 in 1910 
to 61,950 in 1916. The tonnage produced per boiler- 
horsepower also shows a wholesome increase from 327 
tons in 1910 to 384 in 1916. 

The conclusions to be drawn from these figures are 
obvious. The progressive operator is looking carefully 
into the mechanical equipment of his colliery. He is 
raising the standard in this direction and demanding 
the best and most economical apparatus that the market 
affords. And the extraordinary advance in wage scales 
of the past year or two will give new impetus to this 



Vol. 16, No. 1 



General Labor Review 

Never was there any question as to the attitude of the 
Sankey Commission in Great Britain in regard to the 
oationalization of coal mines. It was a picked body as 
far as the representatives of the public were concerned. 
It was chosen to advocate certain measures, and it advo- 
cated them. What else could be expected of such men as 
Sidney Webb and Sir Leo Chiozza Money than that they 
would advocate nationalization of mines and of evei-y other 
kind of public utility, the disposal of which might be en- 
trusted to their judgment. The fact that the latter is 
knighted does not make it unnatural, with present-day con- 
ditions in England, that he should hold extremely radical 
points of view. Sir Leo Chiozza Money is an author and 
journalist. He was a Liberal and Collectivist in the House 
of Commons, where he sat for North Paddington and North- 
ants. He has written much on physical and social problems. 
He doubtless received his honors because of the support he 
gave to his political party. 

With such men representing the public, the Commission's 
radical report was to be expected, but it appears that Great 
Britain is by no means ready for the nationalization of 
mines. The press seems to be a unit in deploring the kind 
of report which the Royal Commission has brought in, and 
it is quite generally thought that the government will pay 
little attention to the recommendations which have been 
submitted to it. The commission was appointed at a time 
of panic, when the threat of the miners to paralyze the 
country caused everybody the utmost apprehension. A rep- 
resentative of the owners has put the case very accurately 
as follows: 

Report an Expression cf Fear, Not Opinion 

"The Sankey Commission was conceived in apprehension, 
and the Sankey report was born in fear. If we allow fear 
of the miners' leaders to rule our actions now we only post- 
pone the evil day of reckoning. The great question is, will 
the miners wreck the country if we insist on sound reforms 
and refuse panic-stricken palliatives. I firmly believe they 
will not. Smillie and his fellow-extremists have their fol- 
lowing among miners, but they do not rightly represent 
them. Smillie's own election as leader was a hole-and- 
corner affair, in which the majority of the local miners 
took no interest. The problem is one of leadership. The 
miners as a class are not revolutionists, and they can 
be led for good as well as for evil. If Smillie does 
represent the miners we may as well fight him now 
as later, and we can rely on the more democratic 
trade unions as well as on the bulk of the working classes 
who as consumers know what the miners' policy means. 
If on the other hand Smillie does not represent the 
miners then let us not be intimidated by him into doing 
things we know are bad, but rather press on reforms which 
are sound, and rely on the good sense of the miners to sup- 
port the forces of reform and order." 

There is very little question that something more or less 
radical will be done, but it is hardly likely that it will 
reach anything approaching nationalization or confiscation 
of mines. There is a possibility that a curb may be placed 
on the large royalty payments now being made to owners 
of coal lands, because no initiative or ability is required of 
those who ask for large returns on inherited property and 
who have, by reason of its limited quantity, a chance to 
secure whatever recompense they desire. It is altogether 
different with those who are actually producing coal. The 
work is one which requires ability of a high order and 

much confining labor. It is realized that the men who pro- 
duce coal are conferring a benefit on the people, whereas 
those who merely ask for a big royalty for coal in the 
ground are simply performing a disservice to the public. 
The treatment of the Government bill for the regulation 
of British railroads has been treated almost contemptuously 
by the House of Commons. Pages of Sir Eric Geddes' meas- 
ure for the purchase of any railway, tramway, canal or 
lock have been bodily removed. Parliament has showed 
itself strongly against the nationalization of railroads and 
it is likely that it will not view the nationalization of coal 
mines in any different way. 

To Tax Labor of Children S2 Per Day 

With the purpose of bringing an end to child labor in 
the United States, Representative Mason of Illinois has 
introduced a bill (H.R. 2251) under the provisions of which 
a tax of $2 will be levied on children under 14 years who 
are employed in factories, and the same amount for chil- 
dren under 16 years whose work is performed in mines and 
quarries. This tax will be a per diem tax for each child so 

It would appear unfortunate for the country at large that 
a difference should be made between the age at which 
children can be employed in factories and mines. Every 
thinking man will appreciate that children should not be 
allowed to go to work before they are 14 years of age. 
When they are that age they should be allowed to enter 
any place of work they may elect. The bill which Mr. 
Mason presents will practically tend to deplete the coal 
industry by causing the children when they leave school 
to enter fact tries instead of mines. 

Those of us who have studied the effects of Industry on 
humankind know that there are certain specific diseases 
resulting from many kinds of factory work, whereas it is 
gradually being recognized that there is nothing approach- 
ing a mine disease, unless it be ankylostomiasis, of which 
the shallow coal mines of the United States are entirely 
free. In fact it may be safely said that ankylostomiasis 
is a surface disease, and that the health of mine workers 
is more secure when working in the mines than it would 
be when toiling on the surface. 

Would Rather Forbid Chiijj Labor Altogether 

At the last Congress, said Mr. Mason in his statement, 
a law was passed prohibiting all shipping of goods made 
by child labor from one state to another. The Supreme 
Court set aside this law by a majority of one, holding that 
Congress had no right to regulate interstate commerce in 
goods made by child labor. I offered no amendment, when 
a change in the constitution which would empower it to 
pass such an act was presented in Congress. In the mean- 
time I propose, as a present measure, a tax of $2 a day, 
to be .paid by the employer, when children under 14 years 
of age are employed in factories, or when children under 
16 are engaged to work in quarries or mines. I believe 
the Supreme Court would sustain such a law. 

"The states in the north prohibit child labor while sev- 
eral of the southern states are employing young children 
in their factories. This gives the southern states an un- 
fair advantage from a manufacturer's standpoint. But to 
correct that inequality is not tlie main purpose of the bill. 
What we want to do is to protect the children of the coun- 
try. I believe it is a great national crime to put the chil- 
dren in shops and factories, thus dwarfing their minds 
and bodies. It has, moreover, a tendency to debase the 
quality of our citizenship." 

July 3, 1919 



A meeting of the executive board of the three anthracite 
districts of the United Mine Workers was held at Wilkes- 
Bari-e on Thursday, June 26, to decide on the place where 
the next tridistrict convention is to be held. The conven- 
tion will frame up new demands on the operators which 
the mine workers hope to obtain at the expiration of the 
present agreement, Apr. 1, 1920. They are evidently look- 
ing quite far ahead, and to exhibit how forehanded they 
are, Aug. 19 has been tentatively set as the date for the 
convention. The miners feel that they have everything in 
their own hands, seeing that experienced miners are ex- 
tremely hard to get and the demand for coal is pressing. 
It is said that quite a number of miners who left for mu- 
nition plants have not returned. 

Mine Workers Getting Ready To Make Demands 

Those who believe themselves well posted regarding the 
labor situation in the anthracite region are disposed to 
think that the 7-hr. day will be demanded with the present 
rate of pay, but it is certain that, whether this is so or 
not, recognition of the Mine Workers' Union by means of the 
check-off will be demanded. If the shorter day is definitely 
shelved then wage increases will doubtless be looked for. 
The miners feel that they have poor arguments to advance 
for a shorter day, in view of the fact that the force en- 
gaged in the anthracite region at the present time is not 
able to supply the demand which the public is making upon 
the anthracite operations. 

It is stated that, at a conference held during the second 
week of the month at Cincinnati, an agreement was reached, 
between officials of the Solvay Coal Co. on the one 
hand and President F. C. Keeney and Secretary Fred 
Mooney, of District 17, United Mine Workers, on the other 
as to the organization of the mines of the company at 
Kingston and Kieferton, Fayette County, W. Va. 

For some time the Mine Workers' representatives have 
been engaged in an effort to organize the mines in ques- 
tion. An agreement having been reached a formal contract 
governing mines, etc., will become effective shortly. Finish- 
ing touches will be put on the work of completing the or- 
ganization of locals at the two mines mentioned, by duly 
constituted organizers. 

No wage and working-conditions agreement was made at 
the preliminary conference held in Atlantic City during the 
third week of June as to the wage scale which would pre- 
vail in the New River district when the ratification of the 
peace treaty terminates the wage contract and the general 
employment contract now prevailing. The conference at 
Atlantic City was attended by members of the scale com- 
mittee representing the operators of the New River field 
and by members of the scale committee representing the 
miners of the same field. The conference adjourned to 
meet at Charleston on June 26. There will be little diffi- 
culty in reaching an agreement as to wages but one or 
two other propositions may make the task somewhat more 
difficult although it is believed an agreement will eventally 
be reached. 

Good Feeling in Fairmount Region Pronounced 

The United Mine Workers of Clarksburg and vicinity 
began the last week in June to make elaborate prepara- 
tions for their street parade, picnic and victoi-y celebration 
which was scheduled for July 4. The celebration was ar- 
ranged for by Pinnickinneck Local No. 1379. Invitations 
were sent out to every local within a radius of .50 miles 
of Clarksburg so that it will partake much in the nature 
of a state celebration. An effort was being made to secure 
Frank J. Hays of Indianapolis, international president. 
State Labor Commissioner S. B. Montgomery is also sched- 
uled to deliver an address. 

Of more than passing interest and significance was the 
decision of the coal operators' committee and the miners' 
committee of the Preston County field to have the operators 
and miners attend a celebration at Kingwood on July 4 
and 5 in a body, inasmuch as it disclosed the cordial feel- 
ing existing between the miners and operators of that 
section. The operators were arranging to furnish a brass 
band, put 2500 men in the line of the parade and to furnish 
and roast the biggest bull in Preston County. Every man 

connected with the mining industry in Preston County was 
invited to be present. Gov. J. J. Cornwell will be one of 
the speakers. 

Four weeks of strike in the coal mines near Fernie and 
throughout District No. 18 have resulted in no visible ad- 
vance toward a surrender on the part of the operators, and 
the miners through their union leaders have applied to 
Premier Oliver for the appointment of a commission to 
investigate wages and working conditions within the mines, 
and have stated that upon this request being granted the 
strike shall be declared off within 24 hours. 

It will be noted that the Gladstone local union at Fernie 
called upon the pit bosses to relinquish their work and so 
permit the mines to fill up with water and gas, but these 
officials did not believe themselves entitled to do so, in 
view of their responsibilities not only to the operator but 
also to the state. The correspondence relative to this at- 
tempt on the part of the local union at Gladstone follows 
herewith : 

Resent Short Pay That Goes With Short Hours 

Fellow workers, we wish to draw your attention to 
the fact that we are at this time engaged in a struggle 
to maintain the just rights of a certain portion of our 
membership. We think it is hardly necessary to point out 
to you the fairness of our demands, as you must readily 
realize that with the cost of living forced up to the limit, 
whereby it is impossible for the worker to support himself 
and family, it is absolutely essential that there be no re- 
duction in wages at this time, but rather a general increase 
all around is needed to offset the ever-increasing cost of 
the necessities of life. 

It has come to our notice that the coal company intends 
to use your services to replace those of some of our mem- 
bers who are out to secure a living wage. 

Fellow workers, we appeal to you not to permit your- 
selves to be used for such a despicable purpose. We would 
ask you to fall in line with the firebosses, who to a man 
refused to fill any job of a man who is out on strike. We 
realize the position they have placed themselves in by such 
action, and we certainly admire their courage. The mem- 
bers of Gladstone local union have already pledged them- 
selves not to resume work until all firebosses are rein- 
stated without prejudice or discrimination on the part of 
the management, and are ready to take the same stand 
with regard to yourselves. We ask that you will think 
the matter over carefully. Is it worth while to earn 
yourselves the animosity or illfeeling of all right-thinking 
men, to pander to the wishes of those who, however much 
they pretend to have your interest at heart, would if it 
suited their purpose take the same stand in regard to your- 
selves that they are taking with the ten and eleven-hour 
men at the present time? (Signed) "Gladstone Local 
Union, per Secretary." 

Pit Bosses Declare Their Moral Obligation 

In reply to the foregoing the pit bosses directed a letter 
to the members of the miners' union, the essential part of 
which reads: "Most mine officials are holding their posi- 
tions, not only through the company's choice, but by gov- 
ernment qualification, and in the ordinary course of affairs 
are responsible to both parties for the safe and efficient 
management of their respective departments. At the pres- 
ent time, owing to the conditions created by a general sus- 
pension of work, they are simply trying to limit the un- 
avoidable damaging of property, upon whose welfare the 
city of Fernie depends for its very existence. 

Should we imitate the example of the firebosses formerly 
employed at Coal Creek mines, who, taking a different view 
of the obligations inherent to their position, ceased work 
immediately when the general strike order went into effect, 
wc would render ourselves guilty of a grave breach of 
trust and an action that all right-thinking men could not 
fail to consider as highly reprehensible. 

We might further state that at no time has the manage- 
ment required the officials to do any kind of work other 
than that strictly covered by the strike clause included in 
the agreement still in force. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

To Our Friends From 
Across the Sea 

EVERYONE will see at a glance that these people are 
Romany Gypsies. Though they have lived many hun- 
dreds of years among other people, they have never 
made any friends. The reason for this is that they do not 
dress like other people, they talk their own language when 
speaking to one another, and they do not care to live in tidy 
quarters. Some of the foreigners who come over here soon 
dress like us, talk English as we do and keep their homes as 
neat as a new pin. These people soon find that they have lots 
of friends in America. Other foreigners wear shawls, go around 
barefooted, with disorderly hair, and Americans find it hard 
to be friendly with them. 

Be an American! 

Dress well, talk English only, keep an orderly home, 
and everybody will welcome you 

July 3, 1919 





Robbing Pillars, Anthracite Mines 

Letter No. 1 — Referring to the article of Joseph R. 
Thomas, Coal Age, May 22, p. 938, kindly permit me 
to submit the following brief sketch of my own ex- 
perience in drawing pillars on steep pitches in the 
anthracite mines of Pennsylvania, where I worked as 
miner and assistant foreman, both in directing and per- 
forming the work and caring for the safety of the 
men employed. 

The accompanying sketch will show the method that 
I used and which proved very satisfactoiy, both in 
respect to the amount of coal recovered in the pillars 
and the safety of the men engaged in the work. Con- 
siderable of this work of drawing back pillars had to be 
performed under a clay or sandy top that made it neces- 
sary to protect the men with temporary batteries, 
formed by setting a row of posts across the chute and 
nailing lagging to the back of the posts. As indicated 

as the driving of the heading up the center of the pillar 
means additional expense for yardage, and the other 
plan mentioned is much cheaper and safer. 

Fern Glen, Penn. Jacob Skoff. 




in the figure, this form of battery was first extended 
across the chute and then across the pillar. The work 
of taking out the pillar was .started by driving a narrow 
crosscut through the pillar about 15 or 20 ft. below 
the upper end. When the pillar had been thus cut 
through, the stump above the crosscut was taken out, 
the work being started at the upper comer. As shown 
in the figure, it was necessary to keep a row of posts behind the men and these posts were set with good 
cap-pieces above them. 

At times when the roof was bad, it was necessary to 
use forepoles that projected over the men to keep loose 
material from falling on them while at work. In this 
manner, the entire pillar was removed in sections, tak- 
ing out one stump at a time. It would happen some- 
times that the caving of a room on each side of a pillar 
would make it impossible to draw back that pillar, with- 
out driving a narrow heading up the center, as in- 
dicated by the dotted line in the center of the pillar 
between Rooms 2 and 3 in the figure, these two breasts 
being shown as caved. This is never done, however, 
unless there is no other way of taking out the pillar, 

Mine-Haulage Proposition 

Letter No. 1 — In answer to the request of J. H. 
Dickeison, Coal Age, June 5, p. 1058, asking for sug- 
gestions regarding- a change that he proposes to make 
to shorten the haul in his mine, permit me to say 
that my opinion is that it would pay to make the 
change suggested, unless the cost of cleaning up, tim- 
bering and laying the new track proves to be heavier 
than what I imagine. 

IMr. Dickerson gives no data regarding the present 
condition of the haulage road now in use. I assume, 
however, that this is an old haulage road that has been 
in use a long time, as the development of the mine must 
be considerable, judging from his statement that the 
distance fiom the working face to the foot of the hoist- 
ing shaft is 2:^ miles by the old road. 

Now, it is probably true that the expense of keeping 
up the old road, including repairs of track, replacing 
worn rails and setting new timbers to say nothing of 
cleaning up roof falls and making the necessary allow- 
ance for delays caused by wrecks due to broken rails, 
bad track, etc., is a considerable item on the monthly 
cost-sheet. This expense will all be avoided when the 
new road is ready for use. 

The condition of the entries that are to form the 
new road must be bad indeed if the expense of cleaning 
up these entries, timbering and laying the track is so 
great as not to warrant the investment. It is estimated 
that this proposed change would shorten the haul by a 
distance of 875 ft., which would certainly prove an im- 
portant item in the relative cost of operation and 
would greatly impi'ove the efficiency of the service, 
increasing the output of the mine and bringing larger 
returns on the capital invested. 

Comparing the two methods, the present system of 
haulage represents a higher cost of maintenance, a 
smaller daily output of coal, and involves the possibility 
of delays caused by wrecks and necessary track repairs, 
all of which means reduced efficiency in the mine and a 
higher cost of production. On the other hand, the adop- 
tion of the proposed change would mean a considerable 
expenditure at the start, in order to clean up the entry 
and timber and lay the track. It is true that this 
expense would all come at one time, but the result would 
be an increased output of coal each day, greater effi- 
ciency in the mine and a large reduction in cost for 
repairs and maintenance. As a result, the cost of pro- 
duction would be greatly decreased. 

One should consider, also, that in the old system now 
in use, the high cost of maintenance comes at a time 
when it is least desired, when the mine is on the 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

retreat or decline and there is an ever-decreasing income 
to be realized on the output. Let me repeat, then, 
that in my opinion the proposed change will amply repay 
the outlay required, judging from the information 
available. Samuel McKay. 

Burgettstown, Penn. 

Letter No. 2 — Referring to the proposition of short- 
ening the haul in a mine, as suggested by J. H. Dicker- 
son, Coal Age, June 5, p. 1058, let me say that I would 
not hesitate to finish the work already started and 
make the proposed change, as this would give a straight 
haulage road and shorten the distance to the foot of the 
shaft 875 feet. 

Assuming that the number of trips made by the motor 
would be increased in proportion to the shortening of 
the road or the distance to be hauled, I estimate that 
the motor would make 25.7 trips a day, instead of 
24 trips as formerly. It is stated that the distance 
from the working face to the foot of the shaft is 2* 
miles, which makes the present length of haul 2i X 
5280 = 13,200 ft. By the new road, the length of 
haul would, therefore, be 13,200 — 875 = 12,325 ft. 
Then, calling the number of possible trips, after making 
the change, x, we have 12,325 : 13,200 : : 24 : a; = 25.7 

Hauling 50 tons in each trip, this would mean an 
increase in the daily output of the mine, for the same 
capacity of the motor, 50(25.7 — 24) = 85 tons. It 
is probable, however, that the hauling capacity of the 
locomotive will be increased by this change, owing to 
the haul being over a straight road having no crooks 
or turns and there being less danger of delay from 
derailed cars and other causes. The grades of both 
roads can be considered as practically level, but the 
new road will have a great advantage over the old road 
for a long time to come, both with respect to economy 
and safety. 

There is another item of saving worthy of mention, 
since it will be available eventually. I refer to the 
saving in rail and trolley wire, which would also be in 
proportion to the shortening of the haul. Using 25-lb. 
iron, estimated at a value of, say $80 per ton, and 
trolley wire valued at 30c. per foot, the total saving 
effected by the change would be 

For rails, 
For wire, 

2 X 875 ^ 25 X 


875 X 0.30 

= $583.33 
= $262.50 

Total $845.83 

This is a saving well worth considering. 
West Pittston, Penn. Richard Bowen. 

Coefficient of Rolling Friction 

Letter No. 1 — Little as most mine officials may real- 
ize it, our old friend the coefficient of rolling friction 
is one of the most dominating factors in the produc- 
tion of coal. This is not appreciated as it should be, it 
being one of the unseen forces, and the average min- 
ing man has enough visible worries to keep him fully 
occupied without hunting others that do not appear. 

The wrecking of a trip in the mine, the burning out 
of an armature, a squeeze or a roof fall receives prompt 
attention by mine officials; but labor unrest, loss of 
supplies and, among many other things, the wasting of 
power due to the abnormal journal friction of plain- 

bearing cars, which gives a high coefficient of rolling 
friction, are the invisible factors so generally ignored 
and yet so productive of high cost of production. 

In the issue of Coal Age, May 29, p. 999, E. Steck, 
Hillsboro, 111., developed certain facts concerning the 
haulage capacity of locomotives that had a rolling fric- 
tion of 30 lb. per ton when hauling plain-bearing cars 
(presumably) having the same rolling friction. 

Rolling friction includes the track resistance as well 
as the journal and other frictional resistances due to 
the rubbing of wheel hubs on the points of axles, jour- 
nal boxes or holding devices. But since the track re- 
sistance is only a fractional part of the total resist- 
ance encountered, it can very properly be ignored. In 
other words it is so small that it cannot be justly con- 
sidered as a separate item. 

The 10-ton-motor, discussed in the article, developed 
103 hp., at 7 miles per hour, it being equipped with steel- 
tired wheels, which meant that its tractive effort would 
be one-fourth of its weight or 5000 lb. while its effec- 
tive drawbar pull, for level track and grades varying 
from 1 per cent, to 5 per cent., was found to be as 
follows : 

Level track 4700 lb. 3 per cent, grade. ... 4100 lb. 

1 per cent, grade. .. .4500 lb. 4 per cent. ^ade. . . .3900 lb. 

2 per cent, grade... .4300 lb. 5 per cent, grade. .. .3700 lb. 

The effective drawbar pull is the tractive effort minus 
the track and frictional resistances of the locomotive 
to which must be added 20 lb. for every 1 per cent, of 
grade multiplied by the weight of the locomotive in 
tons, which in this instance is 10 tons. The number 
of tons this locomotive would haul on the different 
grades was found to be as follows: Level, 157 tons; 
1 per cent, grade, 90 tons; 2 per cent, grade, 61 tons; 

3 per cent, grade, 46 tons; 4 per cent, grade, 35 tons; 
5 per cent, grade, 28 tons. The frictional resist- 
ance of the mine wagons or pit cars, as stated pre- 
viously, was considered as being the same as the fric- 
tional resistance of the locomotive (30 lb. per ton) and 
it was assumed that the cars weighed when fully loaded 
5.25 tons, the tare being 1.25 tons. The locomotive was 
shovra to be able to haul the following number of cars 
and tons of coal: 

Grades No. of Cars Tons Coal per Trip 

Level 30 120 

1 per cent 17 68 

2 per cent 12 48 

3 per cent 9 36 

4 per cent 7 2S 

5 per cent 5 20 

The number of cars hauled was found by dividing the 
haulage capacity of the locomotive by the gross weight 
of a car (5.25 tons) ; and the number of tons of coal 
hauled was found by multiplying the number of cars 
by four tons, that being the capacity of each car. 

The frictional resistance of 30 lb. per ton, or a co- 
efficient of rolling friction of 1.5 per cent, is all right 
for computations based on plain-bearing wagons, 
though it is at times slightly lower but more often 
somewhat higher. However, as showing that it is not 
fair to consider all mine cars or wagons as having this 
high frictional resistance, there are a number of com- 
pletely authenticated tests that have shown that the 
frictional resistance of flexible, roller-bearing wagons 
averages 12.9 lb. per ton, which gives a coefficient of 
rolling friction of 0.645 per cent., as has appeared in 
former issues of Coal Age and other journals. 

To speak of mine cars, in general, as having a fric- 
tional resistance of 30 lb. per ton, tends to discredit 
those mining officials who are discarding their old fash- 

July .3, 1919 



ioned plain-bearing equipment simply because they dis- 
covered that they were wasting many dollars through 
excess of power, lubricant and labor required to run 
the old type of cars. 

Using the same haulage capacities or capacity for the 
different grades as developed by Mr. Steck we can find 
the number of cars and the tonnage of coal hauled per 
trip by the same 10-ton locomotive, by substituting the 
frictional resistance of the roller-bearing cars (flexible 
rollers, 12.9 lb.) for the frictional resistance of the 
plain-bearing cars (30 lb. per ton"). 

The results are as follows: 

Grades No. of Cai's Tons Coal per Trip 

Level 69 276 

1 per cent 26 104 

2 per cent. 15 60 

3 per cent. 11 44 

4 per cent 8 32 

5 per cent 6 24 

The increased tonnage amounts to the following: 
Level track, 130 per cent.; on a 1 per cent, grade, 67 
per cent. ; 2 per cent, grade, 25 per cent. ; 3 per cent, 
grade, 22 per cent. ; 4 per cent, grade, 14 per cent, and 
on a 5 per cent, grade about a 20 per cent, increase. 
This discrepancy for the 5 per cent, grade is due to the 
fractional parts of a car, which might have been added 
but it was deducted. 

It is seen therefore that the diflterence in the co- 
efficient of rolling friction of the flexible, roller-bearing 
wagons (0.645 per cent.) and that of the plain bearing 
cars (1.5 per cent.) has quite an appreciable effect on 
the actual tonnage that can be hauled by a locomotive 
of a given size. It is not reasonable to consider the fig- 
ures for grades over 3 per cent., for it is seldom that 
the grade in a main haulageway will ever be greater 
than that, except for very short distances, and even that 
is a good indication that some grading can profitably be 

It is hardly possible than 69-car trips could be han- 
dled in the average mine operation, so that we must 
then consider that instead of a 10-ton locomotive being 
required, that an 8-ton or even a 6-ton locomotive would 
haul 30 cars on a level track, provided they were 
equipped with flexible, roller-bearings ; whereas, as 
demonstrated, a 10-ton locomotive would be required to 
haul 30 cars of the same size when equipped with plain, 
friction-bore wheels. 

Grades in Haulage Must Favor Loads 

There is no real good excuse, except in isolated cases, 
for a pronounced grade against the loads; and the 
grade against the loads should never exist except for 
very short distances, if maximum production is desired. 
The ideal track layout is where the grades are equal- 
ized; that is, where the locomotive has to exert as much 
energj' in hauling the empties back into the mine as it 
does when hauling the loaded cars out. 

It must not be assumed, however, that there will be no 
power saving on even a very pronounced grade, for there 
will always be the saving that is brought about by re- 
duced journal friction, which as pointed out is a factor 
well worthy of consideration at all times. The pull 
exerted by gravity is the factor that limits the haulage 
capacity of locomotives on grades, and since it exerts a 
pull of 20 lb. per ton on plain-bearing and roller-bearing 
wagons alike, the decreased savings on long and pro- 
nounced grades is easily explained. 

It is even of more importance to have easy running 
cars, or cars requiring a low drawbar pull per ton, 

when the grades are against the empties for the reason 
that the drawbar pull of plain-bearing cars increases 40 
per cent, when running empty, while the drawbar pull 
of flexible, roller-bearing cars under the same condi- 
tions only increases 15 per cent. That means that the 
coefficient of rolling friction of plain-bearing cars will 
increase from 1.5 per cent, to 2.1 per cent.; while for 
flexible roller-bearing cars it will increase only from 
0.645 per cent, to 0.721 per cent. 

These figures take on added significance when we con- 
sider that to produce a 6-hp. value at the locomotive 
drawbar the input into the locomotive will be in many 
instances about 9 hp. and the line losses will bring this 
up to about 12 hp. ; or if the power is purchased it will 
be increased to about 15 hp. Therefore, any reduction 
in the drawbar pull required at the locomotive repre- 
sents an actual dollars-and-cents savings. Flexible 
roller-bearing wheels or journal boxes under mine 
wagons produce those savings and in addition bring 
about many other economies that can only be appreci- 
ated by the man who owns and operates the cars. 

Philadelphia, Penn. Experience. 

Certification and Safety 

Letter No. S — Believing as I do that every man 
interested in the coal industry and working for its 
betterment should voice his opinion in regard to the 
employment of uncertified men, as permitted by the 
revised mining law of Pennsylvania, I am led to offer 
a few comments on this subject. 

In ni}' opinion, when the legislature of Pennsylvania 
passed the act revising the former mining law, which 
required all mine foremen, assistant foremen and fire- 
bosses to hold certificates of competency granted them 
by state examining boards, the law makers took a step 
backward. In support of this opinion, let me ask, what 
was the object sought to be attained by the old law, in 
requiring the certification of these officials? The an- 
swer is, it was to secure more efficient management in 
the mine and promote the health and safety of all per- 
sons employed underground. Today, the efficient man- 
agement of mines is just as important as ever, and it is 
just as necessary to promote the safety of mine workers 
as it was in those days when certification was made a 
law in Pennsylvania. 

In respect to responsibilty, I suppose that an un- 
certified mine foreman would be held responsible for 
whatever might happen in the mine of which he had 
charge. But a man cannot be held responsible for 
things that he does not know; and how many uncertified 
foremen know all the requirements of the mine law 
regarding the safe operation of mines? Further, if the 
mine foreman does not know what the law requires, 
how can he know that the operations in his charge 
comply with the law in respect to safety? 

Again, there are some mine foremen who are not 
citizens of this country and cannot, therefore, obtain 
a certificate. Others have not worked in the mines 
of the state the necessary five years required by law. 
The employment of these men is an injustice to Amer- 
ican citizens who have fitted themselves for the position 
of mine foreman and, by hard study, have succeeded 
in passing the examination and securing the certificate 
granted by the State Board of Examiners. 

Aside from these reasons, however, it is my belief 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

that no uncertified official can or does command the 
same respect as the man who holds a certificate certify- 
ing that he is competent to perform the duties of mine 
foreman. Where there is no respect for the foreman in 
charge, there can be no discipline in the mine; and 
where there is little or no discipline, there is greater 
liability to accidents that can only be avoided by the 
strict enforcement of the mine law and the mining 
rules and regulations. 

Speaking from my own personal observation, allow 
me to say that that piece of paper, which our law- 
makers have now thrown into the scrap pile by reason 
of this amendment, has had a wonderful effect on all the 
men employed in our mines. For the benefit of the 
operator, and for the sake of the men employed under- 
ground, the amendment should be repealed and the cer- 
tification of mine officials restored. 

The Value of Certified Mine Foremen in the 
Economical Operation of Mines 

Few men will deny that the certified man is worth 
far more to the operator, in the long run, than the un- 
certified man. The certificate shows that the former 
has studied mining and has a knowledge that the other 
does not possess. Before the passage of the amend- 
ment, Pennsylvania was in the lead in respect to state 
mining laws; but the act permitting the employment of 
uncertified men in the mines has placed us far in the 
rear of any of the other coal-producing states. 

While the uncertified man may make good for a time, 
sooner or later the occasion is sure to arise that will 
show his incompentency and reveal the need of cer- 
tified men in that position. The study required to gain 
a certificate has made the certified foreman familiar 
with the requirements of the law and acquainted him 
with a knowledge of the principles of mining that makes 
him master of the situation at all times. 

In closing, let me urge that all men interested in safe 
mining should insist that none but certified men be em- 
ployed in a responsible position in the operation of a 
mine. The employment of uncertified foremen may 
some day prove a very costly experiment, owing to the 
ignorance of the foreman in charge and for which the 
state is mostly responsible. 

Experimenting with uncertified foremen is unneces- 
sary, today, as there are scores of certified men who 
hold no position and whose study and labor in prepara- 
tion for foremanship was rendered of no value by this 
enactment. Let me say that certification is the only 
safe rule in mining operations and should once more be 
made law in Pennsylvania and placed on the state 
docket. Griffith Griffith. 

Blackfield, Penn. 

Letter No. 9 — I read with deep interest the letter of 
James Touhey, Coal Age, Feb. 20, p. 374, regarding the 
necessary certification of mine officials, in order to 
secure a maximum of safety in mining operations. Mr. 
Touhey has dealt with the subject in such a manner that 
there is little to be added in support of the question of 
the need of all mine officials being certified. 

In the second letter that appeared on this subject, 
however, James M. Roddie, Apr. 17, p. 723, raises two 
points to which, I believe, exception will be taken by 
many readers. He suggests that the candidate for a 
certificate entitling him to act as mine foreman should 

have "at least nine years of practice in the general rout- 
ine of underground work." Again, speaking of state 
mine inspectors, he says that they are "the intelligent 
heads, geenrally of the state boards of examiners." The 
statement, to say the least, would seem to reflect seri- 
ously on tne other members of the board. 

Five Years Practical Experience Sufficient 

Now, in regard to the experience required of a can- 
didate for a certificate of compstency, it is my opinion 
that a longer term than five years' practical experience 
in and around the mine is not always essential and 
would not guarantee the competency of a man to act 
as mine foreman. My belief is that it is possible for a 
person having five years' practical training to become 
proficient in the various operations of mining and be 
able to discharge his duties as foreman. 

It must be admitted, as Mr. Roddie agrees, that a 
certificate of competency is merely "an index," and not 
a guarantee that its holder is competent. Such a guar- 
antee must be based on the successful performance of 
a foreman's duties in a mine of which he has had 
charge; but that would be a poor excuse to offer in 
favor of employing uncertified mine foremen. 

Again, Mr. Roddie's characterization of state mine 
inspectors as "the intelligent heads of examining 
boards" seems unfair. Allowing that the certificates 
they grant are merely indices of a candidate's qualifica- 
tions does not, as Mr. Roddie claims, make the board of 
examiners who grant such certificates "mere indices 

The granting of a certificate to a candidate is simply 
evidence that he has satisfied the requirements of the 
examining board. Here the authority of the state mine 
inspector, as a member of the examining board ends. 
The appointment of a certified man to act as mine fore- 
man is not under his control or that of the state, but is 
left to the direction of the mine operator or the man- 
agement of the mine. It would be absurd to suppose 
that an examining board could guarantee the compe- 
tency of a man appointed to a position by another party. 

Discussion by Institute Reaches no Conclusion 

Before closing, I want to endorse what Mr. Touhey 
has said in regard to the failure of an intelligent body 
of men, such as the Coal Mining Institute of America 
comprises, in discussing the need of the certification 
of mine officials, to reach any understanding. To my 
mind, such a result is inexcusable and suggests that 
other matters were before them that were of more con- 
sequence than the question of safety in coal mining. 

My opinion is that the employment of uncertified men 
as foremen in mines is a backward step and invites the 
miserable conditions that existed before the government 
of Great Britain found it necessary to appoint com- 
missions to ascertain the causes of mine accidents and 
means for their remedy. 

The past history of coal mining is a record of great 
loss of life and property as the result of unrestrained 
and careless practices. The oft recurring disasters in 
mines created the necessity of enacting laws requiring 
that mine officials possess more theoretical and prac- 
tical knowledge, and we now recognize that these laws 
have made mining safer and more efficient than was 
possible by the former haphazard methods employed. 

Today, the universal cry for more education and 
greater efficiency in every branch of the industry is 

July 3, 1919 



fully justified and particularly so in coal mining. This 
cry should silence all arguments in support of the policy 
of employing uncertified men in positions of responsi- 
bility underground. WiLLlAM Wesnedge. 
Ladysmith, B. C, Canada. 

Bolshevism in America 

Letter No. 1 — The opening statement made in the 
Foreword in Coal Age, May 15, predicting the failure 
of Bolshevism, for the reason that "what a man gets 
by force will eventually be taken away from him by 
someone else who is stronger," has a particular applica- 
tion to America today. This is, as indicated by the title 
of the foreword, the "Day of New Ideals." The new is 
replacing the old in every event of life, and every day 
sees the American citizen growing stronger. Under 
these conditions, Bolshevism has no chance. 

The spread of this evil in our country has been often 
referred to as a menace to be feared. But, in seeking a 
remedy, we must place ourselves squarely behind our 
ideals of justice and equity. We must see that no person 
has any cause for legitimate grievance, under our flag. 
It is true that Bolshevism is a menace to the safety and 
peace of the country if the American people do not 
awaken to its danger and give adequate support to our 
executives and judges in their rigid enforcement of the 
laws against organized anarchy. 

What is needed, today, more than anything else, is 
the enactment of laws that will deal promptly and ade- 
quately with that freedom of speech that advocates 
anarchy and violence, criticises the government, at- 
tacks the constitution or in other ways reveals a spirit 
that is un-American. 

Under the constitution, the government of our 
fathers has made us the freest, happiest, most success- 
ful and most powerful nation on the earth. To maintain 
these characteristics, we must array ourselves on the 
side of justice and against all disturbing propaganda. 
When our people give their loyal support to the legis- 
lators and the courts, in their enactment and enforce- 
ment of our laws, there is afforded no opportunity for 
anarchy to raise its head and disturb the peace of the 

On the other hand, if the people manifest a spirit of 
indifference and assume the attitude of "Let George do 
it," they open the door for Bolshevism to enter and let 
down the bars for the spread of anarchy. In closing, let 
me say that. If what American people have and hold as a 
gift of their fathers is worth preserving, we must fight 
for it whenever and wherever is is endangered. 

Clinton, Ind. Justice. 

Firebosses as State Officials 

Letter No. 7 — Kindly permit me to correct the state- 
ment of W. Wesnedge, which he made in his letter. 
Coal Age, May 15, p. 919. In referring to my previous 
letter. Mar. 20, p. 544, he seems to regard me as favor- 
ing the employment of firebosses by the state. 

In that letter, however, I said plainly "I am not in 
favor of firebosses being employed by the state; nor 
do I think that they should be considered in any other 
capacity than that of a mine examiner, whose duty is 
not only to examine the mines for gas but to discover 
any other danger such as may arise on the roads, 
travelingways or working places of the mine." 

I did remark that "these men should be in the mine 
during the entire day," but it was my meaning that 
they should perform a full eight-hour shift. In my 
opinion, the work that falls to a mine examiner, if 
properly performed, will keep him busy eight hours 
every day. My plan has always been to have the mine 
examiners enter the mine eight hours before the time 
for the men to start to work in the morning. This 
gives them ample time to examine the mine and remove 
all dangers from standing gas, requiring the extension 
of brattice for its removal, taking down of any loose 
top and setting any necessary timbers for the support of 
the roof in the working places, besides performing other 
tasks required to make the mine safe for work and 
maintain a healthy condition. 

Firebosses, Mine Examiners, Safety Inspectors 

On coming out of the mine in the morning, my idea 
is that they should not be called on to enter the mine 
again that day. Instead, there should be a second force 
of mine examiners that enter the mine at 7.30 a. m., or 
when the men proceed to work. These examiners should 
remain in the mine a full shift and look after the safety 
of the men at work in their places. If the term "mine 
examiner" does not properly apply to this second force 
of examiners, I would suggest calling the first set of 
men who perform the work of the so-called fireboss, 
the "mine examiners," and the second set of men who 
remain in the mine during the day and look after the 
safety of the men at work, "safety inspectors." 

My reason for outlining this plan, by which the mine 
examiners remove all accumulations of gas as they 
find them, is that the brattice they erect for this pur- 
pose will still be in place and a good current of air will 
be sweeping the face when the men enter their places 
for work in the morning. 

Danger of Removing Gas During the Day, When 
THE Men Are at Work 

In the present plan of firebossing, a place containing 
any dangerous supply of gas is reported as being "un- 
safe" and a danger sign is fixed at the entrance of the 
place to warn men of the danger. Then, when the 
fireboss has had his breakfast he returns to the mine 
and proceeds to remove the gas from those places where 
it was found. But, this must be done when a hundred 
or more men are at work in the mine. Moreover, there 
is always a chance that some heedless miner may enter 
the place with an open light, not seeing or else ignoring 
the danger sign, and in doing so he endangers the life 
of every man in the mine. 

When foreman of a very gaseous mine it was always 
my plan for the firebosses to enter the mine at 11 p. m., 
an hour before midnight. Between that time and the 
beginnning of the morning shift, they were able to 
remove all accumulations of gas from the working 
places by extending brattices in such places where gas 
was found. When the men went to work in the morning 
every place was clear of gas and the mine safe from 
explosion. I have always advocated this policy as being 
the. only sure method of performing the work of fire- 
bossing. When gas is allowed to remain standing in a 
working place, with the intention of removing it later, 
there is surely the liability of a possible explosion 
occurring, which chance is avoided by the prompt re- 
moval of the gas when found. 

Farr, Colo. Robert A. Marshall. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 



Modulus of Elasticity 

Kindly explain the meaning of the expression "modu- 
lus of elasticity," and describe in what way it is used 
in practice. I find the term used frequently in text- 
books treating the strength of materials but have not 
understood its application. Electrician. 

Chicago, 111. 

The root meaning of the word modulus is a measure 
and the "modulus of elasticity" of any material is a 
term or quantity that is the measure of its elasticity. 
For example, a force applied to a steel wire in the di- 
rection of its length will cause an elongation in propor- 
tion to the force exerted, per square inch of section of 
the wire and within the limits of elasticity of the 
metal. Some materials are very elastic and others less 
so, the elastic limit being greater in the former than 
in the latter case. 

If the force applied is such that the elastic limit of 
the material is exceeded there results a permanent de- 
formation; in other words, the material does not return 
to its original form or state when the force ceases to 
act. Beyond the limit of elasticity of any material, 
rupture is liable to take place. The force producing 
rupture, expressed in pounds per square inch, measures 
the ultimate strength of the material. 

It has been found that the average quality of steel is 
elongated 1/29,000,000 of its length for each unit of 
force (lb. per exerted on the cross-section of the 
material, within the elastic limits of the steel. Thus, if 
it were possible to assume that the elasticity of the steel 
was not exceeded, a force of 29,000,000 lb. per of 
section would stretch a steel wire an amount equal to 
its length. In other words, the length of the wire would 
be doubled. But, since the elongation within elastic 
limits is proportional to the force applied per square 
inch of section, the ratio of that unit force (lb. per to 29,000,000 expresses the fraction of 

For example, a 000-wire has a sectional area of 0.1318 (167,805 circ.mils). A force of 1000 lb. applied 
to this wire will produce a tension of 1000 -^ 0.1318 = 
7589 lb. per The elongation in 100 ft. of this 
wire would then be (7589 X 100 X 12) ^ 29,000,000 = 
0.314 in. 

It may be of interest, in this connection, to estimate 
the tension or pull (lb. per of section) that would 
cause an elongation equal to the expansion due to a rise, 
in temperature, of 1 deg. of the Fahrenheit scale, in any 
given length / of steel wire. 

For example, taking the coefficient of expansion of 
the steel as 0.00000625, the expansion, per degree 
(Fahr.), is 0.00000625 /. Also the elongation of the 
same length of wire due to unit pull p, or tension, (lb. 
per is 1/29,000,000 Ip. Therefore, equating these 
two values and finding the stress or tension required to 

produce the same change in the length of wire as a 
rise, in temperature, of 1 deg. F., we have 

1/29,000,000 Ip = 0.00000625 I 

p = 29,000,000 X 0.00000625 = 181+ lb. per 

Pi-actically, therefore, a tension of 181 lb. per 
in a steel wire produce^ an elongation equal to the expan- 
sion caused b.v a rise in temperature of 1 deg. F. 

Cost of Electric Lighting 

We are about to install a system of electric lighting, 
on the main haulage road, in one of our mines. The 
distance from the shaft bottom to the inside parting is 
2000 ft. We propose to use 25-watt, tungsten lamps 
distributed along the haulage road at distances of 100 
ft. apart, which will require, say 40 of these lamps. 
They are to be operated on a llO-volt circuit, and we are 
anxious to know what size of copper wire should be 
used in this installation: also, the cost of lighting if 
electricity is purchased at the rate of 13k. per kw.-hr. 
and the system is operated ten hours a day. 

, Tenn. Superintendent. 

The first step in the solution of this problem is to de- 
cide on the permissible line drop, which we will assume 
to be 5 per cent, of the voltage at the generator, leaving 
95 per cent, of that voltage to be consumed by the 
lamps. The second step is to ascertain the current re- 
quired to light these lamps, which is found by divid- 
ing the total wattage by the effective voltage, or the 
voltage absorbed by the lamps. Forty 25-watt, tung- 
sten lamps consuming 95 per cent, of the llO-volt pres- 
sure will require a current of (40 X 25) -^ (0.95 X 
]10) = 9.57, say 10 amp. 

Now, allowing for a 5 per cent, line drop the size of 
wire required to transmit a current of 10 amp., under 
a pressure of 110 volts at the generator, is found by 
multiplying the resistance of the wire per mil-ft. (10.8 
ohms), by the length of the wire, in ft. (2 X 2000 = 
4000 ft.), and that product by the current required for 
the lamps (10 amp.), and dividing this result by the 
effective voltage, or the voltage absorbed by the wire 
conductor (0.05 X HO = 5.5 volts). The result thus 
obtained will be the circular mils required in the wire, 
or the square of its diameter, in mils. 

Applying this rule, we find the required circular mils 
in the wire section, in this case, is (10.8 X 4000 X 10) 
^ 5.5 equals 78,545 cir.mils. The diameter of wire re- 
quired is, therefore, d ^ V78,545 =^ 280 mils, or 0.28 

The cost of operating this lighting system, consisting 
of forty 25-watt lamps, at the given rate (13k. per 
kw.-hr.), will be 40 X 0.025 X 0.135 = 13k. per 
hour, or $1.35 per day of ten hours. The forty 25-watt 
lamps consume 40 X 25 = 1000 watts, or 1 kw. of 

July 3, 1919 





Bituminous (Penn.) Firebosses' 
Examination, April 11, 1919 

(Selected Qi(estions) 

Ques. — What should a fireboss know about mine gases 
and why? 

Ans. — A fireboss should be thoroughly familiar with 
the character and behavior of the common mine gases 
and those forming the atmosphere; namely, methane or 
marsh gas, often called carbureted hydrogen (CH,), 
carbon monoxide or whitedamp (CO), carbon dioxide 
(COj), hydrogen sulphide or sulphureted hydrogen 
(H,S) ; and the heavy hydrocarbon gases, olefiant gas or 
pthene (C,H,) and ethane (C,H,). The principal gases 
of the atmosphere are nitrogen (N.) and oxygen (0,). 

The fireboss should know the specific gravity of each 
gas referred to air as unity and its density referred 
to hydrogen, besides the molecular weight, which is 
twice the density. It is important that he should under- 
stand the laws of diffusion, the occlusion of gases in 
the coal, and their emission or escape through the pores 
of the coal, besides the escape of gas by feeders when 
the gas issues from pockets or crevices in the strata. 

The fireboss should understand the effect of mine 
gases on flame and on human life, and be familiar with 
their character as inflammable, explosive, or poisonous. 
He should understand the principles and facts of com- 
bustion and know what gases are extinctive and which 
support combustion. He should understand the effect 
on mixtures of gases forming the firedamp, black- 
damp and afterdamp in mines. 

Finally, the fireboss must understand how to remove 
gases from the mine, in the quickest and safest manner, 
and know what is necessary to do to perform the work. 
He should be able to detect the presence of the dift'erent 
gases, in mine workings, with the aid of the safety lamp, 
in order to perform the duties of an efficient and com- 
petent fireboss and insure the safety and health of the 
men in his charge. 

Queii. — State, in detail, where, when and by whom 
danger signals should be used. 

Ans. — When a fireboss enters the mine in the morn- 
ing, he must place a danger signal at the top of the 
shaft, or the mouth of the mine, as a warning that 
men must not enter until the signal is removed. He 
must place a danger signal at each entrance to a place 
where gas is found to prevent men entering such places 
unwarned. The fireboss must be careful to see that all 
abandoned places where gas may colloect are fenced oflf 
with proper danger signals. 

In case a miner's shot misfires, or he discovers some 
danger in his place, it i.s his duty to withdraw and 
place a danger signal at the entrance to the place, after 
which he should report the danger to the foreman. 
It is the duty of the foreman, or the superintendent 

of the mine, to see that proper danger signals are placed 
at the entrance when the mine is idle for a time, or 
when the circulation of air in the mine is impeded 
or shut off by damage to the fan or obstruction in the 

Quef. — Under what conditions should locked safety 
lamps be used in bituminous mines? 

Ans. — This is a question that the mine inspector of 
the district in which the mine is located must decide 
in accordance with the conditions known to prevail 
in the mine. In general, it must be stated that locked 
safety lamps should only be used in mines generating 
gas in such quantities that the air in the workings 
is liable to reach a dangerous condition owing to the 
presence of gas or dust, or both of these combined. 
With proper equipment and careful supervision and in- 
spection, it is generally preferred to depend on an ade- 
quate and efficient ventilation of the mine workings, 
rather than to insist on the use of locked safety lamps, 
which are always a hindrance to the work of the miners 
and serve to suggest the presence of possible danger in 
the mine. The use of locked safety lamps also invites 
tampering by curious individuals and fooling with the 
lamps by irresponsible boys and men. The use of 
locked safety lamps may also have a tendency to de- 
crease to some extent the eflSciency of the inspection of 
the mine. The use of locked safety lamps in pillar 
workings is important where gas is known to exist in 
the strata above or underneath the coal. 

Ques. — Give in detail the duties of a miner, and state 
what qualifications he should possess before being given 
charge of a working place. 

Ans. — It is the duty of a miner entering his place 
for work in the morning, or after a short absence, to 
examine carefully the condition of the roof and coal 
to ascertain if any danger exists. In case one or more 
props have been disloged by the firing of a shot in 
the place, it is his duty to reset the posts at once. 
These duties must be performed before the miner pro- 
ceeds to load any coal or do other work in the place. 
He must also examine to see that the fireboss has left 
his mark on the face of the coal and not finding this, 
he should withdraw and report the fact to the foreman 
or one of his assistants. When mining the coal, the 
miner must set the necessary sprags and posts to protect 
himself from a possible fall of coal or roof. From 
time to time, he must examine the roof above him to 
see that it is safe. He must always watch for any 
slips that may occur in the roof. 

Before being put in charge of a place, a miner must 
show that he has the necessary qualifications that fit 
him to protect himself and keep his place safe. He 
must be able to set timber properly and know how to 
mine his coal to the best advantage and with safety. 
When working with a locked safety lamp, the miner 
must understand its use and be able to detect the 
presence of any gas. 



Vol. 16, No. 1 



Chaos in British Coal Trade 

Lowered Production and Attitude of Mine Workers Rushino 

England Toward Another Coal Famine — America's 

Entrance Into European Markets Feared 

The Journal of Commerce (London) re- 
cently stated that chaotic conditions rule 
the coai trade of the United Kingdom. 
"We cannot adequately supply the de- 
mands of our Allies." reads the article. 
"Italy is on her knees for larger supplies. 
and we cannot give them to her. There 
is apparently no hope of our beiner able to 
do so daring the next few months. 'We 
are fast hurrying to a coal famine again, 
and we have had departmental warnings 
that coal supplies for home consumption 
are likely to be scarce. Government in- 
terference with an hitherto highly pros- 
perous trade has had the effect of bring- 
ing the industry to the verge of bank- 
ruptcy. The Government has tarried too 
long to the siren voices of those h>-per- 
socialists who are bent upon 'the total 
elimination of colliery profits.' 

"The present state of affairs is primarily 
due to the reduced outputs, and the re- 
duction of outputs is unquestionably due 
to the increased wage rates of colliery 
workmen, for It has always been a striking 
fact that when the wage rates of colliers 
are high the output per man has decreased 
to an extent almost proportionate to the 
rise in wage rates. Sir Auckland Geddes an- 
nounced in the House of Commons recently 
that the output of coal per person emplo.ved 
continues to show a decrease. In 1915 the 
output of coal per person employed in this 
country was 265 tons — a time when the 
most able of colliers were in the army. 
Patriotism was at its strongest, with the 
result that the output per man constituted 
a record. Since then the output per man 
has declined .>:harply to 2.17 tons in 1916. 
243 tons in 1917. and to 226 tons in 1918. 
The output per man for the first quarter 
of this year has receded to 203 

"On the basis of the first quarter's re- 
turns the output this year will be 63,000.- 
000 tons below that of 1913 ! Under the 
Sankey recommendations in July next the 
hours of work in mines will be reduced to 
seven per day, which means that the de- 
cline In the production in the aggregate 
and per capita will be still further accel- 
erated. A reduction of output entails a 
proportionate increase in the cost of each 
ton of coal. WTiere are we drifting? 

Supply of Coal to Italy 

"The Controller has advised the Italian 
trade generally that he has arranged in the 
various coal-exporting districts that from 
June and onward not more than 140. noo 
tons per month will be allocated for ship- 
ment to Italy through the Italian State 
Kailwavs. The remainder of the monthly 
quantity of coal allocated for Italy will be 
done through private coal exporters and 
will be treated as private business and not 
sub,iect to the Italian pool conditions. 

"There Is everv indication on the part 
of the Board of Trade to return as quickly 
as possible to normal business conditions. 
and exporters have been asked to arrange 
at once for contracts with Italian buyers. 
Furthermore, in order to assist private 
enterprise, a number of vessels allocated 
to the Italian State Railways Cnmmis.^ion 
have been released to private shippers, and 
apparentlv there is every indication of a 
Eood amount of business being done to 
Italy hv private coal exporters. Evidently 
It Is the British Government's Intention to 
!;Ive as great facilities as possible to the 
coal export trade, their action In this re- 
spect being apparently mainly stimulated 

by the necessity of increasing the revenue 
derived from the coal export trade in order 
to offset the seriously increasing cost of 
production entailed as a consequence of 
their pandering to the miners' leaders. 

Italy's Coal Problem 

"Efforts should be made hv the Govern- 
ment to so stimulate the production of coal 
that the demands of our ally, Italy, should 
be more adequately met. If British coals 
are not sent out in greater quantities, then 
a determined effort will be made by Amer- 
ica to establish a regular and permanent 
coal trade with Italy. America is unable 
to do this at the present time, owing to the 
lack of tonnage, but this drawback is being 
gradually remedied, and the time will ar- 
rive when the influence of .America's grow- 
ing fleet of merchantmen will be felt. Fur- 
thermore, there are other factors which 
are likely to weigh heavily against this 
country in respect to the coal trade. 

"At a date to be yet fixed by the 
Mines Department of the Board of Trade, 
the limitation prices at which coals have 
been sold to Italy will cease to operate. 
Open market prices will be quoted, and 
such prices will be shillings higher than the 
limitation levels. At the present time, ow- 
ing to heavy cost of transportation, Amer- 
ican coals sold to Italy are much dearer 
than the British coals sold at the limitation 
prices. The abolition of the limitation 
prices will in all probability make British 
coals the most expensive, especially as the 
American coal exporters are preparing to 
make considerable reductions in order to 
establish a regular service of supply. The 
position is fraught with great possibilities 
for the American coal exporter, and when 
tonnage becomes more free a very large 
amount of American coal will undoubtedly 
be shipped to Italy. Meanwhile it is only 
by a veritable tour de force we can sup- 
ply both France and Italy while the Board 
of Trade has actually issued a warning 
that supplies of coal for home consump- 
tion are likely to be shorter. Owing to our 
disabilities It is seemingly apparent that a 
large slice of the Italian trade must neces- 
sarily pass to America as soon as her ex- 
porters are in a position to secure a larger 
amount of tonnage. 

"Meanwhile the disputes in the South 
Wales coal field and the number of miners 
who have absented themselves from work 
have reduced the output to a sharp extent. 

"There is no doubt that a large number 
of miners have taken advantage of the 
fine weather to go holidaying, whilst a 
large proportion of the remainder are dis- 
inclined to produce the same quantity per 
dav as was the case when wage rates were 
low. The Government should have insisted 
upon the maintenance of outputs, making 
the great concessions they have been given 
contingent upon a certain quantity of coal 
being raised per man employed. Some sys- 
tem should have been insisted upon to 
stamp out avoidable absenteeism on the 
part of workmen, and insistence upon a 
guarantee of a fair amount of coal being 
raised per month. 

"The export of coal In pre-war years 
was a source of exceptional prosperity to 
the nation. With the present poor ratio 
of output and the probability of a still 
further decrease in July, when the seven 
hours per dav operates, makes the output 
of 1913 a most difficult if not impossible to surmount in the reconstruction 
period. Before that time America will 

have long since recovered from its war dis- 
abilities, and is likely to prove a powerful 
competitor during this country's herculean 
effort to recover commercial and financial 

"With the prospect of a further decrease 
in output it is necessary, as Sir Auckland 
Geddes has warned the nation, to choose 
between restricting supplies for home con- 
sumption or further reducing the quantity 
available tor shipment to foreign countries. 
To reduce our coal exports is unthinkable, 
except to Mr. Smillie and other paid advo- 
cates of mining workmen. The reduction 
of our coal exports means the increase of 
our indebtedness to other nations ; the re- 
duction of supplies for home consumption 
means the restriction of our manufactures. 
Such is the result of the Government's 
reckless concessions to the miners, and 
their utter disregard of the fundamental 
lies of our most important industry." 

Chinese Coal Market 

Under date of May 22. 'OTieelock & Co., 
of Shanghai. China, report that there had 
been no new business done in Japan coal 
during the preceding fortnight, and now 
that feeling seems to be running so high 
among certain sections of the Chinese 
public over the Kiaochow question, it is 
doubtful whether the silk filatures, on 
reopening, will buy Japanese coal ; but if 
they refuse to do so, we fail to see where 
they are to get their supplies from. The 
coal market in Japan continues strong, 
and although there is a fairly plentiful 
supply of the commoner kinds of coal the 
demand for the better qualities far exceeds 
the supply. This, of course, tends to keep 
prices very firm. 

There is no change in the FHishun coal 
situation. Owing to a further drop in 
freights and the starting up of silk filatures, 
the Kaiping coal market has been consid- 
erably better during the period under re- 
view. Large sales in North China, Man- 
churia and Japan have curtailed the quan- 
tity for export, especially for the better 
grades, the demand for which exceeds the 
supply. These sales naturally strengthen 
the market and prices remain firm. 

Coal Production in Shantung 

The production of coal from the mines 
belonging to the Shantung Railway, Tsing- 
tau. China, for the year ending Mar. 31, 
1918. was slightly less than in the preced- 
ing vear. Sales in local markets amounted 
to 213,030 tons, valued at 911.182 silver yen 
($604,387 at exchange $0.6633). giving an 
average price of $2.78 per ton for all 
grades. Lump coal for household use sold 
at from $7.96 to $8.86 per ton. Exports to 
Shanghai. Hong-kong and Japan aggre- 
gated 129.141 tons, leaving a balance of 
116.266 tons used on the railway, by the 
authorities, and in ways not specified, 
l^unker coal was supplied to vessels to the 
extent of 9640 tons, at an average price of 
$3.50 per ton. Shippirg agents report that 
bunker coal was not available in the quan- 
tities required by vessels. 

Foreign Coal Trade 

The purchase of American bunker 
coal is desired by a company in Italy. 
The terms are cash against documents. 
References. Further details may be 
obtained from the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, or any of Its 
branches, by referring to File No. 

July 3, 1919 




HarrisLuig, Penu. 

The Legislature of Pennsylvania ad- 
journed on June 26, but before closing, 
passed two measures, one bitterly fought by 
mine workers and the other opposed by coal 
operators. They were respectively the 
Flynn (defining sedition) and the compen- 
sation bills. 

The sedition bill was defeated in the 
House on June 23, because a number of 
members were afraid they would offend 
"labor" by voting for it. There is nothing 
in the measure to injure real Americans. 
The legislation simply furnishes the ma- 
chinery for reaching the element in society 
that is endeavoring to destroy the present 
form of Government. Tlie governor knew 
the necessity of the iiroposed law and 
finally used the influence at his command 
to get the bill through the Legislature. 
The bill was signed on June 27. 

The bill opposed by the coal operators 
and other employers was the one making 
amendments to the workmen's compensa- 
tion law, which increases the schedule of 
compensation and provides for a bureau of 
rehabilitation. The governor also signed 
this bill on June 27. The legislation was 
signed in just the shape the administra- 
tion desired it, all attempts to make rad- 
ical changes being blocked. 

The compensation bill increases the rates, 
making $20 a week the maximum upon 
which compensation is to be based. The 
maximum compensation to be allowed for 
total disability is advanced from 50 to 60 
per cent, of the weekly wage. The maxi- 
mum weekly amount allowed an injured 
employee is increased from $10 to $12 and 
the minimum from $5 to $6. The 
waiting period during which an injured 
employee receives no compensation is re- 
duced from 14 to 10 days. The period 
for which an employer must furnish med- 
ical treatment is increased from 14 to 30 
days. In case a widow receiving compensa- 
tion remarries, she would be paid one- 
third of the compensation due, not to ex- 
ceed 100 weeks. The method of computing 
the average weekly wage of an injured 
employee, as contained in the bill when it 
was sent to the Legislature by the attor- 
ney general, was restored before it was 
finally passed on the last day of the 

The Bureau of Rehabilitation is charged 
with obtaining positions for those who (be- 
cause of injury) have been incapacitated 
and whose earning power is reduced. Ar- 
rangements will be made with educational 
Institutions for special courses for the in- 
jured for which the State will pay not more 
than $15 a week for 20 weeks. The bureau 
will furnisli artificial limbs at cost to in- 
jured workf-r.s :ind supply special treament 
for those iihysicMlly disabled. Visits will 
be made to the homes of the injured by 
agents of the bureau and advice and 
assistance given. 

The fourth ailministration bill of the 
compensation class was not pushed and was 
allowed to die in conmiittee. It would 
have levied a 2 jjer cent, tax on the in- 
surance of corporations carrying their own 
compensation insurance. The bill creating 
a commission to study industrial accidents 
was defeated. 

All other bills of interest to the mining 
Industry were killed, among them being the 
Catlin hill, which would allow coal com- 
panies to remove coal unfler cemeteries ; 
the r>onnelly bill, which ijrovided that the 
oper.'itors should deli\'er powder and other 
explosives at designated places In the mines, 
paMH4-.l the House but died in the Senate 
Committee, A number of other bills per- 
taining to coal mines were introduced but 
not reported from committee. The Legisla- 
ture passed bills giving substantial Increases 
in salaries to the chief of the Department 
of Mines and to the 54 Slate Mine In- 

It is learned that the governor Is making 
a careful study of the mining industry and 
that at the next session of the Legislature 
he may Introduce legislation to enlarge the 
powers and the scope of the Department 
of MIns. The governor has signed the bill 

creating a bureau to make a geological 
survey and has approved a bill giving this 
bureau large funds to carry out its work. 

Charleston, W. Va. 

While transportation conditions were 
somewhat improved in the southern part 
of West Virginia during the last half of 
June, yet the oijeration of mines to full 
capacity was not possible even where mar- 
ket conditions would otherwise have justi- 
fied it, owing to the fact that sufficient 
cars were not available ; this was true to 
a greater extent in the Kanawha than in 
the New River field. Just at a time, how- 
ever, when the supply of smokeless coal 
was being augmented by an increased out- 
put, producers of that kind of coal learned 
of the order of Secretary Daniels virtually 
commandeering one-sixth of West Virgin- 
ia's smokeless coal for the navy ; this 
amount is said to be twice as large as the 
navy has heretofore been using in normal 
periods. This order which may be in effect 
for the next six months gives promise of 
materially shortening the supply of smoke- 
less for general market purposes as well 
as preventing smokeless producers from 
selling their coal at prevailing market 
prices. Little wonder that such producers 
are up in arms. It means, they assert, 
that there will be no opportunity to supply 
either the domestic or foreign markets 
right at a time when exports are reaching 
handsome proportions and when, under the 
allocation of tonnage by the shipping board, 
it seemed possible to increase export. As 
is already known, lack of cars interrupted 
the fiow of coal for a time to tidewater 
as did a strike on the Norfolk & Western 
R.R. which cost 100,000 tons. But dur- 
ing the third and fourth weeks of June 
coal was moving more freely, with about 
three-fourths of such coal going to tide- 
water, the remainder being divided between 
Lake points and inland Western markets. 
It is apparent that there has been a marked 
increase in tlie demand for export coal, 
although just at the present time gas and 
byproduct coal are coming into their own. 
The requirements of the United States 
navy during June have also been unusually 
large. Labor was somewhat more plentiful 
during the last half of the month. While 
prices underwent comparatively little 
cltange during the third week of June, there 
was undoubtedly a much firmer market, at 
least in so far as West Virginia operators 
were affected. 

After suffering with a severe case of car 
shortage for several weeks, the New River 
district was able during the week ending 
June 21 to make some headway in increas- 
ing its production ; the influx of additional 
miners into the district also tended to 
help production, so that there was fully 
a 10 per cent, larger tonnage during the 
third week of June than in the week Im- 
mediately preceding. It was estimated that 
many companies were producing 85 per 
cent, of capacity. What with a growing 
exijort demand and the navy using a large 
tonnage. New River producers are finding 
it dinncult to meet the demand for their 
coal, the bulk of which is now being 
shipped to tidewater. In fact only about 
25 per cent, is being shiT)i)ed to Western 
points including the Lakes. In the open 
market New River mine-run was selling 
around $3.00 a ton and contract $2.75 a 
ton. Contract lump and egg were averag- 
ing between $3.25 and $3.50 a ton. 

Little or no progress was made In the 
Kanawha district in speeding up produc- 
tion, so that the total output was not over 
60 or 70 per cent, at the most, making 
the tonnage produced during the third week 
In June only about 125,000 and cer- 
tainly not over 150,000, this being due to 
a continuation of car shortage. The de- 
mand for Kanawha gas coal was stiffening 
considerably and there was also a some- 
what more pronounced demand for ordinary 
steam coal, which has been lagging behind 
other coals In recent weeks. In fact the 
whole West Virginia market was much 
stronger than It has been at any time this 

year, so that operators greatly regretted 
the handicap of car shortage. The most 
marked development in the district lias 
been in the steadily increasing shipments 
of Kanawha coal to tidewater as well as 
the increasing number of inquiries for this 
coal to be shipped in the same direction. 
Kanawha run-of-mine was still averaging 
during the third week of the month from 
$2.00 to $2.25 a ton. 

Fairmont, W. Va. 

While a car shortage began developing 
about the middle of the week ending June 
21, in the northern West Virginia coal 
fields, it was not until June 21 that the 
shortage became acute. On that day the 
number of cars furnished was much below 
the average number which have in recent 
weeks been loaded out daily ; the only 
factor which prevented mines from shutting 
down in many instances was the number of 
unconsigned cars on hand, but even that 
number has been reduced to a great extent 
in recent weeks. As an instance of what 
the car shortage means, only 740 cars 
were furnished the mines of tlie Monongah 
division of the Baltimore & Ohio on 
June 21, as against about 900 required daily. 
The 740 cars furnished was the lowest 
number since Oct. 31. 1918. The daily 
average of cars furnished the Monongah 
division up until the third week of the 
month was in the neighborhood of 3.0OO. 
Placements on the division on June 21 
were only 600 cars. While both railroad 
officials and coal men have been expecting 
a car shortage, it arrived sooner than an- 
ticipated. For a time consumers refused 
to have coal shipped in gondolas, stipulat- 
ing that only self-clearing cars should be 
used, but now consignees have reached a 
point where they are no longer so particu- 
lar, so long as they get the coal. The de- 
mand for coal produced in the Fairmont 
and other West Virginia fields is steadily 
crawling upward to such an extent in fact 
that "bargain" coal is no longer obtainable 
and operators who entered into contracts 
not over 30 days ago to furnish coal at 
ridiculously low prices are now kicking 
themselves. Shipments from northern West 
Virginia points fluctuated in volume some- 
what during the third week of the month, 
but by the end of the week the movement 
was large, the bulk of such coal going to 
the Shipments to tide dropped off 
slightly when the Pocahontas mines re- 
sumed shipment but by June 21 Curtis 
Bay was again taking a substantial ton- 
nage. AVhile inquiries for coal for export 
are daily becoming more numerous, pro- 
ducers find themselves unable in many in- 
stances to accept orders for delivery of 
coal to points where it is a difficult matter 
to arrange for final delivery. Lake ship- 
ments were somewhat larger at the end 
of the week than at its beginning. Buyers 
In northern West Virginia fields appeared 
to be In the m.arket for a Large tonnage 
of low sulphur gas coal and for byproduct as well. Resumption of operations 
at many iron and steel plants In West 
Virginia It is believed will shortly stimulate 
coke production. 

Huntington, W. Va. 

Reaching an output of 76 per cent, the 
Logan mining district succeeded during the 
week ending June 21, not only In produc- 
ing the largest tonnage of the year, 232,- 
129 tons, but In exceeedlng the output for 
the corresponding period of 1918 by almost 
1,000 tons. This result was made possible 
In part by a reduction In the car shortage 
from 18 to 9 per cent, or from 59.000 to 
29,000, In other words. It was cut In half. 
At (he same time there w,as a further re- 
duction In the no market loss from 39,000 
tons or from 12 to 10 per cent. Labor 
shortage losses were considerably less as 
were losses from mine disability. 

The effect of reductions was to 
cut the production loss from 123,000 to 73,- 
000 tons, a difference of 50,000 tons, the 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

net gain in production for tlie week being 
28.000 tons. In short the car supply was 
materially improved while marlvet condi- 
tions were niuch better in every respect 
particularl.v as to the demand for gas coal. 
In fact shipments from the L#ogan district 
were heavy both to the east and west and 
an unprecedented run of business is an- 

All records for the year 1919 were 
smashed on the C. & O railway on coal 
loading for the week ending June 21. The 
record for the week was only a shade under 
the best weeks of 1918. the banner produc- 
tion year for the C. & O. 

The comparison of the three best weeks 
in the history of the railroad is as follows: 


July 27, 1918 14,098 

July 30. 1918 13,749 

June 21, 1919 13,735 

New River. . . . 


Coal River . . . . 
Guyan Valley. 




Total 12,945 

S. V. &E.. 
Long Fork . 
A. C. &I.. 

Total 13,735 

There is every indication that June will 
be a record breaker. The figure for the three weeks is high in tonnage and 
yet another week of loading is to be re- 
corded. The total depends upon the avail- 
able car supply and the railways are strain- 
ing every resource to give the mines the 
number of cars they want. 

Coal men see in figures such as those 
above given the renaissance of the coal 
industry on a parity with the best war-time 

Bluefield, W. Va. 

Notwithstanding that the strike of shop- 
men on the Norfolk & Western has been 
adjusted evidently that road had nnt fullv 
recovered from the effects of the strike, for. 
of a total production loss of 265.000 tons 
during the week ending June 21 in the 
Pocahontas district, a car .shortage w-as re- 
sponsible for ■:(;.5.00n tons, an increase of 
103,000 tons from this cause in a week's 
time. Prom !!)(;. 000 tons the production of 
the region was cut down to 156,000 tons, 
a loss of 4 0.000 tons in the same period. 
The total production loss was increased 
90,000 tons. There were no other losses 
to .speak of outside of a small mine disabil- 
ity loss, tio market losses finally disappear- 
ing. Coke production dropped 1000 tons 
being only fi!100 tons for the week. 

Canton, 111. 

The coal mine superintendents of Peoria. 
Fulton and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, met 
at this place on June IS and perfected an 
orsrnnization. The purpose of tlv organi- 
zation was to attain a standardization of 
conditions in the mines of the district in 
question ; to establish closer relationshin 
with the miners : to produce a better and 
cleaner coal, and to meet for discussion of 
mining matters. It is the intention to 
extend the membership to include the mine 
managers This association will meet again 
on Julv 2.'! anil will hold meetings regular- 
ly each inonlli Tin- first meeting was quite 
successful an. I ih, :■ niierintendents at- 
tending wer. n .. . Mil i,-iastic The fol- 
lowing offlci-i:- 1 .i. .i,,l: President, T. 
M. Guthrie, .-^ni" r mi. rni. nt Silver Creek 
Collierv Co., Farmington ; vice nresident. 
IT Wilkinson, superintendent Groveland 
Coal Mitiine Co., Peoria: secretary-treas- 
urer, Deamev. superintendent Crescent 
Coal Co.. Peoria The meetings are in- 
tended to have an educational benefit in 
the discussion of such articles as "Prena- 
ration of Pituminous Coal." a .series started 
in the May 22, 1919, issue of Coal Aae. 
and other snhiects which have a bearing on 
(he work with which the .superintendents 
.are connected. 



Port nianrharti — Fire of unknown origin 
destroyed the new washery at the No. 14 
colliery of the Pennsylvania Coal Co., at 
this place. 

.\Hhland — .^n explosion of gas at the 
Potts colliery of the Philadelphia & Read- 

ing Coal and Iron Co., on June 21, re- 
sulted in the death of two miners, and the 
injury to several others. 

Hazletoii, Fenri. Many of the foreign 
mine workers in the behigh region de- 
posited their hoarded earnings in banks dur- 
uig the past week — sa\'ings made during 
the war period. These are said to have 
increased bank deposits to the largest 
amount in the city's history. 

Dur.vea — The electric storm of June 24 
did considerable damage to the washery 
of Xos. 8 and 9 collieries of the Pennsyl- 
vania Coal Co. The large conveyor line run- 
ning to the washery, as well as one side of 
the building itself, were blown down entail- 
ing a loss estimated at thousands of dollars. 
It is the intention of the company to im- 
mediately rebuild that portion of the wash- 
ery that has been damaged. 

Wilkes-Barre — The Lehigh Valley Coal 
Co.'s mine foremen and assistant foremen 
have been informed that they can e.xpect 
a ten days' vacation this year. The prac- 
tice of giving summer vacations to the 
salaried men was discontinued during the 

The coroner's jury investigating the cause 
of death of 92 men in the Baltimore Tun- 
nel on June 5 after hearing a large number 
of witnesses brought in its verdict on June 
25. This jury refused to fix blame for the 
accident upon any person or persons. It 
did, however, make certain definite recom- 
mendations for future legislation. An 
account of the disaster with all pertinent 
obtainable details as brought out at thi- 
coroner's inquest will be printed in the next 
issue of Coal Age. 


Plumville — The Consolidated Coal and 
Coke Co., of this place, is now building a 
tipple at this new mine and equipping it 
with machinery furnished by the Fairmont 
Mining Machinery Co., of Fairmont, W. Va. 
It is expected that the improvements will 
cost $30,000. 

i>unbar — The work of rebuilding the 
tipple at the Freemont No. 2 mine of the 
American Manganese Co., at this place, re- 
cently destroyed by fire, has been com- 
menced. Gangs are working overtime on 
the job and it is expected that the mine 
will be able to resume in the latter part 
of July. 

Brownsville — Extensive repairs are being 
made to Lock No. 5 in the Monongahela 
River at this place to accommodate the 
rapidly increasing river traffic in coal due 
to the development of fields in Greene 
County and the upper pools on the Fay- 
ette County side. New gates are being in- 
stalled and machinery repaired, 

Uiiioiitowu — An attempt was made to 
blow up the tipple of the Peerless works 
of the J. M. Grey-Kramer interests 
shortly after a reduction of wages was put 
in'o effect. The dynamite W'as misplaced, 
however, and only slight damage resulted. 
The plant had been closed for repairs and 
had only just been reopened to fill recent 

Pittsbursli — The Bureau of Mines and 
the Carnegie Institute of Technology have 
nrr.iim'd jointly for the erection of a re- 
.-^firrli I;( t.try. Its principal initial use 
\^itl I" III I' si a new furnace designed to 
■I'lniii.ii, 111. .smoke of the usual type. The 
lalioialriiy will be erected between the Tech 
"iMiliinery hall and tli.' power plan*" of the 
T^iireau of Min.-s, .\r. necessary equip- 
ment to carry on the experimental wo .- 
will be supplied to test the new furnac'e 
which can be used for gas or all grades 
of coal, interchangeably. 


Kanawha City — Charleston parties will 
develop a coal tra.'i in Louden district. 
Kanawha Couni', ii.ii They have 
chartered the K:i ni \v In liiy Coal Co. for 
'he purpose, Willi a . a pii alization of $50,- 
000. The incorp..iai..i.s are R. E. Whitta- 
ker, A. O. B llugue, F. C. Koper. D. P. 
Reed and C. J. Cunningham, all of Charles- 

Itarnsloivii — Kir.-, .alls..! presumably by 
a slii.rl lariiiil in lb.- .Uii.irno room of the 
p.." IT plain ..r 111,' ..III Karnstown shaft 
niin.- ..f 111.- ('..iisnliili Coal Co., result- 
ed in a $10,000 property loss and a .shut- 
down of the mine for ;i few d.ays. The 
power plant was comiiletely destroyed and 
a portion of the tipple was burned. The 
efforts of firemen saved the main part of 
I he tipple and also prevented the flames 
from .spreading to the mine. 

MarDonald — A coal land deal which has 
been under negotiation for several months 
has been closed. TTnder its terms the New 
River Co. adds 6500 acres to its 100 sq.mi. 

of New River coal territory. The new 
acquisition is that of the Keefer Coal and 
Coke Co. holdings and the price paid was 
$324,855.25. The lands conveyed were those 
acquired by a Mr. Keefer, a Pittsburg 
capitalist, from E. B. Hawkins in 1908. 
The purchase price at that time was $35 
an acre. The New River Co. pays $56 
an acre. 

Clarkesburg — The Hudson Coal Co., a re- 
cently organized concern, acquired all the 
coal holdings of the Prunty Real Estate 
and Coal Co., including three mines in this 
section. The Hudson company is capital- 
ized at $1,000,000 and is said" to contem- 
plate extensive development of its coal 
properties. The Lewis mine at Reynolds- 
ville, the most important of the group, taps 
1004 acres of Pittsburgh seam coal: a new- 
steel and concrete tipple will be built, to 
have a capacity of 2500 tons a day. The 
Miller mine at Wilsonburg, ivith a 1200- 
ton capacity, and the Tucker and Betty 
mine near Fairmont are the other prop- 
erties taken over by the Hudson company. 
J. M. Orr is vice-president and general 

Williamson — Quite elaborate preparations 
were made by the operators of the Mingo 
field for the meeting and banquet of the 
Williamson Operators' Association he'.d 
here on June 26. A number of invite' 
giuests were present among them being 
Governor John J. Corn-n-ell, of West Vir- 
ginia 'ongressman John W. Langley. of 
Kentucky and T. L. Lewis, secretar,v of 
the New River Operators' Association. "The 
officers of the association are ; G. S. Patter- 
son, Vivian, president ; W. N. Cummins 
Red Jacket, vice president : L E. Armen- 
trout, Borderland, treasurer ; George Bause- 
wine. Jr., Williamson, secretary. On f'le 
board of directors are Messrs." Patterson, 
Cummins, Armentrouf Morris Wat's Eck- 
man ; A. R. Meisel : W. A. Hurst, William- 
son : H. G. VanHoose, Majestice, Ky. 

Beokle.T — Since the first ton of coal was 
mined by the E. E. White Coal Co. in West 
Virginia more than 5 000.000 tons in a'l 
have been mined by the company. In fact 
according to statistics prepared by it there 
has been produced at the Glen "White mine 
2.959.006 p-ross tons and at the Stotesbury 
mine 2,043,746 tons or in all 5,002,752 
gross tons. 


Springfield — Mine rescue teams from all 
parts of the state will compete at the ar- 
senal here September 7-19 The five teams 
making the best showing will represent 
Illinois at the national contest to be held 
in Pittsburgh the latter part of Septem- 
ber. Pl.ans for the state contest were out- 
lined by Director J. C. Thompson of the 
department of Mines and Minerals. The 
federal mine rescue car "was stationed here 
recently for a few days, demonstrations 
being made for the benefit of the public. 

La Salle — The Marquette mine, one of 
the landmarks of eastern Bureau County. 
is being dismantled and the buildings and 
other material sold. This property was 
considerably damaged by fire a fe-w years 
ago and has not been operated since that 
time. The coal rights on the south side of 
the Illinois River are said to have been 
sold to the La Salle County Carbon Coil 
Co.. whose property adjoins, and a new- 
shaft may be sunk on the Putnam County 
side of the river. 


FromI.ere — The Equity Coal Co. has 
leas.-il lands near here and it is stated will 
mak.- preparations for an active campaign 
this year. .-\ new tipple is being built and 
a side track constructed. W. E. Pinkney, 
president of the company, states that a 
six-font seam of coal is being developed 
ind that shipments of coal should be made 
l>y fall. 


Biriiiiiigliam — The first shipment of coal down the Warrior River earlv in 
Jun.- under the new^ tariff sheet of,the Rail- 
road .\dministration. This shipment in- 
cludefl 2000 tons of coal from the Lipsey 
mines. While the rate is the same as that 
of the rail route, loading and unloading of 
the coal is absorbed and storage room for 
the coal is furnished free at New Orleans 
on these shipments. The development of 
the terminals is being pushed : the ter- 
minals, together with the railroad connec- 
tion of the river and the city costing up- 
ward of $1,000,000. Tlie river at Mobile 
is to be dredged for further depth, a 30-ft. 
channel being sought. The object of these 
developments is to facilitate the export of 
coal from the mines of the Birmingham 

July 3, 1919 




A. D. Kobinson has been apppointed 
manager of the tidewater sales otfice of 
the Favette Smokeless Fuel Co., at Nor- 
folk. W. Va. For the last six years he has 
been connected witli tlie general office of 
the company at Mt. Hope. W. Va. 

C. F. Basliore has been placed in charge 
of the ©Iterations of the Randal Coal Co.. 
on Scott's Run in West Virginia, as man- 
ager. Until recently Mr. Bashore was the 
superintendent of the Xew England Fuel 
and Transportation Co. at Grant Town, 
W. Va. 

Dr. J. B. Vmbleby. of the U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, returned recently from Eu- 
rope where he was called to advise ,ne 
peace cominissioners upon the mineral re- 
sources of Germany and the German colo- 
nies. He related evidences of the grave 
danger to Europe from coal famine, citing 
the reduced production in several countries 
from labor disturbances. 

Major Charles K. slioles has recently 
been elected vice president, director and 
general sales manager of the Kdi=on Stor 
age Battery Co. Major Sholes suc- 
ceeds Harrison G. Thompson, who resigne I 
to organize and conduct the Transporta- 
tion Engineering Corporation, of New York. 
Major Sholes has heretofore been idei.,i 
(led with the con.structinn, operation and 


management of chemical industries ; he wa..; 
the active member of the creditors' com- 
mittee of the Aetna Explosives. Inc., dur- 
ing the receivership, which is ending so 
creditably. During the war he served as 
major in the ordnance branch of the serv- 
ice. He is honorary chairman of the Soci- 
ety of Chemical Industry and a member 
of many other scientific societies. 

A. K. MoiitKomery, who for several years 
has been the general superintendent of 
the Boone County Coal Coriwration. with 
headtiuarters at Clothier. Tioone County. 
\V. Va.. has resigned to locate In Peoria. 
III., where he will, with others, engage in 
a general road contracting business. Inas- 
much as he is leaving West Virginia he 
has also tendered his resignation as a 
member of the state senate, to which he 
was elected in 1916. 

Trade Catalogs 

standard Reinforced Spiral Pipe. Stand- 
ard Spiral Pipe Works, Chicago. III. Cata- 
log Xo. 7. Pp. 4Q ; S X lOi in.: illustrated. 
Notes details of construction and cites in- 
stallation of spiral pipe and various fittings 
and supplies. 

Direct Current Motors and Generators. 
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co.. Mil- 
waukee. Wis. Bulletin No. 1096-A. Pp. 
20 ; 8 X lOJ in. ; illustrated. Description 
of types "K" and "KC" and application to 
various industries noted. 

Copes System of Boiler Feed Control. 
Northern Equipment Co.. Erie. Penn. Bul- 
letin. Pp. 8; 8J X 11 In.; illustrated: 
convenient for filing. A proposal and spec- 
ilications for the Copes system of boiler 
feed regulation. 

Wliitin; Railroad Eqnipment — Whiting 
Foundry Equipment Co., Harvey, 111. Cat- 
alog No. 145. Pp. 36: Si X 11 in.: illus- 
trated This publication brings before rail- 
road men the advantages and labor saving 
features of the company's various railroad 
specialties such as screw jack hoists, 

rriidiicer (ias Costn. Sleere Engineering 
Co, D.iroU, Mich Pp. 1 : li x 1 1 in.; un- 
illusraied. Table on cartlboard for hang- 
ing up. 

Link-ltrlt Locomotive CrancH. Link-i^elt 
Co., Chicago, 111. Book No. .'iTO. Pp. 68; 
6 X 9 in. : illustrated. Description of loco- 
motive type of crane and copious Ulustra- 
t!ons showing Installations In various In- 

Imperial Incandescent Headlight tor 
Mining Locomotives. Ohio Brass Com- 
pany. Mansfield, Ohio — exclusive sales 
agents. Crouse-IIinds Co., Syracuse. N. Y. 
— manufacturers. Bulletin No. 202A. Pp. 
12; 6 X 9 in. ; illustrated. Describes the 
various types of headlights made by the 
Crouse-Hinds company, also other allied 
equipment — headlight parts listed. 

Works and Products. Allis - Chalmers 
Manufacturing Co.. Milwaukee, Wis. Bul- 
letin No. 137. Pp. 62 ; .0 X 6i in.: illus- 
trated. A description of Allis-Chalmers 
company and its capacity for producing a 
creat variety of machinery including some 
of the largest and most powerful prime 
iTovers and electrical machinery in the 
world — details of the company's plants and 

Lackey, Ky.— The Wells-Elkhorn Coal 
( 'o . C. O. Messenger, manager. Paints- 
ville. plans development on 2000 acres 
with daily capacity of 20 cars. 

.\mblcr. Penn. — The Eastern Foundry 
:ind Machine' Co. is now operating its new- 
plant at this place. The general sales office 
nf this company is in the Liberty Building. 
Philadelphia, Penn. B. M. Morrison, gen- 
eral sales manager. 

I!., -I. .11 M;iss. — Frederick & Co.. Inc.. of 

■ IS an option on 1200 acres 

r ■iiMint field, near Farmington. 

\ , i'mI has incorporated with a 

• pitai of SI. 500.000. Fred A. Sesler, of 

w ilkinsburg. Penn., is at the head of the 

■ iiterprise. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. — A large coal deal 
was consummated in east Tennessee re- 
lentlv when the Montlake Coal Co. was ab- 
Korbe"d by the Buck Creek Coal Co.. an or- 
ganization capitalized at $350,000. The 
new company has acquired 25.000 acres of 
land around Buck Creek Gulch. 

EdwardsvUle. 111. — Edward Gaertner. of 
Pittsburg, has taken options on 12.000 acres 
of coal lands in this vicinity. He is uri- 
derstood to represent Pittsburgh capital- 
ists who contemplate opening a large mine 
on the northern edge of the town. It is 
announced that test borings will soon be 

Sharpies, W. Va. — The Boone County 
Coal Corporation has purchased the stock 
of the D. C. Thomas Coal Co.. of Colum- 
bus. Ohio, and has transferred the prop- 
erty to the first named corporation. The 
D. C. Thomas Coal Co. is now in process 
of dissolution. The Boone County Coal 
Corporation is a large producer of Chilton 
coal, used for byproduct and gas purposes, 

Columbus, Ohio — F. E, Falk. head of the 
Falk Coal Co., of this place, has acquired 
all of the capital stock of the Penn-X mine, 
located al Orbiston, near Murray City. He 
ixpects to improve and operate Ihe prop- 
erty, which consists of a large acreage or 
virgin coal. The selling offices will be In 
Columbus The mine was formerly operat- 
ed by the Western Fuel Co.. of Nelson- 

Crellen, Md. — The Turner Douglas Coal 
Co.. Goff Building. Clark.sburg. W. Va.. Is 
understood to be planning for the develop- 
ment of additional coal iiroiiertles in the 
Crellen disti-lct in connec'tlon with Its 
present holdings comprising aboiil SMI 
acres. It is proposed to have a dally ca- 

pacity of about 500 tons. W. B. Car- 
michael. 420 Stark Street. Saginaw, Mich., 
is manager. 

Carpenter Creek, Mont. — The Montana- 
Wyoming Coal Co. expects to exercise its 
option and purchase lands near here. The 
property is said to be underlaid by a nine- 
foot seam of coal which will be developed. 
When the lines of the Montana Power Co. 
are extended to this place, it is stated that 
the development of the several coal prop- 
erties here will be on a larger scale than 
at present. 

Charleston, W. Va. — There is to be fur- 
ther development of coal lands in the Lou- 
den district of Kanawha County by the 
Kanawha City Coal Co. just organized by 
Charleston people. This company has an 
authorized capital of $50,000 and its plant 
will be near Kanawha city. Leading figures 
in the formation of the new company were 
D. P. Reed. C. J. Cunningham. F. C. Koper. 
A. O. B. Ilogue and R. E 'WTiittaker, all of 

Erie, Penn. — The Ball Engine Co. of this 
Dlace. builders of the Erie steam shovel, 
let a contract on June I.S for building an 
pdrtition to their shovel erecting shop. The 
new building will be approximately 175 by 
125 ft., which will nearly double the pres- 
ent area and capacity of the shop in ques- 
tion. Other additions to the Erie shovel 
plant, totaling $350,000. are contemplated, 
as present business warrants further 

Charleston. W. Va. — Charles 'Willis Wird 
and wife deeded to The Kelly's Creek Col- 
lieries Co. a one-sixth interest in a tract 
of ROOO acres located on Kelly's and 
Hughes Creeks both of which are tribu- 
taries of the Kanawha River. 

The other five-sixths of the tract are 
still held by members of the Ward family, 
it is stated, though an effort has been made 
by the owners of the Kelly's Creek com- 
pany to purchase the entire tract. The 
price paid for the interest sold was $115,000. 

St. Louis. Mo — The Philliosburg Mining 
Co.. with offices in the Security Bldg., 
here, is making extensive developments at 
its mines in Montana to determine as to 
the condition of the coal at lower levels. 
The shaft, which is to be .sunk to a denth 
of 1000 ft., is now down about 650 ft. The 
company expects to expend $100,000 for 
development and for additional equipment 
ircludinf a hoist. .1. P. Meyer is oresi- 
dent and Engineer McCracken has charge 
of operations. 

New York. X. Y. — W. N Rrown. a" ex- 
aminer of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, began a series of hearings in the 
niiestion of demurrage chare-es on .Tune 26. 
These hearing's were arran^red bv Charles 
^ .Mien, secretary of the Wholesale Coal 
Trade Association, of New York City. In 
the meantime the Railroad .\dniinistration 
has agreed to suspend tli.. n.ll.rt ion of 
all unpaid demurrage f1i:it-".s wliich have 
accrued on coal at tb- IimmI imiis be- 
tween December 1 and .M;i\ I until the In- 
ter.«I:il. I ■- .iiitn.T r.' ' 'mi i un i^-^-io'l decides 

wliciii. 1 , ...iihiiMi, (,r til.' I. resent rates is 

•noK' Til,.-.' n.iii,.i.l l.iIK :it thi« nort 

to d:il. ,11. 1.. li. V..I 1.1 i..t:il about $223,000. 

Knoxville, T»nn. — Plans ar-> now under 
wav for forniitig an exnort corporation 
with a capital of from $500,000 'o «l,0O0.- 
000 for shipping coal to Latin-.\merica 
and to Europe. 

The .Southern .Appalachian Coal Asso- 
ciation, national banking interests ^nd the 
Manufacturers' .-Association of .Ame-ica are 
promoting the enterprise. It is stated that 
New York bankers who have investi»*ated 
the opportunities for shipping coal to 
foreign countries have agreed to finance 
the corporation. 

This corporation will hande bunker and 
exnort coal from the southern Appalachian 

Salt Lake City. Utah — Consolidation of 
the Eccles and 'SVattis coal Interests Is to 
be perfected in the near future according 
to report. The new concern, which will be 
known as the lAon Coal Co.. Is exnected 
to have a capitalization of $5,000,000. 
Among the Incorporators are David Eccles. 
president of the Eccles estate, W. H and E. 
O. Wattis, of Ihe TItah Construction Co. 
and M. S. and .T. M. Browning, the inv.'ii- 
torsof Ihe machine gun of thai nun. Thi- 
property of the new comnanv "ill mi. In. I. ■ 
the Wattis Interests In Carbon .m 
Ing over $1,500,000 and the I.;., I..; ini.r- 
ests In W.vnmlng. valued at more than 
S2. 000.000. The combined onlinil of thi' 
two companies Is estimated al 600. Ooo 
tons. D. IT. P.ape, general manager of the 
Eccles coal Interests, will assume the man- 
agement of the new company. J, IT. Hill 
will act ns sales manager of the new cor- 



Vol. 16, No. 1 



Weekly Review 

Public inil Have Itself to Blame for Coal Scarcity This Fall and fFiiiter — Necessity Exists for 

Speeding Up Soft Coal Output — Anthracite Coals for Domestic Purposes 

Are Scarce, While Steam Coals Are Drug on Market 

NO CONSUMER of bituminous 
coal can blame anyone but him- 
self if he fails to obtain sufficient 
coal for use this fall and winter. Every- 
thing possible is being done by both 
producers and dealers to acquaint the 
public with the true state of affairs 
insofar as coal is concerned. 

If a coal shortage is to be averted 
this year, consumers must buy their 
fuel now, for in order to meet the es- 
timated requirements of the country, 
which are placed at 530,000,000 net tons 
for the year, the production of soft coal 
must be increased 2,775,000 net tons 
each week for the next thirty weeks; 
in other words, an output of 10,900,000 
net tons weekly. 

During the week ended June 21 the 
output of soft coal totalled only 8,689,- 
000 net tons. At this rate, which has 
been maintained since the middle of 
May, the production of bituminous is 
about neck and neck with the rate of 
consumption. There is no reserve 
being built up. Labor shortage and car 

scarcity are even now affecting the out- 
put of soft coal, and these handicaps 
will become even more evident as the 
weeks go by. The time to buy coal 
is now. 

The undertone to the soft coal mar- 
ket is decidedly more encouraging. The 
select grades of bituminous coal are 
not easily obtainable, while prices on 
the better gi-ades are going up. Steam 
coals are moving slowly. In the Mid- 
dle West many operations ai-e forced to 
close down for days at a time, owing 
to the inability to dispose of the small 

If anything, consumers are more 
eager just now to procure the domestic 
sizes of anthracite. So insistent are 
the requests for stove and egg coal that 
some producers are breaking larger 
coals into these two sizes in order to 
appease the trade. The product of 
the so-called Independent operators is 
bringing premiums on prompt ship- 
ments of hard coal to the West and to 
Canada, while the large companies are 

adhering closely to their regular sched- 
ule. This called for another advance 
of ten cents a ton on egg, stove, chest- 
nut and pea coals on July 1, and the 
prices on these coals at the mine are 
accordingly that much higher. Chest- 
nut is becoming increasingly hard to 
obtain, though the shortage of this size 
is not so evident as on the egg and 
stove sizes. 

Contrasted with the activity in the 
demand for domestic coals is the utter 
lack of interest shown in the anthracite 
steam coals. Buckwheat, however, is 
moving somewhat more easily than 
either rice or barley. Prices have been 
cut on the two latter sizes. 

During the week ended June 21 the 
anthracite operators produced 1,748,000 
net tons of coal, a gain of 63,000 net 
tons over the output of the week ended 
June 4. For the calendar year to June 
21 the production of anthracite is esti- 
mated at nearly 37,000,000 net tons, or 
about 10,000,000 net tons below the out- 
put of the corresponding period of 1918. 


A slight increase in the production of bi-. 
luminous coal in the week ended June 2. 
but a decrease compared with the week 
ended June 7. is indicated by the latest 
estimates. The production in the week 
ended June 21 was 8,689.000 net tons com- 
pared with 8,487,000 net tons in the week 
ended June 14 and 8.927,000 net tons in 
the week ended June 7. The uniformity in 
the rate of production in the last seven 
weeks, or since the middle of May, the 
production averaging around eight and 
three-quarter million net tons per week. 
is noteworthy. The evidence available in- 
dicates that this represents the rate of con- 
sumption at the present time and that little 
or no stocking is taking place. The produc- 
tion for the calendar ^'ear to June 21 is 
estimated at 20,3,434,000 net tons, and is 
nearly 70.000.000 net tons or 26 per cent, 
below the production in 1918. 

The production of anthracite for the 
week ended June 21 is estimated at 1,748.- 
000 net tons, a gain of fiS.OOO net tons over 
the week ended .Tune 14, but a decrease com- 
pared with 2.034,000 net tons for the cor- 
responding week of last year. The pro- 
duction of anthracite for the calendar year 
to June 21 is estimated at nearly 37,000,000 
net tons, or about 10,000 net tons below the 
production for the same period in la-st year. 

Returns from operat,'rs for the week 
ended June 14 show that the drop in pro- 
duction that week compared with the week 
ended June 7 was due to an increase in 
loss because of no m.irket from 32.1 per 
cent, to 34.7 per cent, which occurred 
mainly in Illinois, Indiana, southern Ohio 
and western Kentucky, and in to an 
increase in the less of running time because 
of car .short.age. notably in the Pocahontas 

and high volatile fields of southern West 

The production of beehive coal in the 
week ended June 21 is estimated at 285,140 
net tons compared with 285,688 net tons 
in the week ended June 14 and 633.162 net 
tons in the week ended June 22, 1918. The 
production of beehive coke in the calendar 
year to date is estimated at 9,323,000 net 
tons compared with 14,526,400 net tons for 
the same period in 1918. 

Bituminous ccal dumped at lower Liake 
Erie ports in the week ended June 14 was 
959.265 net tons compared with 1,073,952 
in the week ended June 7 and compared 
with 912,951 net tons in the week of June 
15, 1918. This season to date the dump- 
ings aggregate 7.076,328 net tons, or 1,200,- 
000 net tons greater than last year. 


The Iron Age — Production is now at 
about 60 per cent, of ingot capacity, and 
June's output will probably be fully 10 per 
cent, more than May's. The greater ac- 
tivity in pipe, wire and sheets is offset by 
the still relatively small demand for bars, 
plates and shapes. Orders are coming in 
faster than the shipment rate, and some 
accumulation of bookings is the tangible 
evidence of the continued improvement. 
I.,argc sales of coke for last-half delivery 
have been made in the Pittsburgh district, 
and prices are stifter, with foundry coke 
25c. higher. 

Dry Goods Economist — The movement of 
practically all lines of seasonable goods in 
dry goods and department stores continues 
excellent in every section of the covmtry. 
Roadmen are sending in a continuous 
stream of orders accompanied by optimistic 
statements regarding the conditions they 

find in their respective territories. Scarcity 
is the rule in woolen and worsted dress 
fabrics. This is due in part to the lack of 
wools earlier in the season, and also to 
problems of manufacture. Stocks of b.oth 
manufacturers and distributors are light, 
but there is no absolute famine as some 
people have asserted. 

American Wool and Cotton Reporter — 
It is not expected that any decline in the 
wool market will t.ake place this year, and 
the general outlook for business seems good 
for a long time ahead. It is predicted thit 
as the .season progresses the market will 
stiffen rather than otherwise. The general 
trend of the trade is to sell as fast as pos- 
sible. Mills are ready to buy. and they 
want wools for immediate consumption. 
The cotton market during the week under 
review been the quietest tor some time. 
The cotton goods market has been some- 
what disturbed by the slow production of 
mills. Many mills are so closely booked 
ahead that they will be unable to complete 
present contracts until late fall. 


SiBns of output falling bcliind. Prices, 
however, without material chaiiKe. Buyers 
show more interest in current market. Re- 
jection of Navy bills leaves many shippers 
"in tile air." Lack of contract orders may 
mean steady suppl.v of spot coal later. 
Ilnmptnii Roads coals without new devel- 
opments. Receipts on same ba.sis as for 
several months. Anthracite demand still 

July 3, 1919 



Bitutninons — Jlore and more is being 
heard of cases where operators are obliged 
to decline business because they are unable 
to produce coal fast enough to meet the 
current demand. This is especially true of 
operations where mining is more difficult. 
Mine workers show no disposition to leave 
places where the seams are thin in favor 
of mines carrj-ing thicker veins, and this 
shifting of labor, particularly in central 
Pennsylvania, is already causing a lot of 

The long expected upward swing in 
prices, however, is not in evidence. A few 
shippers of quality coals have made spot 
sales at slightly higher prices for July than 
for June, but the market is still heavy and 
labors under the conditions that prevailed 
all through the spring. There has been so 
much anxiety to sell coal since January 
that buyers find it very hard to understand 
the present drift and the prices now asked 
for deferred delivery. This territory there- 
fore, is still very slow responding. While 
a good many interests have stopped selling 
there are yet enough who are eager to take 
on spot business to give the impression 
that conditions continue praoticallv the 
same The result is that prices remain 
about on the same level as a fortnight ago. 

There is distinctly more interest, how- 
ever, on the part of buyers than was the 
case a month ago. The textile mills are 
seeing farther ahead and are more inclined 
to take on coal for the winter months. In 
some directions there has been something 
of a spurt on this account and the current 
market is that much improved. It has been 
only within a few weeks that some of the 
large manufacturers who accumulated 
heavy stocks last year began taking 
enough coal to meet boiler requirements 
from week to week, and now the same peo- 
ple are showing their inclination even to 
stock coal on top of the reserves they have 
been carrying. 

For many of the Pennsylvania shippers 
the outlook has become further complicated 
through the rejection of bids submitted to 
the Navy Department. Thev are still un- 
able to get from the authorities the approxi- 
mate .shipments they will he ealled upon to 
furnish. In other years there were few of the 
Pennsylvania coals certified for Navy use, 
but now that the number of mines on the 
acceptable list has been greatly enlarged 
it IS impossible to figure the outcome. 

Should output .show an increase between 
now and October, and there are manv who 
think it will, it will be shown that operators 
have taken far less contraets than usual 
It IS quite jMssible that there may then be 
a steady supply of spot coal at prices not 
much higher than the present range, for 
the fact that the coal people have avoided 
contracts to a considerable extent mav 
easily mean that coal will not be so hard 
to get as many have predicted. New Eng- 
land is not likely to increase very much 
Its present requirements, at least not be- 
tween now and Jan. 1. and unless output 
IS to be reduced the boom market will have 
to be the result of increased needs in other 
parts of the country. 

This is perfactly true in the case of the 
smokeless coals that have their largest 
outlet through Hampton Road-s. Improved 
conditions as to price, etc. wnII be the re- 
action of the export or bunker trade, rather 
than from any marked influence of buying 
In this territorv. Now that peace is actually 
signed it is likely there will be rapid de- 
velopments the next few weeks as to the 
volume of coal for Italv and other coun- 
tries, but so far there has been ample coal 
for all comers. Prices have been firmer 
on the basis of $2.75 per net ton fob 
mines, this being the figure at which coal 
is now being taken for use of the Navy 
but spot sales for New England are still 
few and far between. 

Current quotations on bituminous at 
wholesale range about as follows: 

Cambriaa and 
Olearficlds Soroereeta 
P.o.b. minps, net ton8....$2. 15fi)2.75 $2.75(313 35 
F.o.b. Philadelphia, ctosb 

P*Tii V u ■•■27'^4.95 4.95@5.50 

F.o.b. New York, Rross 
tona 4.62(3)5.29 5.29(^5.85 

Aloniraide Boston (water 

coal) , (croBs tons 6.I0(S>(S.85 6.90(3)7.35 

Gaa slack from the Grecnsbiire district is quoted 

at $1.60(3)1.75 per net ton, with 25c. more for una 

out and slack. 

Gcornes Creek is still quoted at $3.20 per net ton 
f.o.b, mines. 

Porahontas and New River are beinic quoted at 
$5.04(31 5. 24 per ijroas ton f.o.b. Norfolk and Newport 
News, Va. Alongside Boston the same Erades are 
being offered at a range of from $7.24(3.7.44, and on 
cars Boston and Providence at from $7.50(3)7.90 per 
(trofls ton, the latter boine the contract price f.o.b. 
cars for deliveries to Apr. I. 

.'Vnthracite — There is no let-up in the 
demand for domestic sizes. All the regular 
shippers are swamped with orders, and if 
certain independent operators are not sell- 
ing in advance it is because thev are hop- 
ing for higher spot prices later. The move- 
ment of anthracite barges is much ham- 
pered by restrictions of one kind and an- 
other, and many of the coal factors are 
looking forward longingly to a time when 
the railroads will be returned to private 
control and normal policies can be pursued 
without undue interference. It is plain 
also, that the average householder is try- 
ing to put in more coal than ever before 
The retail demand in the cities, especially, 
shows no signs of relaxing and there con- 
tinues a tremendous pressure from all 
quarters to get coal forward. Without 
doubt this demand will continue through to 
next April. There are a few hopeful ship- 
pers who feel that the demand is sure to 
ease up later on, but experience shows that 
once there develops the usual fall demand 
from centers like New York and Philadel- 
phia the chances for New England supply 
are materially diminished. 


<.iii'""^°'J J?"" •'"•nestic coals shows no 
signs of lettmgr np. Some companies are 
breaking broken coal to relieve the other 
siies. Chestnut coal becoming scarcer 
Pea m good demand along the Une. The 
buckwheats sliowing up better. The bitnmi- 
nZll ^'tnation shoivs slight improvement. 
Contract coal moving rapidly but spot de- 
"p'?r„1is?s.'""''- ^-1™ -"t'nue U, be 

Anthracite— The call for the domestic 
coals continues insistent and. if anything 
It appears as if the scarcity is becoming 
more acute. That no let-up in the call for 
stove and egg is expected may be taken 
from the attitude of some of the companies 
who are breaking broken size into the next 
two smaller coals. 

r.,^^^ '''e'^fv,'^''^ \^^ J^'^'' dealers complain 
more of the lack of coal than of the lack 
of orders. The latter, however, were not 
received as early in the season as usual be- 
cause of the belief there would be a re- 
duction in the price of coal and on that 
account dealers were not able to begin their 
spring deliveries as earlv as thev have 
been in the habit of doing. Now" every- 
body wants their coal immediately but the 
dealers are not able to obtain it from the 

Another factor in the local situation last 
week was the partial tie up of tugs n-'' 
boats which, however, was shortlived the 
men claiming that their employers were 
not living up to the new agreement re- 
cently adopted. However, there was a 
shortage of boats carrying around 5nn tons 
and some shippers found it difficult to pro- 
cure such boats for their business. 

WTiile not so much has been he.ird 
locally of premiums to be paid and offered 
for so-called Independent coal and for 
quick deliveries, there were reports of 
premiums being offered for quick ship- 
ments to the West and to Canada. The 
large companies are sticking close to their 
regular scheiUiIe. which was advanced 10c. 
per ton for egg, stove, chestnut ,nnd pea 
coals on July 1. Although the demand for 
chestnut Is not so strong as for egg .ind 
stove, it, too, is becoming short. 

Pea coal Is In much better demand along 
the line than In this city, and for that 
reason the shippers are curtailing .shln- 
menfs to this market as far as possible. 
However, dealers here are taking a goodlv 
proportion of the output if thev can secur ■ 
some of the larger sizes ris well. It Is sai>i 
that some of the companies are storing 
large quantities of pea coal. 

The anthracite steam sizes are In no de- 
mand. Buckwheat Is moving a trifle better 
than either rice or barlev There are re- 
ports that prices are easy for the two latter 

Current quotations, white ash, per crc^s 
ton at the mines and f.o b. at tidewater, 
at the lower ports, according to company 
schedule, are as follows: 

Mine Tidewater 

Broken $5.95 $7.80 

Kgg 6.15 8 00 

Stove 6.40 8 25 

Chestnut 6.50 8.35 

Pes 5.10 6.85 

Buckwheat 3,40 5.15 

Rice 2,75 4.50 

Barley 2.25 4.00 

KItnmlnoun — The situation here Is more 
encouraging, but .so far the movement has 
not gained. However, the general situation 
appears to be improved and the trade Is 

As with anthracite, users of bituminous 
arc being urged to buy now while trans- 

portation facilities are good. Consumers 
are being told that production is about on 
a basis of what it was in 1910 and that 
this indicates a shortage of about 40 000,- 
000 tons. Another factor that should be 
considered by the public is the vast num- 
ber of mine workers who have gone back 
to their native country, many of whom 
will never return here to work in the 
mines. Hordes of these foreigners are 
taking with them their savings of the past 
four years, and until the tide of migration 
sets in their places will remain unfilled. 
Efforts are being made to reduce this tide 
of emigration but now with the peace treaty 
signed the authorities may find it hard to 
unearth any means which might put a 
temporary stop to the outgo. This con- 
dition has struck the bituminous fields 
worse than the anthracite, and the opera- 
tors are complaining seriously of the lack 
of labor. They also call attention to the 
difficulty that might be experienced if 
there was a heavy demand for coal now. 
As it is the mine workers prefer to take 
things easy, working only when they please 
and remaining at home when thev desire. 

A feature of the market is the heavy 
shipment of contract coal, which has gone 
a long way toward keeping the stocks at 
the local docks down. It is also noticeable 
that many dealers who couM receive their 
coal supplies by water are giving prefer- 
ence to all-rail shipments, although the 
cost is greater. 

Following are quotations on various coals, 
per net ton at mine: 

South Forks (Best) $2.95@3.25 

Cambria (Best) 2.75@2.95 

Cambria (Ordinary) 2.35(^2.50 

Clearfield (Best) 2.75(312.95 

Clearfield (Ordinary) 2,35^2.50 

Reynoldsville 2.50(3)2.75 

Quemahoning 2.75(3)2.95 

Somerset (Best) 2.75(3)2.95 

.Somerset (Poor) 2. I5(5i2.35 

Western Maryland 2.25(312.50 

Fairmont l.75(Si2.00 

Latrobe. 2.10(3)2.25 

Greensburg 2.25(<!>2.35 

Westmoreland 3 in 2.60(3)2.75 

Westmoreland run-of-mine 2.35@2.50 


.Anthracite demand continues heavy. 
Local receipts light. Egg very scarce, with 
stove in chief demand, nut hard to get. 
but pea plentiful. School closing makes 
some customers anxious for fuel. July 
company increase in effect. IndlvldQals 
all ask advance over circular. Retailers 
face increased costs. .Advertising cam- 
paign continued. Bituminous holding 
ground. Good grades stronger. Slight 
price changes. 

.Anthracite — There Is not the least slack- 
ening in the demand for coal of the do- 
mestic sizes in this market. Unfortunately 
for the dealers, the shipments since the 
early part of the month have been most 
meager. Among the retailers the general 
Impression is that the companies are ship- 
ping heavily to the West, especially to 
districts which were entirely restricted from 
receiving hard coal last year. 

Tlie demand continues to center on the 
three domestic sizes — egg, stove and nut. 
The situation as to egg is really remark- 
able and no one In the tr.ade can recall a 
time when the call for this size was so 
hea^n,-. Heretofore on such trade as the 
dealers had for this size they simply filled 
at fhfir 1( isin-o, feeling they could get it 
at Mi.'V \\\anted it or had time 

fo rv. ITsually after the .April 

r. ' I coal was at Its lowest, the 

ret i red the largest proportion 

of this r-n:il 

Now this is all changed, and the dealers 
are being hard pressed by their cu.stomers 
for this size. If anything, the .anxiety of 
the trade to get stove coal has Increased 
and many yards are entirely empty of this 
size, closely followed by nut : as a matter 
of fact there .are occasional Instances 
where dealers are more anxious for nut 
than for stove. 

As has been the case for the past two 
weeks .all dealers are well supplied with 
pea coal, with most of them adding more 
to their stocks they are turning out. 
No one shows any desire to stop shipments 
of this size, for they fully realize they 
will have a demand for every pound they 
CAn tuck away In their yards. 

Conourrently with the Increase In the 
company circular the Individual shippers 
maintained the relative Increase above this 
circular, until all the smaller companies 
are now asking premiums on family sizes 
except pea. During the p.ast week the 
most conservative firm among the Inde- 
pendent .shippers sent out a notice to Its 
customers that the .July prices would be 
tSc. higher than company coal. In addl- 



Vol. 16, No. 1 

tion to this it is the general impression that 
the smaller shippers are getting ^\^" 
higher prices in outside markets, which 
would seem to account for the small re- 
ceipts by their customers in this city. 

Despite all their efforts to increase pro- 
duction we haye been informed by rep- 
resentatives of the big companies that 
thev are still unable to approach the maxi- 
mum of last year. All mines could use 
many more inside workers, and even many 
of tiie men who are working have no par- 
ticular incentive to turn out a heavy pro- 
duction. They have been running under 
high pressure for such a long time that 
thev seem inclined to ease up, at least that 
is the opinion of a very well informed 
operator. As winter approaches they have 
hopes that much of this lethargy can be 
overcome, but thev are then faced wiUi 
the likelihood of a car shortage. All of 
these facts are coming to the attention of 
the general public and at this time is stir- 
ring them to renewed energy to have their 
coal put in now. 

The retail trade is also having some 
anxious moments in regard to a possible in- 
creased cost in the delivery of their coal 
due to the demands which drivers are 
making in various sections of the city. 
At this time it cannot be seen how an in- 
crease in wages can be avoided, and the 
retailers dread adding anj-thing to the 
retail price of coal, especially in mid- 
summer. If this increase can be staved 
off until late fall most of them will be 

In the hopes that they will soon receive 
greatly augmented tonnages all the pro- 
gressive dealers are continuing their ad- 
vertising, urging consumers to put in coal 
this summer. Even with the tonnage al- 
ready placed and delivered, there still re- 
mains a large percentage of summer busi- 
ness that has not come in and must be 
cared for before it can be said that the city 
will be entirely out of danger of a fuel 
shortage next fall and winter. 

It is believed that in the steam coal 
buckwheat Xo. 1 has gained some strength 
recently, and so far as we can learn no 
large company is compelled to place any 
of this size in storage. Of course, tnere 
mav be occasional cars, btit on the whole 
it can be said that the entire production is 
being absorbed and the indications are 
that within a few w-eeks the demand will 
be greater than the supply. There has 
also been a slightly better movement of 
rice, but hea\'>- quantities of this size 
still continue to move toward the storage 
vards. Barley is also being stored heav- 
ily and there has been no perceptible 
change noticeable in this size for weeks, 
nor is there expected to be for some weeks 
y^'t. From those concerns who are 
anxious to make broken coal for manu- 
facturing purposes comes th.e report that 
there is much strengthening in this size, 
which can be traced to improvement in the 
iron trade. 

.As to the matter of collections, all ship- 
pers report improvement in this respect, 
and while the conditions have not as yet 
approached those of war times, it is on'v 
a question of a month or six weeks until 
all shipners will re^'Uire exact compliance 
wi'h their terms bv shutting off shipmenis. 

■\Vith the increase of 10c. per ton on 
July 1 the prices per gross ton f o.b. car's 
at mines for line shipment and f o.b. Port 
Richmond for tide are as follows: 

Line Tide Line Tide 

Broken $5.95 S7. 80 Puckwheat. S3 40 S4.45 

Egg 6.15 8 00 nice 2 75 3 65 

Stove 6.40 8 25 ^oi]<^T 2 50 3 50 

Nut 6.50 8.35 Barley 2.25 3 15 

Pea 5 10 6 70 

Bituminons — The soft-coal trade holds 
its own quite well. < >f course the average 
working time Is ^ nh. iili.ut 50 per cent., 
but the prodii. i ■ . d is well taken 

care of. A siyin "^ viw lately is that 
there has been in < ., n.i ..pmal report of a 
car shortage hern anfl there in the reg'on 
Producers hesitate to predict what tlie 
situation will be in the fall when the rail- 
roads will be feeling the impetus of crop 
movement and renewed industrial activity. 
The real demand just now is for the high- 
grade coals, and the price position of such 
coal has improved to s<^>me rleeree. The 

demand for prompt slin 'ii i^ really less 

than the supply. Tin n n spot coal 

offered of the ordinn i . jnni,> and some 
fair movement of the .-ann. While the 
general situation is not near what could 
be -wished for. it is still believed that the 
tendency is toward improvement and that 
not far distant. Operators are not at all 
a-ixious to contract their output, many of 
thorn signing up for only 60 per cent, of 
their capacity. 

With slight price changes recently the 
quotations ruling in this market are about 
as foUow's : 

2 60 
2.35® 2.50 
1.90 (3,1 2.05 
2.25 (s 2.35 
2.00 (S! 2.15 
1.70 @( 1.80 

Georges Creek Big Vein $2 95 @ »3. 05 

South Fork MiUer Vein 2. 95 (a 3. 05 

Clearfield (ordinary) 2. 70 (a. 2 85 

Somerset (ordinary) . 2 . 65 (ti, 

Fairmont Lump ??Q ^ 

Fairmont mine-run 

Fairmont slack 

Fairmont lump (ordinary) . 
Fairmont mine-run (ordinary) 
Fairmont slack (ordinary) 


Export situation Improving. Domestic 
demand light. Anthracite receipts small; 
some dealers paying preniiuMis. 

While the domestic business is light here 
the export situation continues to show fine 
improvement and this trading is the bright 
spot in the local situation. There were 
plenty of queries and many chasings for 
busin' into quarters that appeared bright, 
but which did not bring about results after 
investigation. Many of the leads that 
looked tempting and appeared to be ready 
for closing held off when an attempt was 
made to pin down the buyers. Spot bus 
ness continued to be all that was done here, 
although there were reports that seve a 
contracts had been consummated. In the 
open market $2.75 was the top price for the 
best grade of coals, while some of this 
Hrade sold down as low as $2.50. For 
medium grade fuels the price ranged abou' 
$2 30 with $2 and as low as $1.90 for the 
low grade of fuels. There was very little 
demand for the cheap grade of fuels. 

June appears to be headed for a record 
in exporting at this port and in 21 days of 
the month 28 vessels have left this po-t for 
European and South American ports carry- 
ing 145.245 tons cargo and 13,992 ton=! 
bunker. Italy. Switzerland and Holland 
each had four vessels, and Sweden nine 
ships. South America ports had six ship-. 
\rgentina. three ; Brazil, two. and Peru 
one Cuba was the destination of one 
ship Indications are that the last week 
of the month will also show heavy ship- 

Anthracite dealers are still worrvine 
along with litrht receipts and no prospects 
of obtaining any larger amount of coals 
unless thev pav heavy premiums. Several 
dealers, however, tooli advantage of figures 
quoted bv independent operators and na'd 
premiums over what they have been pay- 
ing and thus were able to get about a 
dozen carloads of coal. Announcemen- is 
expected before the close of the month ot 
an increase to householders, 25c. or more 
per ton, over the April schedule, which is 
still in forcp. There is likelihood of a 
meetinsr of the Baltimore Coal Exchanire 
•his w-eek. 

Lake Markets 


Si-me higher circular prices quoted. 
H"avy lake shipments. Prompt coal 

Some Pittsburgh district operators have 
-dvanced circular prices, making mine-run 
^2.50 instead of $2.35, 3-in. $2.75 and li- 
in $2.90. but as they had already stopped 
^Piling for the remainder of the coal year at 
the old prices this is largely an incident. 
Nearly all the contracting that could be 
expected had already been done, all pro- 
ducers being disposed to limit their com- 
mitments on account of operating uncer- 
tainties and feeling that consumers should 
he content to buy their remaining coal 
from month to month, paying whatever the 
situation might warrant. No regular con- 
tract market is quotable. 

l^ake shipments continue heavy. The 
'1st Geological Survey report shows dump- 
ings at lake ports, including vessel fuel, 
at" 6.117,063 tons thus far in the season, 
against 4.966.868 tons in the same period 
last year. This Pittsburgh district has con- 
tributed its full quota to the increase. It 
is probable that the movement will taper 
off earlier than usual and this seems neces- 
sary as the railroads, in their present con- 
dition, could hardly stand up under the 
rush that usually occurs toward the end 
of the season. 

Prompt coal is somewhat stiffen, there 
being less coal than formerly available at 
minimum prices w'hile on the other hand 
the full $2.35 price on mine-run is more 
frequently obtained. Only Panhandle coal 
could probably be picked up at $2, and if 
this price has been done on Connellsville it 
was altogether exceptional. For prompt 
shipment we continue to quote: Best 

grades gas coal: Mine-run, $2.35; slack. 
xl.65(ai.s5; screened, $2. 60® 2.70 ; Steam: 
Slack." $1.40@ 1.70 ; mine-run, $2@2.35, per 
net ton at mine, Pittsburgh distrii,u 


Some report of bituminous improvement. 
.Manv jobbers fail to see any. AU agree 
that it is njt far off. .Anthracite going fast 
again b.v lake. Stove size scarce. 

Bituminous — The sellers of soft coal do 
not vet agree as to the condition of the 
trade. Some find the demand increasing, 
some do not. It is conceded, though, tha 
the consumer is now eager to make con- 
tracts, and that means he is convinced that 
the prices liave reached the bottom ; so the 
seller is inclined to hold oft. Why sell coal 
at going prices on long delivery when the 
only change possible is an advance? T .■ 
reasoning is good and it is likely to be 
acted on. While it is easier to handle the 
bulk of the coal on contract than by single 
orders, it would not be safe to sell it for 
less than it eosts. 

The word from the mines is all one of 
confidence. The future stands for a good 
trade at good prices. Everybody is saying 
that. Some jobbers are wondering how 
much of this prediction is born of a wish 
to that effect, but they agree that a confi- 
dent feeling is proper and say nothing 
against it. Trade must come back befo-" 
long and the moment it sets in the big 
sale of coal will begin. At the same time 
it will do no good to attemn' forcing th» 
market, so the shipper waits for it to move 
of its own accord, believirg that he will not 
have to wait long. ^ ,, .v. 

Shippers are careful not to forestall the 
advance bv crowding coal forward. Buf- 
falo has little or no coal on track unsold, 
and the plan seems to be general not to 
pretend an improvement is here till it 
comes. .At the same time the reasons for 
a better trade are quite out of the coal 
trade proper and it will have to wait for 
them The waiting time has been long 
and should be c'ose to the end. 

Bituminous pries are stronger, but have 
rot chanf-ed much of lite, the basis being 
S4 55 for thin-vein .Allegheny Valley. $4.45 
for Pttsburgh and No. 8 lump, $4.30 for 
sam» three-quarter. $4.05 for mine run. 
$3 65 for a'l slack, per net ton, f.o.b. Buf- 

.\nthriiclte — The demand is still in excess 
of the supply, but is not very insistent 
Shipners hope that by the return of cool 
weather they can meet it again, in spite 
of the shortage in mining. It is expected 
that July will turn out more than June 
has The stove size is especially short 
and it will continue so till the fall demand 
for chestnut sets in. 

The shipments to the lakes are heavier 
than thev were, being for the week 133.- 
647 net tons, of which 49.600 tons cleared 
for Duluth and Superior: 34.800 tons for 
Chicago; 31.700 tons for Milwaukee: 3700 
tons for Green Bav ; 3500 tons for Sault, 
Can.; 3486 tons for Ashland; 3300 tons 
for Manitowoc, l^ll tons for Sheboygan; 
lOOn tons for Racine and 950 tons for 

Freight rates remain at 60c. to Chicago. 
51ic. to Racine, 50c. to the Sault, 47Jc. to 
Milwaukee. 42c. to Duluth. Green Bay, 
Hancock, Manitowoc and Sheboygan. 


Olii.i coal operators are feeling the ef- 
fects of a car sliortage. Combined with 
labor shortage, this has kept the mines 
from being operated at more than .5,5 to 60 
jicr cent., on an average. Demand for all 
crades except domestic bituminous contin- 

Bituminous — With the lake trade taking 
just about all that the mines can forward, 
and steam-coal consumers showing in- 
creased interest in the market, southern 
and eastern Ohio operators are finding 
themselves face to face with a serious car 
shortage. Despite the large surplus of cars 
reported month by month by the Federal 
Railroad Administration, the supplies at 
Ohio mines the last ten days have been 
quite restricted. It is believed so many 
oars have been kept in service beyond nor- 
mal length that excluding all cars badly in 
need of repairs, the administration has not 
near the number that will be needed the 
coming winter. 

-All this is taken by operators to make it 
doubly advLsable for coal consumers to 
stock now. A goodly number are buying, 
but a surprising number still .scoff at talk 
of a shortage. Meanwhile, every week 
sees prices stiffening. Coal may be said 
to be plentiful in that all needs are being 
met, but the southern and eastern Ohio 
mines now are not producing much more 

juiy 3, 1919 



coal, if any, than is actually being used. 
Thus no opportunity for stocking exists. 
and if the larger steam-coal users start 
into next winter with no more stocks than 
they have now or show signs of laying in, 
operators cannot see anyl'ning but a serious 

The labor trouble at the mines continues, 
but for the present it is overshadowed by 
the car shortage. WTiile some operators 
are inclined to contract freely and take 
what they call a safe and fair profit, many 
others are leaning toward the side of doing 
as little contracting as possible. The onlv 
difference among operators is on how high 
coal will advance next winter. It is re- 
ported that a fair-sized block of slack has 
been contracted for at $2.10. while another 
user has taken mine-run at $2.20. This last 
deal is supposed to involve quite a sizable 

Plenty of anthracite and Pocahontas is 
being laid in. but the larger domestic users 
of bituminous, such as apartment houses, 
hospitals and the like, are averse to buying 
now. They say last winter's experience 
with the "stock early" advice was disas- 
trous, and they are quite gun-shy at pres- 
ent. Supplies of a-ithracite arvi Pocahontas 
are increasingly difficult to obtain. 

Lake Trade — Car shortage at "he mines 
has slowed up the movement toward the 
lakes, but despite this the supply on hand 
at Lake Erie ports is somewhat larger. In- 
crease in the number of consienments this 
season is the explanation. Efforts are be- 
'ns m^de to release the cars now being 
held at lake ports Barring this tempo- 
rary condition, the lake tradf- may be said 
to be taking all the bituminous it can get. 
So f'lr this season shipments are about 30 
per cent, ahead of a year ago this time 

Prices of coal per net ton delivered in 
Cleveland are: 

• Anthracite: 

Eeg $10.85 to I (05 

Chestnut 1 1.1 5 to 1 1 35 

Grate 1 1 05 

Stove It. 05 to 11.25 


Forked 9.00 

I-ump 8,25 

Mine-run 7.20 

Domestic bituminous: 

West Vircinia splint 7.75 to 8 00 

No. 8 Pittsburgh 6. 10 to 6.35 

Massillon lump 7 . 30 to 7.40 

Steam coal: 

No.6shok 4,20to 4 -n 

No. 8«U"k 4. 70 to 4 95 

Voughiorhenv slack 4 85 to 5 15 

No. 8 i-in. lump 5 40 to 5 ji 

No. 6 mine-run 4. 40 to 4.50 

No. 8 mine-run 4.80 to 4.95 


Bituminous coal buyers ure pursuing ji 
waiting policy and shipments are light, with 
prices rather steady. 

nituminous — Efforts of wholesalers and 
jobbers have so far failed to impress Detroit 
consumers of steam coal with the advisa- 
bility of placing orders promptly to assure 
obtaining an adeq-'ate supply. Many of 
the buyers are withholding orders and some 
are huyiT>g on a ha^d-to-mouth basis evi- 
dently desiring to be in position to take ad- 
vantage of any lowering of prices that may 

The jobbers are holding out no encourage- 
ment that coal will be cheaper. They in- 
sist that price revisions are more likely to 
be upward than downward, due to labor 
conditions and curtailed production, and ex- 
press surprise that large employers of labor 
here seem unable to appreciate that the 
mines are as greatly handicapped in get- 
ting men as are other lines of industry. 

Shipments are not of large volume at 
present. Reports are coming to the jobbers, 
however th;it seem to indicate the matter 
of car supply is soon likely to assume a 
troublesome aspect. Certain types of car 
desired by some Detroit buyers to facilitate 
unloading are said to be almost unobtain- 

With the reduction of the amount of 
coal on tracks, prices are taking a steadier 
appearance. Hocking domestic lump is 
quoted at $2 75. net ton, fob mines, with 
freight and (Government tax added for de- 
livery in Detroit. Mine-run from the same 
district is $2 and alack $1.50. while other 
leading varieties of Ohio coal used in De- 
troit carry about the same quotations. 

West Virginia gas or splint lump Is quot- 
ed t^ to J3 25. while two-inch lump is of- 
fered at 12 85. mine-run at $2.10 to $2.15. 
and slack at about $1.75. 

Anthracite — With shipments of anthracite 
of small size retailers seem well supplied 

for present requirements, while household 
consumers are postponing buying to assure 
provision for winter requirements. 

Lake Trade — Because of slow distribu- 
tion from docks at the head of the lakes 
shipments are likely to be curtailed soon 
by lack of storage space. For the week 
ending June 21 vessels loaded 1.037.499 
tons, of which 993.602 tons were cargo coal. 
Adjustment of labor troubles at the Ca- 
nadian head of the lakes permits resumi>- 
tion of shipments there, which in part have 
been diverted to other ports. 


The coal trade in Ohio is runninfr along 
steadily with product i<^ at about 70 per 
cent, of normal. There is a better demaJid 
for donieNtic grades. Steam business is 
quiet while lake trade is becoming fairly 

The best feature of the Ohio coal trade 
is the better demand for domestic grades. 
This is especially noticeable in the fancy 
grades where the demand is especially 
strong. As a result prices for Pocahontas 
and West Virg nia splints are stron-jer. 
Pocahontas is selling around $4.75 to $5 a^ 
the mines while splints are quoted around 
$3. Retailers are taking advantage of the 
time to stock up preparatory to the stock- 
ing-up period, which has now about ar- 
rived. Householders are showing a dis- 
position to buy although some are holdin-r 
off for lower prices. Generally speaking, 
the domestic trade is later than usual in 
showing activity, and only a small amoun" 
of the retail business has been booked. 

There is a better demand for steam sizes, 
although that branch of the trade is not 
developing so fast as was expected. Steam 
users are buying off the open market and 
are showing little disposition to contract 
This is especially true of users of screen- 
ings, wh'ch are still a drag on the market. 
Iron and steel plants are not buying to 
any great extent although business in that 
line is expanding. Reserve stocks are be- 
i"g depleted, which is one of the best signs 
of the trade. Oeneral manufacturing ap- 
pears to he improving, judging from in- 
creased fuel purchases. 

The lake trade is showing considerable 
activity, although *he Hocking Valley fie'd 
is not sharing in the activity to any great 
extent. Pomeroy Bend is benefitine' a-d 
the same is true of eastern Ohio. Practi- 
cally all of the lake fuel agreements have 
been made and thus those who have not 
shared in the business will h<^ cut out f o • 
the sen«on. Vessels are plentiful, and dock 
interests are rushing a good tonnaee *^o ^v-e 
head of the Ipkep. No congestion on the 
upper lake docks is reported as there is a 
good movement to the interior. 

Production is holding up fai'-H- w^ll a' 
though ]it*le increase is reported during the 
past weep Tn the ea^tprn Ohio fi"M *>' ■ 
output is estimated at 75 per cent, and the 
figures from Pomeroy Bend are 70 per cent 
The Hocking Valley is producing between no 
and 65 per cent, of normal. Other fields 
are not showing up any better than 


I>ocnI coal dealers optimiHtic of future. 
Smokeless coals hard to obtain. 

Local coal users still maintain an indif- 
ferent air as regards the forecasted short- 
age for next winter and continue to refuse 
to lay in their winter supply. However, 
dealers and operators both are optimisfi'* 
and look for a hrightening of the condi- 
tions in the very near future. 

Bituminous coal is selling to consumers 
in this city at $6 a ton in the downtown 
section and $6.25 a ton on the hilltops. 
Dealers predict this price will increase and 
that many of the householders will be dis- 
appointed if they wait imtil late in the 
summer before placing their orders. Poci- 
hontas is out of the question, there being 
little in this market. Many domestic users 
have been waiting to lay in a supply of the 
smokeless coal, their patience with the soft 
product during the years of the war having 
worn out. There are some who were for- 
tunate to get in a supply of smokeless coal 
early this spring, but local dealers are not 
promising to supply any more this summ-r. 

The smokeless product is up to $7 50 a 
ton delivered, with no prospect of Imme- 
diate delivery, with the Navy takini? almost 
every lump in sight, Cincinnati retail 
deah'rs can get little smokeless coal. The 
lump coal situation is stiff, few orders 
being placed by the industrial users; but 
the market on run-of-mine showed much 
improvement during the past week. 

Car shortages to all mining oibtrlcts In 
this vicinity are reported t^e shortage 
along the T>ouisville & Nashville in Ken- 
tucky being most pronounced 


Steam market showing more strenKtIi. 
with indications pointing to steady im- 
provement. Domestic still strong and 
supply restricted. 

A more optimistic spirit is prevalent 
among the coal men in this market, and 
there is a general feeling that there will 
be a steady increase in the demand for 
steam coal from now on. The delay of 
the railroads in awarding contracts for 
fuel for the year beginning July 1 is still 
somewhat of a disturbing factor. While 
it is understood that several lines have 
closed for the tonnage they will take from 
this district, so far as is known tlie Frisco 
is the onlv line which has signed contracts, 
taking around 220.000 tons of WalKt-r 
County coal for the twelve months begin- 
ning July 1 at Government ])rices for the 
grades taken. The general commercial 
trade has improved some and -om ■ con- 
tracts are being closed at Government 
pries, and slightly better for best grades. 

Brokers report a continued strong inquiry 
for domestic grades, lum > being almost un- 
obtainable in the open market. Spot quota- 
tions are about as follows pt. n^t ton 

Cahaba S4 50(??5.00 

CarbonHiU 3.25(«.3.50 

Pig Seam 3 . J 

Climax and Montevallo 5 . 00 

Black Creek. 4.0.'f" 4.50 

Corona 3 75^4.00 

Indications point to an increase in coal 
production in the near future, as several 
furnaces are being made ready for service 
and will be placed in blast within the next 
week or two. Some labor is leaving 
district, and there is a disposition on the 
part of the men to drift from one o lera- 
tion to another owing to the short working 



Bulk of contract furnace coke busine«.«i 
concluded, together with nearly all foundry 
coke business. Prompt prices stiffen. 

Kxcept for some eastern furnaces, the 
furnaces now in blast have nearly all cov- 
ered for coke needed in the second haif 
of the year. One eastern furnace interest 
has closed for a round tonnage, but others 
are considering byproduct coke maJe in the 
east, ani may inf ee 1 have closed a'reHuv' 
in that quarter. Several furnaces now idle 
are negotiating for coke, but opera..oi-j are 
shy about taking such contracts as that 
looks too nnuch like giving an option. The 
furnaces might stay iJle as long as it was 
hard to sell coke and get into blast onlv 
when coke would sell it self. Repcr'i arc- 
that two or three fu-nac^s may b.ow in 
sooner than they v.-ould lik^ to do. merely 
to enable them to cover en coke ft^ th" 
remainder of the year. Contracts made on 
this moveme-t »>-obahlv aTgregate botu-een 
125 000 and 150.000 tons a month, chiefly on 
a sliding scale basis, the coke being priced 
from month to month a* 1 to fij m.' rnsl 
basic pig iron at valley furnaces, whereby 
with pig iron at $25.75. as it i.^ row quot.- I. 
the coke would be invoiced at $4 12. Snnr 
operators express a preference for hold'ng 
tlieir coke and se'ling from month to mo t*i 
on the theory that they mav be ah!-- • > 
secure higher prices late in the year even 
if pig iron does not advance. 

Foundry coke is now well tmder con- 
tract for the second half, at $5 to $5.50. 
depending on brand, and also upon the 
kind of service operators furnished during 
the war. One coke has sold at a h>wer 
relative nrice than it usually comjiiands 
by reason of indifferent deliveries made 
last year. 

Spot and prompt coke is stronger. Con- 
cessions from $4 for furnace coke, formerly 
the rule, are now exceptional if made at all, 
while a quotation of $4.25 Is comni'-n. 
Foundry coke is not quotable at a higlier 
range, but the tonnage to he picked up at 
the $4.50 minimum lately quoted has he- 
come very small. We quote spot and 
prompt furnace coke at Slfrl.LTt. spot and 
prompt foundry at $4.50rtr5 and foundry 
on contract for the second half of the year 
at $5@5.50, all per net ton at ovens. 

niiffalo — The market Is s'ichtly stronger, 
as the furnacrs increase In activity. Prices 
have not c!i:ing»M] from former quotations, 
being $7.25 to $7.60 for 72-hour Connells- 
villo foundry, $6.60 to $7 for 48-hour fur- 
nace and $6.10 for off grades. The situa- 
tion slowly improvew all around. Iron ore 
is coming In much more freely, though not 



VoL 16, No. 1 

enough yet to give business to the entire 
fleet. The amount received for the week 
was 163,380 gross tons. It averaged above 
200,000 tons a wet k last season. 

Middle West 


DomeBtic sizes scijrct". wliUe steam sizes 
are a ilrug on market Publicity campaign 
to warn public of cual shortage. 

The coal market shows practically no 
improvement to speak of. Screenings and 
steam sizes continue to be a drag, while 
prepared domestic sizes are in strong de- 
mand. The difficulty the operators are en- 
counterinar in selling screenings hinders the 
prompt filling of domestic orders, and as 
a result operators are behind on one grade 
of coal and are industriously hunting for 
a market for the other grades. The delay 
in filling domestic orders is causing the re- 
tailer some worry because he realizes that 
if he cannot get prompt shipments now. 
conditions durire the fall and w'inter will 
not be much better. 

Operators and distributors alike were 
hoping that conditions in the coal industry 
would go back to something near normal 
this summer. The contrary is the case, 
however. During an ordinary sununer, 
screenings are at a premium practicallv 
from April to July, and prepared sizes for 
the domestic trade are never in demand 
until after July. This season conditions 
have been the reverse, with a strong demand 
since last March on prepared siz< s and no 
demand to speak of for screenings and 
steam sizes in general. 

Operators are making a strong fight to 
obtain contracts. Large buyers of coal ap- 
pear interested in contract pricrs. V»ut do 
not care to sign up at this time, preferring, 
it seems, to purchase what little coal they 
are buying on the open market. Practically 
al! of the coal operators' associations are 
keenly alive to the present situatiin pnd 
are doing everj'thing they can in the way 
of publicity to back their members in :-t- - 
ring up public interest and in getting busi- 
ness. . With so much steam coal available 
it seems hard to realize that there is a 
shortage of coal today, ■^^'e are referring 
to Southern Illinois 3 x 2-in. nut or small 
egg. All of the large companies are from 
four to six weeks behind on this size, and 
the dealers in this territory are beginning 
to feel worried about their future supp.. 
of this particular grade of coal. 

It has been said that one of the Frank- 
lin County operators is sold up on all sizes 
for the month of July. Furthermore, prices 
on prepared sizes for July are quoted by 
this company at 15c. higher than the rest 
of the county. In other words, this com- 

ganv has sold all of its domestic coal on a 
asis of $3.10, and is getting good prices 
for all other sizes. This ccmpany makes a 
specialty of preparing all its coal, and as 
a result has no screenings or mine-run to 
offer. The coal under 2 in. in size is graded 
into various nut sizes, down to practically 
dust. These smaller sizes of nut are used 
by small factories, where the greatest 
efficiency must be obtained from fuel. The 
dust is used by cement plants This coal 
being of such an excellent quality explains 
whv this company is sold up. while other 
companies are looking around for more 

The writer does not believe there will be 
much change in the market in the next 
one or two weeks, although there are a 
number of operators who predict that the 
signing of peace will bring about a strong 
demand from the manufacturers. 

"Vo change in market conditinlnn. Pre- 
dicted that lump coal will be harder to get. 

There has been little change in the coal 
trade. The demand for steam coals Is even 
less than the demand in the country, al- 
though domestic orders from Chicago and 
suburbs continue to come in to operators 
and jobbers. 

Prices have been advanced, effective July 
1 on eastern coals. Anthracite coal has. of 
course, advanced its usual lOo. per ton, 
although dealers are showing a willingness 
to pay a premium of 25c. or more for 
prompt sh'nmint. 

Pocahontas mine-run. moving on contract 
to the retail trade, continues to come in 
well, although not fast enough to satisfy 
the retailer. Pocahontas lump and egg -s 
moving, roughly speaking, from *4 to ?5 per 
ton f.o.b. mines. When Ave say Pocahontas, 
we are referrl"S to both Pocahontas and 
New River coal. 

The demand for southea.stern Kentucky 
coal increases steadily, as this product has 
grown more and more In favor because of 
its excellent preparation. Hazard coal is 
moving freely at from $3.50 to $4 f.o.b. 
mines, for the block sizes. Harland coal 
is moving at about the same figures. 
Hazard coal at the present writing seems 
to be a little more in demand because it 
contains less soot, is a harder coal, and 
will stand rough treatment without losing 
its preparation. 

The domestic coals from Indiana and Il- 
linois are moving freely to Chicago, al- 
though the most popular size from either 
state is the 3 x 2 in. small egg. It is pre- 
dicted that lump coal will be harder to get 
when the mines begin to receive orders 
from the country where lump coal is used 
for threshing. 

Current prices are as follows: 

Southnrn IlUnois 

Frank-lin, Saline and F.o.b. Mines Rate to 

Williamson Counties per Ton Chicago 

Prepared sizes $2 65<n>$3 10 $1.55 

Min(-run 2 20®. 2 50 1 . 50 

Screenint'S 1 90® 2, 30 1 .50 

Central H'inois 

Springfield District 

Prepared sizes 2 55® 2.85 1.32 

Minf-run 2 00 2.45 1.32 

Screenings 1.85 2.20 1.32 

Northern Illinois 

Prepared sizes 3,00® 3.50 1.24 

Mine-run 3 00 1 . 24 

Screenings 2 75 1.24 

Clinton 4th Vein District 

Prepared sizes 2 65® 2.95 1,27 

Mine-run 2 35 " 1.27 

Screenings 2.00® 2.15 1.27 

Knox County 5th Vein 

Prepared sizes 2.40® 3.25 1.37 

Mine-run 2.20® 2.35 1.37 

.Screenings 1.70® 2.10 1,37 

New River and Pocahontas 

Prepared sizes 4.50® 5.00 2.60 

Mine-run 3.00® 3.25 2.60 

West Virginia Splint 

Prepared sizes 2.50® 2.75 2.60 

Mine-run 2.00® 2.45 2.60 

Pennsvlvania Smokeless 

Prepared sizes 3 75® 4.25 2.60 

-Mine-run 2.75® 3.00 2.60 

Hazard, Ky. 

Prepared sizes 3.50® 4.00 2.45 

Mine-run 2.65(.i 3.15 2.45 

Nut, pea and slack 1.85® 2.30 2.45 

Harlan, Ky. 

Prepared sizes 3.25® 4.00 2.45 

Mine-run 2.55® 3.00 2.45 

Cannel 3 00®. 3.50 2.45 

SmJthingcoal 2.75® 3,25 2.60 


Coal market quiet, with a moderate run 
of business, rontraets let for coal sup- 
plies for city institutions. 

Summer quiet prevails in the coal mar- 
ket, but deliveries continue to increase as 
the season advances. The demand from the 
interior is only fair, however, and stocks 
are accumulatlnfr in consequence. Coke is 
moving slowly. The June schedule of prices 
is upheld, and it is expected that the usual 
advance of lOc. per ton will materi.Tlize on 
July 1, despite the protect of the Milwau- 
kee Association of Commerce that coal is 
high enough at present. 

The city authorities have just awarded 
contracts for about 6.='.,noO tons of coal tor 
delivery to various municipal institutions 
during" the coming year, at the following 
prices: ..\nthracite stove. $11.80; egg, 
$11.60; nut, $11.90; buckwheat, $9.25; semi- 
bituminous lumps, $7.25 ; mine run, $6.40 ; 
bituminous lump. $5,75 to $6.25 ; hand- 
picked N. U, splint lump, $7 2r> ; smithv 
coal, $ The successful bidders furnish 
eastern coal. The offers to furnish wis- 
ern bituminous screenings ranged from 
$4.77 to $r..ll. The city contract aggre- 
gates $342 017 9S. n saving of about $50,- 
000 on In- ' -•.—■.■ ..oil bill. The au. non- 
ties of M ' • iMnty awarded a con- 
tract f(M ■ f Indiana screenings 
tor use :i' iriise at $,').47 per ton. 
Up to dan- _.;; -■• ions of anthracite and 
1.047,S69 tons of bituminous co:il have been 
hinded on the docks at Milwaukee, agauisr 
157,389 tons of the former and 749.785 

tons of the latter during the same period 
last year. 

The Callaway Fuel Co., which has been 
operating a hoist of obsolete character, is 
installing an improved steel bridge to in- 
crease the unloading facilities of the yard. 

ST. r,oris 

ons show some improvement, 
general betterment. 
Domestic business is picking up, but steam 
sizes are heavy and producing conditions 
hard to contend with. 

The local situation show's a rapidly 
changing condition. Within the past week 
or ten days the retail situation has shown 
a marked impro\*-m*.-nt in the ordering of 
storage coal. This, however, is chiefly on 
the better grades of coal such as anthracite, 
smokeless, Cartervllle coal and coke. Stand- 
ard and Mt. Olive is not in demand at all. 

The country demand seems to be picking 
up a little on domestic sizes, but on steam 
coals the situation remains unchanged and, 
if anything, begins to grow worse. This 
is on account of the increased tonnage of 
domestic sizes being produced, making a 
greater tonnage of steam sizes for which 
there it no market. All the available 
equipment and storage room at the mines 
and the vicinity thereof is loaded with 
steam sizes and many mines still continue 
to dump these sizes on the ground. 

The industrial depression in the St. Louis 
district is unusually severe. It is far- 
reaching in many ways least expected. An 
electric power plant that used to consume 
two or three cars a day seems to be aide 
to get along on one car of screenings nowr, 
and many of the smaller plants in the St. 
Louis manufacturing district have been and 
are being equipped with electric power. In 
some sections there has been an offset on 
the decreased demand for the smaller sizes 
by the fact that some railroads have loco- 
motive equipment that calls for stoker- 
size coal, but this does not help the situa- 
tion to any great extent. 

In the Standard field there is an over- 
production of everything, chiefly of steam 
sizes. .Some mines ha\-e been idle for many 
weeks. Others having been working one 
and two days a week and coal is selling 
below cost. The railroad tonnage is light 

In the Mt. Olive field the situation shows 
considerable improvement, but most of 
this coal moves to outside markets, whereas 
Standard is confined chiefly to St. Louis. 
The railroad tonnage in the Mt. Olive field 
is fairly good. 

In the Williamson and Franklin County 
field the steam sizes are the stumbling 
block. Many mines are still idle in this 
field and many are working only one and 
two days a week because they cannot move 
steam coal. Others are piling it up on the 

The miners still continue to leave all the 
fields for other employment and the for- 
eigners are arranging to go to Europe. The 
tonnage in nearly all the mines shows a 
decrease on tliis account. 

Cars at the present time are plentiful, 
and the movement is fairly good. The 
railroad tonnage from the Cartervllle field 
is good, everything considered. 

Conditions in tlie Du Quoin field are simi- 
lar to those in the Cartervllle field with the 
exception that the prices are not main- 

Effective the first of the month the Car- 
tervllle field operators in nearly every in- 
stance advanced their iirice from $2.85 to 
$2.95 at the mine, with the exception of 
one Franklin County operator who is ask- 
ing $3.10 on account of having more dom- 
estic orders than he can take care of. 
The independent operators are getting from 
.$2.5,T to $2.70. 

The prevailing circular is per net ton 
f. o. b. mine : 


.in.i Mt. Olive 

Franklin and 

County Staunton Standard 

Lunip, euK and 

nut $2.95 .. 

Waslied 1 

and 2nut 2.95 : 


Lump. CKK and 


Wasbcd Nos. I 

Lump $2.00 & up 
2.70 $2,55 r.sfi 1,75 

id 2nut 2.95 

Mine-run 2.45 

S-renin-s 2.20 

3-in. lump 

2-in. lump 

2x6 cKc 

2.20 I 60®1.70 

2 05 I. 35® I. 50 



I 75 & up 

WHiam.son-Frnnklin County rate to .St.Louisis 
$1.07;: othcrrates, $0.92!. 


New York, July 10, 1919 

Volume 16 
Number 2 

e^'e all been hectored and sorely tried 

By the war's demands, it's true, 
But we've met them all, and we've gained, besides, 

From the service we've gone through; 
For we've put an end to the cannon's roll 

And the beating of the drum; 
Now let's dig in to supply the coal 

For the bang-up years to come!^ 

The world's been shorn of its wonted trade 

Till its shelves are standing bare, 
And the countless products that must be made 

Call for labor everywhere; 
So can the grief and the gloom and dole; 

Away with the twiddling thumb; 
We're bound to bum quite a bit of coal 

For a good many years to come. 

With soldiers back from the foreign lands 

And the old earth bom anew, 
There's work for ajmillion pairs of hands 

And a million heads to do; 
Then shake the pall from your craven soulj 

And cease being sad and glum ; 
We're going to use quite a lot of coal 

For a good many years to come! 




Vol. 16, No. 2 



An Efficient Car Retarder 

By Ralph L. Mayer 

California, Penn. 

The La Belle Coal and Coke Co. uses an efficient car 
retarder at the mine which it operates a short distance 
above Brownsville, Penn., on the Monongahela River. 
This device is placed directly below the cross-over dump 
to prevent the ears from striking the kickback with too 
much force. It is made from pieces of L-shaped angle 
iron about 8 ft. long placed on the inside of each raiL 

The end from which the car approaches is bent for 
a foot of its length at a slight angle. A pivot, or bolt. 


passes through a hole made near its end, and down into 
the tie upon which it rests. An iron plate is placed be- 
tween the tie and the angle iron, to prevent wear. The 
pivot passes through this plate as well as through a 
brace placed on top of the angle iron. This brace is 
made long enough to extend out beyond the side of the 
angle iron, where it is bent down and spiked fast to 
the tie. The space between it and the tie should be 
sufficient to allow free movement of the angle iron. 

The free ends of the angle irons have iron rods fast- 
ened rigidly to them. The length of these rods should be 
about one-third the width of the track gage, and their 
free ends should be threaded for nuts. A stiff spiral 
spring is placed between these two rods, the ends of 
the rods entering the center of the spring coil. The 
tension of the spring is regulated by the nuts on the 
ends of the rods. Between the spring and the nut are 
placed washers large enough to prevent the coil from 
passing over the nut. A tie should be located under this 
spring and the rods. 

The size of the L-shaped iron will depend upon the 
height of the car axle above the track rail. Its upright 
leg should reach nearly to the axle of the car, but 
should not touch it. The car is retarded by this upright 
leg crowding against the inside of the car wheel. The 

spiral spring holds the ends of the angle irons apart, 
and if necessary tightly up against the track rail. The 
tension on this spring is determined by the grade of the 
incline and the amount that it is necessary to retard 
the car. This also determines the distance from the rail 
that the hinged end of the angle iron is placed. If the 
grade is heavy, the angle iron is placed close to the 
rail; if light, farther away. The strength of the mate- 
rial used will also depend upon the weight of the cars to 
be retarded. The material employed should be much 
stronger than is absolutely necessary, as its first cost 
is small. 

Lever or Road Jack 

By Richard Bowen 

West Pittston, Penn. 

The accompanying illustration shows a simple, yet 
safe and powerful lever or road jack that has been found 
useful at the foot of a shaft and on turnouts. Here it 
is used to replace loaded or empty cars that have been 
derailed. The standards A, the movable parts B, and 
the brace C, are made of i x 2-in. iron. The movable 


parts B are joined together by the IJ-in. round iron bar 
E, which passes through a 1-in. eyebolt running through 
the lever. A washer is placed between the eye of the 
bolt and the lever, and another is placed below the nut 
on the under side of lever. The eye of the bolt fits 
loosely over the U-in. bar, thus permitting the lever 
to slide along it. 

July 10, 1919 



The movable device can be adjusted at any height on 
the standards by means of pins, which are hung in place 
by small chains that should be the same length as the 
height of the standard. The distance between the stand- 
ards should not be greater than the width between the 
bumpers of the cars. This permits the device to be 
placed as close against the car as possible. The lever 
can be made any length, but the weight arm should not 
e.xceed 18 inches. 

Tester for Loose Car Wheels 

By E. E. Jones 

Stotesbury, W. Va. 

The illustration shows what might be called a "tester 
for loose car wheels." So far as I know, this is an 
entirely new idea and might have possibilities from a 
patent standpoint; but since it is almost entirely a 
safety idea, I am going to pass it along. 

It might be of interest to those connected with 
mining to know that on 450 mine cars put through 


. _ 

ffreave ivr Whee/ lu,j. The /.ugr somet/mes jbreaA-5 
a//otv/n(^ Whee/ to became foose oa /!x/e 


this device 125 loose wheels were found. Also that before 
this device was installed it was common to have expen- 
sive delays due to wheels coming off when cars were 
passing over frogs and switches, and that wrecks aris- 
ing from this cause were common. This tester should 
be installed in such a way that cars coming from the 
dump will pass over the section of track on which the 
device is located. 

It will be noticed that I have marked one of the rails 
as "rough rail." The idea of this is that car wheels 
passing over this rough rail will make sufficient noise to 
attract attention, thus allowing the bad car to be 
switched out of the trip. It will also be noticed that 
the car is not derailed, but passes back on to the main 
line and can thus be switched out on the siding for 
cripple cars. 

It might be mentioned that this tester is only one 
of the many good things to be found around the E. E. 
White Coal Co.'s plants which have gone far toward 
making them the most prosperous and "up to the min- 
ute" plants in the United States. 

Many different kinds of coal have been tested and 
analyzed by the Bureau of Mines in its investigations re- 
lating to the purchase and use of fuel by the government 
and to safety in coal mining. Advantage has been taken 
of the opportunity thus afforded to obtain information as 
to the differences in weight of the various coals. A study 
of conditions indicates that heavier weights may be ex- 
pected for coals of high fi.xed carbon than for those of 
low carbon content. 

Rearranging the Terminal Block 

By Machine Runner 

Sullivan, Ind. 

When a certain well known make of coal cutter 
comes from the factory the fuse or terminal block is 
directl.v on top of the gear case, where all the dirt 
and bits of slate which fly while the ratchet jack is 
being set fall on the block. This soon becomes full of 
dirt if not cleaned off frequently and causes the negative 
and positive terminals to arc, thereby burning the 
terminal clamps and clamp screens. Another disad- 
vantage arising from this location of the terminal 
block on top of the gear case is the danger of coming 
in contact with the positive terminal while operating 
the different levers located near the block. 

Better results have been secured after the electrician 
was persuaded to move the terminal block around on 
the right-hand side directly over the resistance. Two 
4-in. holes drilled and tapped into the motor casing is 
all that is necessary to make the change. The cable 
is then brought into the machine through the original 
cable clamp, but passes on over the top of the motor 
casing to the new location of the terminal block. When 
the block is bolted in place a piece of tin is inserted be- 
hind it, and after the bolts are tightened down to hold 
the block in place the tin is bent in such a manner 
as to form a shield for the block, thus preventing any 
substance from falling directly upon the terminals. 

Sliding Door for Rope Opening 
By E. p. Humphrey 

Upper Lehigh, Penn. 

To keep the cold wind from blowing into an engine 
room the device here shown is a winner. The light 
sliding board is notched and slipped over the rope, loose 





runways built and the problem is solved. Of course, the 
board must be long enough to cover the opening when 
the rope is at either end of its lateral travel. 

In numerous instances about mines the increasing bur- 
den on a retaining wall threatens its collapse. The Pennsyl- 
vania R.R. recently successfully solved a problem of this 
kind as follows: The bulging retaining dry wall was 
strengthened by a scries of each 4 ft. wide 
placed 18 ft. apart. The buttresses were connected at the 
top by a concrete wall built on top of the dry wall. The 
base of the buttresses rested on a substantialy constructed 
masonry wall. This method cannot always be carried out 
on account of lack of space for the buttresses, but the plan 
is effective where practicable. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Modern Shaft Mine at Amsterdam, Ohio 

Shaft Operation in the Lower Freeport Seam — Coal Contains 
Some Sulphur and Quite a Little Bone, Though Analysis 
Shows That It Is a Good Fuel for Both Steam and Domestic 
Use — Present Capacity of the Mine Is 800 Tons a Day 

By Jack L. Ball 

Amsterdam, Ohio 

ODERN power facilities, sim- 
plicit.v, thoroughness in the 
design of the tipple (especial- 
ly its screening and loading 
equipment) and economical 
operation — this was the goal 
desired by the Youghiogheny 
and Ohio Coal Co. when open- 
ing its Amsterdam mine No. 
2, at Amsterdam, Ohio. Fore- 
seeing difficulties in the way 
of transportation, ventilation 
and the transmission of electrical energy in working 
this large virgin block of coal from Amsterdam mine 
No. 1, surveys were made and preliminary plans drawn 
several years before the sinking of the shaft at Mine 
No. 2 was begun in October, 1916. 

Amsterdam No. 2 is a shaft mine, 243 ft. deep, and 
opens into what was 12-west of No. 1 mine. The coal 
is the Lower Freeport seam, is free from irregularities 
and runs from 3 ft. 8 in. to 5 ft. 6 in. in thickness. 
Some sulphur and quite a little bone are found in this 
coal. However, it averages high in heat units and is 
an exceptionally good fuel for both steam and domestic 
use, as shown by the following proximate analysis by 
the U. S. Geological Survey: 

. The shaft is 22 ft. 6 in. by 11 ft. 6 in., and the lining 
is of solid concrete construction, the walls having a 
minimum thickness of 22 in. and terminating in an 
arch on each side of the shaft bottom. Wooden guides, 
8x9 in., are used; and the guides are fastened to 
wooden buntings the ends of which are concreted solidly 
in the walls of the shaft. 

The bottom is so arranged that coal is caged from 
one side of the shaft by automatic cagers, which are 
supplied by trip feeders having a speed of 30 ft. per 
minute. The feeders are driven by a 74-hp. direct- 
current motor. Six mining machines of the Goodman 
shortwall type are used to undercut the coal. Coal is 

Volatile Fixed 

Sample Moisture Matter Carbon Ash 

No. 1 3.7 37.4 51.2 7.7 

No. 2 42.2 .57.8 

Sulphur B.t.u. 
3.07 13.220 

3.47 14.910 

The new shaft has two hoisting compartments and 
two compartments for the intake and exhaust of the 
air. The mine at the present time is ventilated through 
No. 1 mine by means of an engine-driven, 4 x 10-ft. 
Jeffrey fan (located at No. 1 mine) and assisted by 
a small booster fan. Double and triple entry systems 
are used. 


July 10, 1919 



gathered mainly from the working places by two 6-ton 
Goodman electric locomotives, but a few mules are also 
used. The wooden mine cars, having a track gage of 44 
in., are equipped with Watt wheels and hold approxi- 
mately 4500 pounds. 

All mine water is handled by a 54 x 8-in. Deming 
triplex plunger pump driven by a 45-hp., 250-volt, direct- 
current motor. The 4-in. discharge line of this pump 
is run from the coal to the surface through a 6-in. bore- 
hole. As a safeguard against excessive seepage, pul- 
sation and deterioration of the pipe, the clearance was 
tilled with concrete. 

The prevailing high price of structural steel and 
the uncertainty of delivery made it necessary to con- 
struct a wooden tipple. The plan throughout has been 
to make a liberal allowance in the size of the material 
used as a safeguard against maximum strains. Posts 
rest on concrete piers, and every precaution has been 
taken at this point to guard against deterioration due 
to moisture. 

Coal is dumped by self-dumping cages (IJ-in. steel 
hoisting rope being used) directly into a 4-ton weigh 
hopper. From the weigh pan the coal is dropped to an 
8-ton hopper. Run-of-mine can be sent to a bin and 
then to the railroad cars; or if prepared sizes are de- 
sired, the coal is fed from the hopper by a 44 x 9-ft. 
conveyor to the shaking screens; from here it goes to 
the picking band and then to the loading boom. Refuse 
discarded from the picking band is carried to the dirt 
bin by an 18-in. conveyor. To drive the main con- 
veyor, shaking screens, picking band and loading boom, 
and the 18-in. dirt conveyor, two 25-hp. and one 7i-hp. 
220-volt, alternating-current induction motors are used 
respectively. The tipple is of the common four-track 
tj-pe, the railroad cars being placed by gravity. Screen- 
ing and loading are so arranged that the coal can be 
loaded as follows: No. 1 track, slack or run-of-mine: 
No. 2 track, nut, or nut and slack; No. 3 track, egg, 
egg and nut, or egg, nut and slack; No. 4 track, 6-in. 
li-in., or run-of-mine. 

The power house is a brick building 28 x 62 ft. in 
dimension. Power is furnished by the Central Power 
Co. at 66,000 volts from a substation at Dillonvale, 
Ohio. Primarily the power supplied is generated at the 
famous plant of the Windsor Power Co., Windsor, 
W. Va. From 66,000 volts the voltage is stepped down 
to 4000 volts at a small substation located at the mine. 
This in turn is stepped down by another transformer 
in the power house to 440 and 220 volts respectively. 
A 200-kw. synchronous converter furnishes direct cur- 
rent for the mine at 250 volts. The transmission lines 
into the mine run through 2-in. conduit embedded in 
the wall of the shaft. 

A 6-ft. Lidgerwood hoist is driven by a 300-hp., 230- 
volt, variable-speed induction motor having a maximum 
speed of 600 r.p.m. A modern 32 x 65-ft. shop with 
ample equipment for blacksmith, electric and car repairs 
is also conveniently located near the shaft. Ample 
provision was made in a well equipped office building 
for the storage of small supplies; also a large building 
was constructed of hollow tile for the storage of feed 
for the mine stock, for oil and for sand. The present 
capacity of this mine i.s 800 tons a day ; when sufficient 

l:.M Kll A.\D Sr I : 


territory is developed it is expected the capacity will 
be about 1200 tons. 

Acknowledgment is here made to Amos Jones, su- 
perintendent of the Amsterdam mine, for information 
and data supplied for this article. 

Organizing for Mine-Rescue Work 

To make rescue work in a mine efficient, there must 
be cooperation and harmonious relations between all 
forces, and there must be an organization that will 
push to quick completion the work of exploring the 
mine. A satisfactory organization may be outlined as 
follows: The general manager or superintendent as- 
sumes full charge of obtaining all necessary materials 
and men for the prosecution of the work; the state 
inspector assumes or accepts authority for the rescue 
and recovery procedure; the general manager or super- 
intendent and the mine inspector select the foremen 
of shifts and other foremen who report to them or 
their representatives at the close of the shift, stating 
what has been accomplished. The rescue crews should 
be in charge of a chief of the rescue organization, to 
whom each crew should report. The chief of the rescue 
organization should report to the mine inspector in 
charge of the rescue and recovery operations or to 
some other official in charge of the underground work. 
When sutlicient men are available the recovery crews 
should be arranged in 6-hour or 8-hour shifts; that is, 
they should work for 6 or 8 hours. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Electrical Transmission of Power in and 
About Coal Mines* 

Six Methods of Electrical Power Distribution, Embracing the All-Direct 
Current, the All-Alternating Current and Four Other Combinations of These 
Two, With or Without Storage-Battery Haulage, Are Available in the Mine 

By S. W. Farnham 

Chicago, Illinois 

IN SOME instances, when selecting the type of cur- 
rent for underground work, I think too much em- 
phasis has been placed on the machine load. Articles 
have been written treating principally this one phase 
of the subject and considering the haulage as secondary. 
We sometimes hear that the storage battery will, in all 
probability, sooner or later emerge from its present 
obscure but valuable work as a gathering element, and 
expand into main haulage service; or, that a successful 
alternating-current main-haul locomotive is sure to be 
developed. Those who advocate the use of alternating 
current at the mine faces claim that we should decide 
the question from the standpoint of the machine load; 
the locomotives should be installed according to any 
convenient plan, not letting their problems affect the 
decision as to the general transmission system to be 
employed. The improvements that are certain to come 
will cause a change in the haulage system later, they 
say. A broad review of the conditions hardly justifies 
such conclusions. 

In this age of invention and rapid development, it is, 
of course, unwise to assert that certain changes and 
improvements will never be made ; but the operator and 
engineer must deal with existing facts, demonstrated 
through successful practice. New things must be tried 
and proved before allowing their possibilities to affect 
decisions on other equipments or systems. 

Choice of Power Depends on Conditions 

It is not within the province of this paper to express 
an opinion as to whether the direct-current or the alter- 
nating-current mining machine is the better; or 
whether the storage-battery type or reel-and-trolley type 
locomotive should be used for gathering. Each type of 
equipment has its champions; each has its advantages 
and disadvantages. Some conditions unquestionably 
favor one type, and other conditions another. 

An alternating-current locomotive has been tried in 
Illinois mining work, and discarded. No one has had 
the temerity to try one since. In railroad practice, one 
large manufacturer advocates the direct current; an- 
other, the alternating current. But the control ap- 
paratus on the alternating-current locomotives, using 
single-phase current, looks too complicated and takes 
up too much space to be used in mine work. 

Street cars have tried the alternating-current mo- 
tors, in a few instances, but the practice is practically 
"dead." It is safe to place the alternating-current mine 
locomotive in the remote future possibility class. 

As to the storage-battery locomotive for main haul- 
age, the heaviest batter>' locomotive now built has about 
eight tons of weight on the driving wheels, and is of 

•Abstract of paper read before the 
May 22. 1919. 

Illinois Mining Institute, 

moderate speed, with limited radius of action because 
of battery capacity. Light main haulage, restricted in 
tonnage and distance, can be served by battery locomo- 

Main-haulage locomotives in Illinois may be said to 
average 12 or 13 tons in weight, and most of the later 
purchases are of at least 1-5 tons. Something radically 
different must be developed before such sizes of battery 
locomotives could be used. Furthermore, the present 
cost of batteries would make such locomotives com- 
mercially prohibitive. 

The trolley locomotive for main haulage underground 
is to be with us for a long time; there is no sign of 
anything else to take its place. It should receive due 
consideration in the selection of any electric transmis- 
sion system. 

In fully developed Illinois mines, the locomotives on 
the average may be said to represent approximately 
one-half the total load on the circuit. Furnishing 
power to the locomotive may therefore be considered 
equally as important as furnishing it to machines, 
aside from the fact that the machine load is at a greater 
distance from the power source and requires better 
voltage regulation. 

Types of Mine Loads To Be Considered 

The following types of mine loads must be con- 
sidered: Main-haulage locomotives, receiving power 
from the trolley; gathering locomotives, receiving 
power from the trolley or from a storage battery, or 
both; mining machines, operated either by direct or 
alternating current. In various mines we have to con- 
sider combinations of one, two or three of the loads 
mentioned. As to methods of transmission, we have 
the following: 

All Direct Current. — While 600 volts maximum, 
medium pressure, is used in some places in the East, 
we do not have to consider it here, as the Central- 
Western coal fields use 300-volt maximum, low pressure, 
direct current. 

All Altertvating Current. — This is used only where 
alternating current or gathering locomotives, mining 
machines, or both, are installed and no trolley locomo- 
tive is used. 

Combinations of Direct and Alternating Current. — 
(a) Alternating-current machines and direct-current 
main-haulage, with reel-and-trolley gathering locomo- 
tives, (b) Direct-current mining machines and locomo- 
tives with alternating current used only for 
transmission into the mines to convenient points, where 
it is converted into direct current by means of motor- 
generator sets or by transformers and rotary con- 
verters, (c) Similar to (a) — alternating-current min- 
ing machines, storage-battery gathering locomotives and 

July 10, 1919 



direct-current trolley main-haulage locomotives. (d) 
Alternating-current mining machines and storage-bat- 
tery locomotives — this last combination being practi- 
cable only where the locomotive work is light. 

In Illinois and Indiana, the great majority of the in- 
stallations are of the "all-direct-current" type, and the 
combination of direct and alternating is in use in some 
of the newer operations, as described in (a) and (c) ; 
one of the latest mines in Illinois is being projected with 
combination (b). 

The combinations (a) and (c), while well known in 
Illinois, are almost unknown in the larger Eastern coal 
fields — not only in the old installations, but in the new. 
Where alternating current is used there it is almost 
exclusively for high-pressure transmission, and the 
entire current is changed over at suitable substations 
in the mines for the use both of mining machines and 
locomotives. The latest mine to be developed in Illinois 
is being opened with this plan in view. 

Objections to Alternating Current Unfortunate 

One occasionally hears objections made to the use 
of alternating current in any form underground. This 
is most unfortunate. The use of this form of power 
for high-pressure transmission in modern mines, with 
large tonnage and long distance of transmission, is 

It has been used for a number of years in England 
and Australia, and is permitted by Government sanction 
and regulation. Circular No. 23, "Standardization of 
Electrical Practice in Mines," published in 1910 by the 
Bureau of Standards at Washington, refers to the use 
of alternating current underground on pages 13 and 14, 
and prescribes rules for its safe installation. I quote 
in part from this bulletin: "A higher pressure than 
a medium pressure (600 volts) shall not be used for 
portable motors; nor for any other purpose under- 
ground, e.xcept for alternating-current transmission ; or 
for application to alternating-current apparatus in 
which the whole of the high-pressure circuit is station- 
ary. For work underground taking higher pressure 
than a medium pressure all transformers shall be of the 
oil-installation type and the motor shall not be of less 
normal rating than 20 brake-horsepower." 

A rule for safety which applies to both direct and 
alternating apparatus specifies that all metallic cover- 
ings or armoring of cables, and frames and bed plates 
of generators, transformers and motors, and the 
metallic covering of switches, fuses and circuit 
breakers, shall be efficiently grounded. 

I have observed where grounding as described above 
has been properly installed originally it has not always 
been maintained. Where the grounding wires pass 
through floors or partitions they should be incased or 
protected by pipe or conduit, since otherwise they are 
liable to break. In fact, they often do break. The 

I importance of frequent inspection of grounding wires 
cannot be emphasized too strongly. 
Voltages up to 3300 have been u.sed, and there is no 
' apparent reason why 6G00 volts could not be employed 
with confidence underground, when installed according 
to the proper rules and regulations. The current is 
carried in three-phase armored or otherwise protected 
cables, usually placed in trenches. These cables extend 
from the surface to substations at strategic points near 
the working faces. 

It will be noted that alternating current not above 
medium pressure may be used underground on portable 
motors, or on the moving parts of any stationary motor. 
This limits the pressure to be used on cutting machines 
to below 600 volts. It does not limit the voltages that 
can be used for the stationary part of the properly in- 
stalled circuits in the same mine. There are few alter- 
nating-current machines, however, that are above low 
pressure (300 volts). Current is supplied to them from 
transformer stations, and the secondary circuits to the 
machines are either 220 or 250 volts, and the trans- 
formers are usually provided with 10 per cent, high 
taps, so that 275 volts can be supplied to the machine 
circuit if desired, from the 250-volt transformers, and 
240 volts can be supplied from the 230-volt trans- 

Direct current is used for machines and locomotives 
not only in the old mines, but in a majority of the new 
operations. Alternating-current mining machines, 
while installed to a greater extent in the Central In- 
terior field than elsewhere, are comparatively rare in 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia and eastern Kentucky 

Some of the larger mines are so arranged as to have 
the entire electric load on the day shift. A second 
group, by using battery gathering locomotives and 
charging them at night, places part of the load on the 
night shift, thereby reducing the maximum peak load 
on the generators, transmission lines and substations, 
if any. Others place part of the machine load on the 
night shift and thereby reduce the peak load. 

Data have been accumulated of a few of the larger 
operations in Illinois where the conditions affecting the 
transmission problem may be said to be fairly similar. 
In one mine everything is placed on the day shift and 
planned for maximum production. Shortwall cutting 
machines, reel-and-trolley gathering locomotives and 
main-haul trolley locomotives, all of the direct-current 
type, are used. 

The distance from the station switchboard above- 
ground to the distribution board near the foot of the 
shaft is 1250 ft. The total capacity of copper conductor 
used on the outgoing circuit is 3,000,000, and 
a conductor of equal size is employed for the return. The 
main haulage track, when well bonded, should have a 
resistance about equal to that of an 850,000-circ.miI 

Outgoing and Return Feeder Circuits 

The outgoing circuits are of about the same carrying 
capacity as the return. The roadways go in two di- 
rections from the main shaft, with branch entries to the 
right and left, while panels are turned to the right and 
left from the latter. This splits the current about in 
half at the shaft bottom, and the company will probably 
strengthen both the outgoing and return feeder circuits 
on the two main entries, later on putting in alternating 
current for the purpose of transmission of power to 
motor-generator or rotary converter substations near 
the faces. At the present time the tonnage has ex- 
panded to a point where the voltage drop is such as 
to make additional feeders desirable. 

In order to compare some installations, I have esti- 
mated the cost of the circuit material and the installa- 
tion at different mines, based on present labor and 
material expense, using the same basis of cost for each 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

The circuits have been subdivided into groups. The 
first comprises transmission from the surface station 
to the distribution point at the bottom of the shaft, 
trolley transmission from the shaft bottom to the main- 
haul parting, feeder circuits from the shaft bottom to 
the main-haul partings, and trolley transmission from 
partings to faces where gathering trolley locomotives 
are used. The second group consists of machine circuits 
or feeders for machines and gathering locomotives. 

At the mine under consideration the estimated circuit 
costs are as follows: 

Circuits from power house to shaft bottom $5, 1 45 

Trolley lines, bottom to main haulage 1 5,3 1 4 

Feeders (trolley and machine to partings) 10,645 

Gathering locomotives, trolley equipment 1 1,290 

Inside feeders 3, 1 24 

Total $45,518 

The average capacity of the mine is about 5000 tons, 
and the maximum output over 6000. It operates its own 
electric plant. 

The next mine under consideration is one using alter- 
nating-current shortwall machines, storage-battery 
gathering locomotives, and main-haul trolley locomo- 
tives, all of the load being on the day shift, except the 
charging of the gathering locomotives. The distances 
from the shaft bottom to the faces are much shorter in 
this mine than in the first one. The tonnage has been 
up to 4.500 and now averages about 3500 tons. The cir- 
cuit costs are estimated as follows: 

Circuits to shaft bottom $1,630 

Trolley wire, track bonding, etc 4.323 

Alternating-current feeders, including transformer substation 9,675 

Secondary circuits, machine lines 16.290 

Total $31,918 

There are some rather interesting points brought out 
by this detail. In the alternating-current installation 
the cost of the secondary circuits, feeding power to the 
mining machines only, including the transformers, is 
a little greater than the cost of the trolley circuit inside 
the partings and their feeders in the other mine. In 
other words, taking these two mines as a basis of com- 
parison, there is no saving efi'ected by using battery 
locomotives for gathering and alternating-current ma- 
chines, so far as the cost of the circuits from sub- 
station locations or inside partings to the faces is 

In making this statement it must also be taken into 
consideration that the tonnage of the direct-current 
mine is considerably greater than that of the alternat- 
ing-current operation with which it is compared, and 
the distance of transmission is longer. It will also be 
noted that as the mine stands today the cost of feeders 
from the shaft bottom to the substation is about the 
same. The point where alternating current shows less 
first cost is in the transmission of power from the 
surface to the shaft bottom, and in the future the alter- 
nating-current feeders will simply have to be 
lengthened; whereas, in the direct-current installation, 
they will not only have to be lengthened but increased 
in capacity. 

This analysis would indicate that in the largest 
operations the use of alternating current for purposes 
of transmission becomes essential by the time the mine 
reaches its full capacity, and the distance of trans- 

mission reaches, say, a mile and a half. This, of 
course, would vary with the conditions in different op- 
erations. This statement is made without reference to 
the type of equipment used from substations to the 

The advocates of storage-battery gathering, as com- 
pared to reel-and-trolley, claim the advantage of re- 
ducing the size of the station required for furnishing 
power on account of the fact that their load comes 
on the night shift. This results in maintaining better 
voltage for the balance of the equipment or using 
lighter circuits for feeders, etc. They, of course, claim 
other advantages, which have no direct bearing on the 
transmission problem. 

Those in favor of the reel-and-trolley haulage claim 
that the addition of the locomotive load to the circuits 
does not increase the necessary station and wiring cap- 
acity in direct proportion, because, with the greater 
number of operating units, the load factor can be re- 
duced. They also claim operating advantages in sim- 
plicity and ample capacity, as well as a simplification of 
maintenance on the inside circuits, because the same 
wiring can be used for both machines and locomotives. 

Before leaving the subject of comparison between 
mine circuit costs, analysis of a circuit of a mine using 
direct-current breast machines and main-haul locomo- 
tives, but no gathering locomotives, will be interesting: 

Circuits from power house to shaft bottom $2,746 

Trolley lines, bottom to main-haul parting I 3. 5 1 4 

Feeder lines 10,3 10 

Inside feeders, machine lines 8,774 

Total $35,444 

The output of this mine averages 4200 tons, with a 
maximum a little in excess of 4500. 

In this mine the feeder lines for trolley and machines 
are connected by switches on the inside of the mine, 
so that in event of a short-circuit occurring on one 
system, the switch can be thrown out and the other 
system continued without delay. 

Roof conditions make it desirable to segregate circuits 
in many mines, so that a fall of rock or other occur- 
rence disturbing one will not affect the other. At the 
same time it is desirable to tie the lines together so 
that a better average voltage can be obtained by reason 
of the maximum voltage not being on one circuit at 
the same time that it is on the other, except at rare 

Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breakers 

There are on the market today automatic reclosing 
circuit breakers, of a type that can be installed in the 
mines, that will automatically keep the connections be- 
tween the two circuits open until the short-circuit on one i 
section has been removed. They will then reclose, throw- ■ 

ing the two circuits together for cooperative feeding. 

One factor that helps the direct-current transmission 
is bonding of the tracks. Another factor that favors 
the use of direct current to a greater distance from the 
mine entrance in the Western Interior coal fields than 
elsewhere is that piactically all of the openings are 
shafts and the workings radiate in all directions from 
them, splitting up the electric current at the shaft 
bottom and reducing the amount to be carried to each 
section. All of the mines of any consequence have 
electric locomotive haulage, and this requires a sub- 

July 10, 1919 



stantlal track. I think it is safe to assume that the 
average weight of rail on main haulage roads in Illinois 
is at least 40 lb. per yard. This rail must be bonded 
to offer a suitable return for the trolley locomotive cur- 
rent. A track that is properly bonded for main haulage 
has under average conditions a carrj'ing capacity for 
a much greater load than that represented by the mine 
locomotive. The extra capacity is utilized for the re- 
turn for direct-current machines, as well as the motors. 

In order to secure a thorough knowledge of the mine 
circuits, it is recommended that the well-known short- 
circuit method of testing be used. By this means the 
total resistance of the entire circuit from the power 
house to the various points in the mine can be deter- 
mined accurately, and these tests should be made fre- 
quently in order to detect any change in the resist- 
ance of the circuits. By calculating the resistance of 
the copper conductor and subtracting it from the total 
resistance obtained by test, the result of the track re- 
turn resistance can be measured much more quickly 
than by testing individual bonds. When the ohmic re- 
sistance of the circuit increases beyond a certain point, 
that circuit should be gone over with a bond tester. 

A log may well be kept of these tests and com- 
parisons made with calculations as to what the re- 
sistance should be. With this information the operator 
can determine where to strengthen his circuits. 

From a review of the operating conditions, and the 
sizes of circuits used in various mines, we find that the 
feeder distribution from partings to machines, where 
direct current is used, has about standardized on the 
2/0 size of wire, with occasional strengthening with 4/0 
feeders where the distance becomes unusually long. In 
alternating-current machine practice the 2/0 size of 
wire (three wires to a circuit) seems to have become 
standard near the faces, but three 4/0 lines are fre- 
quently used on at least part of the longer circuits. 

I think it is safe to assume that the amount of wire 
in the secondary circuits for alternating machines is 
at least .50 per cent, greater than the amount used 
for direct-current machines on the circuits in the cor- 
responding parts of the mine. Another factor that has 
to be considered is that the distance at which the cur- 
rent can be conveyed over these inner circuits to the 
direct-current machines is greater than it can be con- 
veyed conveniently by the low voltage used on the 
alternating-current machines. To the 50 per cent, 
additional cost of the secondary circuit must be added 
the cost of underground transformers. 

Where power is furnished to the mine by an outside 
company, it has to be converted to direct current for 
the locomotives, and also for mining machines, if the 
direct-current type is used. This conversion, because 
the substation operates at partial load most of the 
time, may be said to result in at least a 25 per cent, 
loss in power. This factor is an attractive one to the 
advocates of the alternating-current machines. 

Some operators claim that the extra wear and tear 
on alternating-current machine cables as compared with 
the direct-current cables, added to the inconvenience 
in moving the alternating-current machine along en- 
tries, as compared with the direct-current machines, 
coupled with the advantageous characteristics of the 
direct-current motor as compared with the alternating- 
current motor, more than offsets the saving in power 
by the use of the alternating current. 

There is no question but that from the standpoint of 
mine circuits, considered solely by itself, the simplest 
proposition is to use direct current up to a point where 
the load and distance make it impracticable. Where 
it is known in advance that the operation will ulti- 
mately exceed the limits of direct-current transmission, 
a converter or motor-generator substation can be in- 
stalled when convenient, with high-tension alternating 
current going to it, and low-pressure direct current 
leading to the direct-current mining machines and loco- 
motives underground. This gives the simple direct cur- 
rent near the working faces. 

With a better understanding of bond maintenance, 
and with the installation of better tracks that follow 
the use of large cars, it is easier to maintain the 
direct-current circuits than has been the case before. 

This paper has purposely dealt with types of trans- 
mission, leaving it to a discussion by the advocates 
of various systems as to which type should be em- 
ployed under conditions prevailing in the Illinois field. 

Legal Department 

Personal Injury Award Not Excessive— $11,686 was 
not an execesive award for injury to a mine employee 
resulting in loss of a leg by amputation. (Pennsylvania 
Supreme Court, Ford, vs. Philadelphia & Reading Coal and 
Iron Co., 105 Atlantic Reporter, 885.) 

Injury Risk Not Assumed by STEVEa)ORE — Conceding 
that a stevedore employed in loading coal into buckets in 
the hold of a vessel assumed the ordinary risk from the 
occasional falling of a lump of coal, he did not assume 
the risk of spilling of a large quantity into the hold 
through negligence of the hatch tender. (United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit; Garcia vs. West- 
ern Fuel Co., 255 Federal Reporter, 817.) 

Scope of Rights Under Coal Deed — A clause in a deed 
to coal in place, conferring on the grantee the "free and 
unrestricted right to remove and carry away, under said 
described premises, other coal belonging to or that may 
hereafter belong to" the grantee, gave no right to trans- 
port coal from adjacent lands over the surface of the land 
of the grantor. (Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Shaulis vs. 
Quemahoning Creek Coal Co., 105 Atlantic Reporter, 826.) 

Kansas Mining Laws — The Kansas statute, which for- 
bids use of dynamite or other detonating explosives in coal 
mines, excepting under rules and regulations agreed upon 
by an employer and his employees and approved by the state 
mine inspector, is constitutional, and not invalid as dele- 
gating legislative power to operators and miners. The 
act applies to strip-pit coal mines. A shotfirer using 
dynamite in violation of provisions of the act cannot re- 
cover damages for injuries sustained by him in consequence. 
(Kansas Supreme Court, Richards vs. Fleming Coal Co., 
179 Pacific Reporter, 380.) 

Rights Under Coal Deeds and Contracts — Where an 
owner of land gave an option for the purchase of 167 
acres of coal in place, with mining rights, and afterward 
delivered a deed for only 150 acres, under an oral modi- 
fication of the agreement, no mining rights could be exer- 
cised over the 17 acres not deeded. A deed made in full 
execution of a contract for the sale of land merges the 
provision.s of the contract, including all prior negotiations 
and agreements leading up to the execution of the deed. 
Where a deed to coal in place provides a specific means of 
access to it for mining purposes, the grantee can claim 
no other way, howsoever convenient another way may be. 
( Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Titus vs. Poland Coal Co., 
106 Atlantic Reporter, 90.) 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Electric Arc Welding in Mines 

By John G. Kjellgren 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Coal-mine officials are appreciating more and more 
the possibilities of electric arc welding as a means of 
increasing the general efficiency of the mine equipment. 
Just where the limit of the welding process lies, it is 
impossible to state at present. New uses are found for 
it every day. Electric welding has become not only a 
problem of repairing broken parts, but rather one of 
prolonging the life of the equipment and, at times, even 
creating working parts from the scrap heap. 

Electric arc welding comprises two methods, one em- 
ploying the carbon arc and the other the metallic arc. 
In the carbon arc the work is one electrode and a carbon 
rod forms the other. The curi-ent is drawn between 
these electrodes and the arc heats up both the carbon 
rod and the work. When the latter has changed to a 
liquid state, a metallic filling rod is introduced into the 
arc. This metallic rod quickly melts and joins with 
the molten metal in the work. 

The metallic arc employs a filling rod of iron or steel 
as one electrode. The metal is carried by the arc from 
the rod to the work, which has been preheated by the 
arc itself just at the spot where it is desired that the 
metal should be deposited. The carbon arc corresponds 
in its action to the flame used in gas welding. It is not 
so convenient in handling as the metallic arc, and is 
mostly used for cutting, also for welding certain non- 
ferrous metals. The metallic aix employs a short actual 
arc, preferably not over i in. in length; therefore the 
heat is more localized and can be concentrated at any de- 
sired spot. This makes it possible to weld a piece with- 
out preheating and without much internal stress. Be- 


cause of the fact that the metal is carried by the arc, 
welding can be done in any position. 

Electric welding is especially adapted for the treat- 
ment of steel and iron with perfect results. The better 
grades of cast iron are readily welded by it, but the 
welding metal will not adhere to the poorer grades that 
contain much slag or other impurities. It requires a 
more experienced operator to weld cast iron than steel. 
The cast iron is usually of more complicated shapes; it 
therefore necessitates more perfect control of the cur- 

rent and more careful setting up. However, this is not 
a difficult thing to learn, especially if personal instruc- 
tion of an experienced operator is given at the be- 

The 300-hp. hoisting sheave shown in Fig. 1 is an 
example of a weld on cast iron. All the spokes were 
broken entirely through ; they were prepared and welded 
in position. The photograph was taken before the work 
was finished. The welding equipment is shown at the 
left and the welding rod in the holder at the right. The 
great advantage of arc welding will be appreciated by 


comparison with the preparation for welding by some 
other process. In such a case the tension on the rope 
would have to be relieved, the flange taken off, the rope 
and rings removed, bearing caps taken off. and the shaft 
removed from the hubs. After the sheave was sepa- 
rated and placed for preheating, the hub would have to 
be lined up both with the keyways and the holes in the 
flange. The whole thing would then be preheated, 
welded, and slowly cooled. Fig. 2 shows another ex- 
ample of an electric arc weld on cast iron. The locomo- 
tive shown was in a collision and the frame broke just 
above the front wheel. It was taken to the "bottom" 
and welded on the following day; that afternoon it was 
again in service. This shows how quickly repairs can be 
made by electric arc welding. 

Great as the field is for mending broken parts, it is 
small compared with that embracing the prolongation 
of the life of mine equipment. WitH some types of 
equipment, a certain detail of a part has to withstand 
constant wear; often it cannot be repaired by ordinary 
methods, and the whole piece must accordingly be 
thrown away. In such a case the worn place is simply 
built up by means of the electric arc and is then ma- 
chined. Thus machine shafts, clutch parts, guides, car 
axles, wheels, etc., can be worked over and be made as 
good as new. By using different kinds of welding rods 
the built-up material can be made soft for machining or 
of any desired hardness for grinding. Leaking pipes, 
boilers, condensers, tanks, etc., can also be repaired 
readily. The extent to which such welding can be used 
in the mine depends much upon the operator; the more 
experience he has had the greater will be the use he will 
make of the equipment. 

Rail bonding is often considered a more or less nec- 
essary evil, when in reality it is an important factor in 

July 10, 1919 



reducing the cost of maintenance and increasing pro- 
duction. With poor bonding there is always a great 
direct loss of energy, but a greater loss, however, is 
incurred in the shape of increased motor troubles, both 
in machines and locomotives. Machinemen are usually 
the first to notice any improvement in the bonding. 
Mechanical bonds, as illustrated in the plug and driven 
pin type, are now being rapidly replaced with electric 
welded bonds, which give a better and more permanent 
return at a lower cost. To successfully weld copper to 
iron requires rather complicated and cumbersome ap- 
paratus, and although such equipment has been used on 
electric railways to apply bonds, it has not been suited 
for mine work. When this was realized by the manu- 
facturers, a bond provided with an iron casting was 
brought out. This type of bond could be applied by 

ordinary metallic arc welding. When the bond is welded 
to the rail it becomes an integral part thereof, and will 
even stand up under the stress of dei'ailed cars. 

A welding equipment that will be of the greatest 
value to the mine is consequently one that can be used 
both for general arc welding and for bonding; at the 
same time it should be so light that it can be taken to 
any part of the workings. The outfit shown to the left 
in Fig. 1 fulfills this requirement in an admirable man- 
ner, being both inexpensive and light in weight. It was 
furnished by the Electric Railway Im.provement Co., of 
Cleveland, Ohio. The total weight with leads, etc., is 
about 50 lb., which may easily be carried by one man. 
It is always ready for service and will withstand an 
unusual amount of abuse. 

The Moffat Brothers' Mine 

Operated for Years by Steam and Mule Power, the Antiquated Methods at This Mine Have Been 

Replaced, in Part at Least, by Something More Modern — Results Fully 

Warranted the Cost of Making the Changes 

By W. p. Potter 

Iron Mountain, Michigan 


THE Moffat Brothers' coal mine, one of the largest 
and best equipped coal operations in southern 
Illinois, is loc-ated at Sparta, .54 miles south of 
East St. Louis, on the Mobile & Ohio R.R. It is ovraed 
and operated by the Moffat Brothers and has been in 
successful operation for years. Only recently, however, 
has it been electrically equipped, and mules discarded 
■ from the main haulage. 

This mine employs an average of 250 men and hoists 
about 1100 tons of coal daily, the greater part of which 
finds its way to the St. Louis market, where the com- 
pany's main office is in charge of J. D. Moffat. R. D. 
Moffat, superintendent of the mine, has charge of the 
Sparta office. 

In equipping this mine with electricity 166 tons of 
steel rails were laid, or nearly 30,000 ft. of track for 
the main haulage. Eleven mules were retained to haul 
the coal from the different rooms or apartments to 
the main haulage system, where two 10-ton G. E. elec- 
tric motors complete the delivery to the foot of the 
shaft. These locomotives are provided with powerful 
electric arcs which project a strong beam of light 
along the main haulage system to warn of the loco- 
motive's approach and give the motormen time to 
stop in case of obstructions. All feeder lines and wir- 
ing are installed on porcelain or glass insulators. In 
the overhead suspension of the power wires the height 
of the trolley is regulated by extension hangers. The 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Biim ^ 



track is of course used as a return circuit. The rails 
on the main-line haulage system are bonded with a 
short flexible bond of copper wire securely compressed 
into holes drilled close to the end of the rails. 

The use of steam underground has always been costly 
as well as dangerous. Furthermore, the naturally in- 
creasing distance between the working faces and the 
delivery points has made necessary a system more effi- 
cient than steam, compressed air or mules. 

The superiority of the underground electric locomo- 
tive for mine haulage has caused it to supplant almost 
all other means of transportation in coal mines. It is 
simple, dependable and compact in underground opera- 
tions, and capable of a much greater speed than any 
other method of transportation. Furthermore, it can 
operate the entire 24 hours of the day without fatigue. 

The installation of improved modern electrical ma- 
chinery, adapted to the special power requirements of 
the coal mine, has resulted in a greatly increased out- 
put and a much more economical consumption of power, 
at a time when mines could not be operated economic- 
ally by the older methods. 

The Moffat mine has a reliable telephone system that 

materially lessens the work of the operator in super- 
vising the efforts of the men. The mine is so well 
ventilated by fans that there is Httle if any danger 
from gas, although to a certain extent gas is always 
present. The ventilating doors, practically automatic in 
operation, easily swing either way at the touch of the 
motorman's hand, and no trapper-boys are necessary 
when a "trip" of coal is on its way to the hoisting 

The steam hoist is still used and is operated by a 
Crawford-McCrimmon engine. The company keeps a 
large supply of spare parts on hand to prevent shutting 
down when machinerj- breaks or gives out. 

Eight undercutting shortwall mining machines are 
used. These have lowered the cost and increased the 
production of coal. They comprise five Goodman 12AA 
type and three Sullivan iron-clad type. The coal is 
loaded by hand. Two new 150-hp. boilers have been 
added, making six boilers in all. Two steam-driven 
electric generators are in use, one a 200-kw. generator 
and the other a 150-kw. machine. 

Young Soldier Gets a New Start 

Enlisted at fifteen, disabled in the Mame sector at 
sixteen, now a student at the Carnegie Institute taking 
architectural drafting, carpentrj' and mathematics, is 
the record of one young veteran. With only a meager 
education, never having done anything more worth 
while than working in a coal tipple, this disabled soldier 
has so won the interest and approval of the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education that the determination 
has been reached to give him a thorough trade training 
and a three-year course in building construction has 
been advised for him. 

Do you happen to know of any other veterans, young 
or old, who would like to make a new start? If so tell 
them to communicate with the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Education, 200 New Jersey Avenue, Washington, 
D. C, or write to the board about them yourself. 







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July 10, 1919 



The Baltimore Tunnel Disaster 

By Frank H. Kneeland 

Associate Editor, Coal Agt: 

THE Baltimore Tunnel, in the eastern outskirts of 
the City of Wilkes-Barre; Penn., on the morning 
of June 5 last was the scene of one of the most 
disastrous as well as one of the most peculiar accidents 
that ever took place in the history of anthracite mining. 
The accident was peculiar in that 92 men lost their lives, 
mostly by suffocation, while within 150 ft. of open air 
with normal ventilation flowing in the passage in which 
these men were caught. 

The Baltimore Tunnel was opened in 1862, long be- 
fore electricity was seriously thought of as a motive 
force for coal mining or anything else. It has been in 
operation continuously ever since with the result that at 
present the workings are extensive and far flung, some 
working faces being well over two miles from the portal. 
Today, therefore, this tunnel is much like a short nar- 
row neck on a big bottle. 

In former years it was the practice for the men to 
walk to their working places carrying their powder or 
other explosives with them. About a year ago a number 
of the men approached the underground mine foreman 
with a request that a man trip be provided. After hear- 
ing the men, the foreman informed them that if they 
would send the grievance (or pit) committee to him, 
he would gladly take the man-trip proposition up with 
its members in the regular manner. 

The pit committee accordingly waited upon the fore- 
man and urged the inauguration of the man trip on 
the ground that the working faces were so remote from 
the tunnel entrance that the men lost much time in 
walking to and from their work; also, that many of 
them were in the habit of laying in wait within the 
tunnel and "jumping" the first trip of empties going 
in in the morning. It appeared, therefore, to the mem- 
bers of this committee that it would be much safer and 

more satisfactory both to the men and to the manage- 
ment if a man trip was inaugurated. 

An agreement was accordingly reached whereby the 
men were permitted to ride upon the first trip of cars 
to enter the mine each morning. This permission was, 
however, subject to three distinct and well understood 
provisos. These were in substance as follows: (a) No 
dynamite, blasting caps, detonators, or any form of 
explosives whatever other than black powder, were to 
be transported anywhere, in any container or by any 
means, upon this trip, (b) All powder was to be placed 
in the rear car of the trip and in this car only ; further- 
more, this car must contain nothing else. The rear 
car was to be separated from the rest of the trip or 
from those cars carrying men by an empty car; that 
is, one containing neither men, powder nor tools, (c) 
The pit committee must see to it that each and both of 
the foregoing provisions were strictly adhered to, res- 
ponsibility for their enforcement resting jointly upon 
the members of this committee and upon the mine fore- 
man and his assistants. 

By the terms of this agreement, it will be seen that, 
since the foreman and his assistants seldom traveled 
on the man trip, the motorman pulling the trip would 
be responsible for its safe progress, while if anyone 
aside from the individual men themselves were responsi- 
ble for their deeds in transit it would be the members 
of the pit committee. This committee appeared to be, 
and was believed by the management to be, active, con- 
scientious and reliable. The inspection of the cars and 
responsibility for seeing that powder was placed only in 
the rear or powder car was often left entirely to it. 

Once, and once only, between the time of the inaugur- 
ation of the man trip and June 5 last did the mine fore- 
man have any difliculty with any of the men regarding 

Bro n c~It" 


CI Track. p. 

' nOTOR 

UmjdihUi^ .IIILIIIlllJflJIilrLi) 

SHOWI.N'i; I'O.^ITION <ll'T 




Vol. 16, No. 2 

their riding on this trip. Upon this occasion, some 
time about the middle of March of the present year, two 
men coming to work late jumped upon the powder 
car after the trip had started. The foreman yelled to 
them to get off. One of them complied, while the other 
refused to budge. The foreman therefore ran after 
and overtook the trip after it had entered the mine. He 
reiterated his command that the man get off the 
trip, and upon his refusal to do so jerked him off with 
some violence. This man was promptly discharged by 
his immediate superior. 

In the accompanying illustrations. Fig. 1 shows the 
tunnel mouth and the relative positions of the various 
buildings nearby. It is in reality a map of the locality 
round about the drift mouth. Fig. 2 shows the tunnel 
in greater detail. From the cross-section of the tun- 
nel here shown, which is viewed from the inside looking 
out, it will be observed that this tunnel is comparatively 
small in cross-section. The tunnel itself is single- 
tracked, while close alongside on the right-hand side 
going in runs a drainage ditch about 3J ft. wide and 
from 12 to 15 or possibly in places 18 in. deep. This 
ditch, which contains from 3 to 5 in. of water strongly 
impregnated with sulphur, is spanned at intervals of 
from about 12 to 18 ft. with long track ties that butt 

who may liave known the exact cause of the accident, if 
any there were, do not now live. On this point circum- 
stantial evidence only is available. 

No one who heard the motorman who drove the loco- 
motive hauling the man trip into the Baltimore Tunnel 
on the morning of June 5 testify before the coroner's 
jury could doubt either his veracity, his proficiency, his 
care, his experience or his courage. On that morning 
he coupled his locomotive to a string of ten waiting 
empties. He then backed these cars up somewhat and 
coupled onto three more cars. He then proceeded to 
the sand-house near the tunnel portal, where he stopped, 
sanded up and started for inside. Just within the 
tunnel he was flagged and stopped by a foreman track- 
layer who had been working on the night shift and was 
just then coming out. This man warned him that a 
trolley hanger at about the "G" vein was loose. 

Now, under many circumstances, as everyone knows, 
one broken trolley hanger in the mine is of no particular 
consequence whatever. Coal and men may be hauled 
in and out past it for days, if necessary, with perfect 
impunity. In this case, however, the motorman deemed 
it hardly safe to pull a trip of cars loaded with sky- 
larking men and boys past this broken hanger. Under 
normal conditions the trolley clears the right-hand side 

Y_:i Tro/leyWire-:^ xci x u 

'^Mouih of Wire loose from 

Tunnel Hangers Pts. C and D 

after f/plovon 

X ' Trolley Hangers 

d" above Car. 
Point D Wire Hung 
12" above Car 

. ' -^ 
Trolley Wire frog loose G 

f ^ ^ ^ beloiv hanger and 5' above rail 

Car No 11, 1 empty powder can 

" '■ 10, 5 ** *■ cans and 7 covers 

Point El" - can 

Car No.15, 7 une>cploded cans of powder 


against the right rib or are let into shallow nitches cut 
therein. These serve to keep the track in place and 
prevent it from sliding sidewise into the ditch. 

As will be observed, about 260 ft. from the portal 
the tunnel crosses the "G" bed. Here a passage is 
turned right and left. On the morning of the accident, 
and under normal conditions, the air moved in through 
the tunnel as far as the "G" vein. Here the inward-mov- 
ing current meets and mingles with two other currents 
of air, one moving outward through the tunnel and the 
other coming in from one of the side passages. All 
three currents mingle together, then pass on through 
the other side chamber. In the outer portion of the 
tunnel the air is sluggish, its velocity probably not 
exceeding 100 ft. per minute. Thus, although two fans 
are employed elsewhere in the workings, the ventilation 
in the outer portion of the tunnel is inward and but 
little more than natural. 

From the maze of evidence presented to the coroner's 
jury sitting it Wilkes-Barre on June 23, 24 and 25, 
examining something like 30 witnesses, survivors of the 
accident of June 5 or those who were in or near the 
mine at the time of the disaster or shortly afterward, 
some facts may be gleaned. Much, however, is still 
unknown, and will doubtless always remain so. Those 

of the car by only about 8 to 12 in. and hangs almost 
directly over the right-hand side. When sagged down 
by a broken hanger, the trolley would clear the car 
at best only a few inches, and the motorman did not 
consider it wise to pull his trip past this point without 
making a careful examination. Accordingly, after pro- 
ceeding a short distance, he stopped his trip, uncoupled 
the locomotive, and proceeded to a point in the tunnel 
slightly beyond the broken hanger. Here he stopped 
and began his inspection. 

While the first (or man) trip had been proceeding 
inside, the second trip, which was composed entirely 
of empties, was being made up. After the man trip had 
stopped inside the tunnel, the second trip came up 
behind it. For some reason or other the load on the 
motor-generator set in the substation supplying power 
to the mine, the direction and distance of which from 
the tunnel portal is indicated in Fig. 1, had built up to 
such degree that the circuit breaker went out. Thus, 
when the motorman on the second trip tried to stop 
his trip by reversing the motor, he found that his ma- 
chine was "dead," and he had to use his hand brake. 
He stopped his trip, however, with the front end of his 
locomotive about 5 ft. from the rear end of the last car 
of the man trip. 

July 10, 1919 



It was at this juncture, with the man trip just 
within and the second trip just without the tunnel, and 
the trolley wire over both trips dead, that the ignition 
of seven cans of powder in the tenth car of the man trip 
from the locomotive took place. What followed this 
ignition was not an explosion in any sense of the 
word. All the evidence presented on this subject, as 
well as the condition of the cars, powder cans and tunnel, 
would go to show that what took place was practically 
a flare-up or series of gigantic fire fountains similar 
to those used as fireworks on the Fourth of July. While 
the powder in burning created a considerable blast of 
air sufficient to project smoke out of the tunnel portal 
against the existing air current, no detonation of any 
great audibility was produced. 

Up to this point, the testimony and depositions of all 
witnesses were strongly concurrent. One survivor 
stated that he heard three or four distinct detonations 

found in the ditch on the right-hand side of the trip, 
it is not believed that these men drowned, but that they 
died either from burns or from suffocation, or both. 

Just exactly what caused the accident no man will 
probably ever know. Here, circumstantial evidence is 
stronger than the verbal evidence presented before the 
coroner's jury. In the tenth car of the trip from the 
front, there was found after all bodies had been re- 
moved five empty powder cans and seven can covers, 
five dinner pails, two 'or three teapot oil lamps, one 
squib box and one tobacco pipe. The interior of this car 
was badly scorched. In the eleventh car there were 
found, in addition to dinner pails and oil lamps, one 
powder can, the contents of which had ignited and 
burned. In the manhole or refuse space, opposite cars 
Nos. 9 and 10, was also found one powder can. 

None of these cans was blown to pieces or showed 
signs of excessive internal stress. One was split for a 

or puffs. Others noticed only one. One man insisted 
that he saw "electricity falling in balls from the trolley 
wire into one of the cars." Since this man barely 
escaped with his life, and is not yet out of the hospital, 
it is possible that his recollections of his experience on 
the morning of June 5 may be somewhat confused. 
Several of the witnesses stated that some of the men 
had their lamps lighted and in their caps while on the 
trip. While none admitted that he was smoking at the 
time, many were free to acknowledge that smoking on 
the man trip was not uncommon. 

The clearance between the side of the car and the 
left-hand rib (facing inward) varies from 26 to 30 in.; 
that from the edge of the car to the roof or roof 
timbers from 21 in. upward, the roof being quite un- 
even. Those who attempted to rescue survivors and 
carry out the dead stated that they found men piled 
in places five deep between the left-hand side of the trip 
and the left-hand rib. While one or two bodies were 




short distance from the end and several were badly 
dented and dinged. All were made of sheet iron, 
were about 6 in. in diameter and 24 to 26 in. long with 
slip-on covers. They originally contained 25 lb. of Du- 
Pont .FF or FFF black powder made up into paper 
sausages about II to 2 in. in diameter. No can, even 
upon minute examination, showed any marks whatever 
of fusing of the metal at any point as would have been 
the case had the cans been short-circuited between the 
trolley and some portion of the car. 

It would appear normally possible that the powder on 
a trip of cars might become ignited from one of two 
sources: either by ignition from the electric current in 
some manner or other or through coming in contact 
with either a flame or spark from one of the oil lamps 
or from a pipe. 

It was established at the inquest with a fair degree 
of certainty that no current was flowing in the trolley 
wire at the time of the accident. However, in order 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

that there might be no doubt whatever on the subject 
of the powder's ignition, tests were made by disinter- 
ested mine inspectors. These tests failed utterly to 
ignite powder. The theory that return current suf- 
ficient to ignite powder might be shunted across a bad 
rail joint when this point was spanned by the wheels 
of the car, such a current passing upward through the 
wheel, through the journal box, through the bolts to 
the bottom of the car, thence through a powder can to 
the boxing bolt of the other wheel, and thence back to 
the rail, seems to be entirely erroneous. Tests on 
empty cans placed across bolt heads in the bottom of 
the car (a detail of which is shown in Fig. 3) that 
had been carefully cleaned for the purpose with the 
car spanning the worst joint that could be found at 
the scene of the accident and the trolley wire taken 
down and laid against the rails some distance inside 
the point where the car was located failed to increase 
the temperature of the can to any appreciable extent 
and also failed to produce sparking at its connection 
with the bolt heads. 

Verdict of the Coroner's Jury 
The coroner's jury, after hearing all evidence and 
carefully reviewing it, refused to fix the blame for the 
accident upon any individual or set of individuals. As 
may be seen from their verdict, which follows, these 
men made certain definite and specific recommendations 
for improving the laws concerning mining in the State 
of Pennsylvania and bringing them more nearly up 
to date. Their aim doubtless was that should these 
recommendations be adopted they would tend to advance 
the statutes to a point comparable to the advancement 
that has been made in mining practice since the present 
statutes were placed upon the books. The verdict of the 
coroner's jury was as follows: 

An inquisition taken and indented at Wilkes-Barre in 
Luzerne County, before Charles L. Ashley, coroner of said 
country, this 23d, 24th and 25th day of June, .1919, pur- 
suant to a notice from Thomas J. Williams, inspector of 
mines of the Eleventh District, attached to and made a part 
of this return upon view of the body of James J. McClosky, 
then and there lying dead, and upon the oaths of W. F. 
Otto. C. C. Simons, James Ashman, T. F. Barry, David 
Davis, and Casimir Sieminski, six good and lawful men 
of the country aforesaid and at least four of them having 
had practical experience in and about the mines and none of 
them at present being employed in or about the mines where 
the accident happened, nor being personally interested, 
charged to inquire on the part of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, when and where and by what means the said 
James J. McClosky came to his death, and upon their re- 
spective oaths do say that it appears from the view of the 
body and from the evidence produced before them, that 
said James J. McClosky came to his death on the fifth 
day of June A. D., 1919, at Wilkes-Barre, about G:40 o'clock 
a.m., in the Baltimore Tunnel No. 5 of the Hudson Coal 
Co., as a result of being bui'ned or suffocated frofii the 
effects of an explosion of blasting powder which was being 
carried in the same mine car with workmen, and after a 
careful inspection of the scene of the accident and examina- 
tion of all witnesses who seemed to have any knowledge 
of the facts, it is decided that the powder became ignited in 
a manner unknown to the jury. 

The jury has heard all the witnesses that survived the 
accident and some of them state they saw lighted lamps 
on the trip of cars. We also heard the testimony of the 
results of the tests made by the mine inspectors and elec- 
trical experts who show that it was impossible to reproduce 
the explosion by bringing a keg of powder in contact with 
the wire under varying conditions, such as prevailed or- 
dinarily in the mines. The testimony shows that the dis- 
aster occurred so quickly that the eye could not possibly 

detect the cause of the explosion. The tunnel itself is low 
and the wire must be a few inches lower than the roof 
of the tunnel. The phrase "The wire is hot," is a typical 
reference heard around the mines to warn men not to 
touch the wire. 

In view of the testimony given by the survivors it is 
impossible to determine the exact manner in which the dis- 
aster occurred. As the witnesses were practically all in 
total darkness, much of the evidence is a matter of con- 
jecture which makes it impossible to fix the direct cause 
of the explosion. 

We, therefore, do recommend (1) that in order to mini- 
mize dangers from blasting powders and explosives carried 
in the workings of the mines, all powder or explosives shall 
be transported in separate and distinct trains; that in no 
case shall it be permitted that men ride in the same cars 
or in the same train with said powder or explosives. 

2. Where electric motive power is used, the powder should 
be encased in containers of non-conducting and non-com- 
bustible material, and that the only persons permitted to 
accompany said powder or explosives on cars or trains, 
supplied with such motive power, shall be the persons neces- 
sary to man the mechanism employed. 

3. Where powder or explosives are to be taken down a 
shaft by carriage, we recommend that after said powder 
or explosives has been removed from the protection pro- 
vided for its storage, it shall be deposited a safe distance 
from the point at which men are gathered for entrance to 
the mine carriage. After such powder or explosives is 
placed at the shaft, or at the entrance to the various veins, 
a mine foreman or other qualified person shall see that the 
men do not call collectively for their powder or explosives, 
but that each shall be served separately. 

4. We recommend that the miners' boxes shall not be 
assembled in any one place; that at least 50 ft. shall 
sepai-ate any two of said boxes where powder is stored, this 
to prevent the assemblage of men in the direct vicinity of a 
dangerous quantity of powder or explosives. 

5. Powder containers should be inspected before they are 
distributed to men to be carried by them to their places 
of labor. 

6. In the carrying of dynamite by men, we discover a 
very dangerous practice in that the high explosive is put 
into boxes and so carried by said men. We recommend 
that dynamite shall be deposited in canvas bags, reinforced 
by leather, with two catches to fasten cover, a hook or 
ring to hold the miner's ticket, and a long strap to place 
over the shoulder, for convenience in carrying. A com- 
petent man at the powder house shall place such dynamite 
in such container. Carrying by box should be stopped im- 

7. All powder or explosives should be issued by a mine 
foreman or qualified person, keeping himself posted on the 
supplies of the men, who shall see to it that no man shall 
obtain or have at one time, a sufficient quantity of ex- 
plosives to create a menace to himself or to others in the 
same or nearby working places, nor shall he issue powder 
to anyone but a qualified miner. 

8. Mining laws of the State of Pennsylvania we do find 
are rendered obsolete by the progress in mining methods 
and the failure of properly constituted legislative forces to 
enact safeguards timed to the developments as they oc- 
cur. We recommend to Governor William C. Sproul that 
he authorize the chief of the state department of mines to 
proceed at once in appointment of experts who will revise 
the mining laws and regulations, particularly as to such 
new equipment as has been introduced. Electricity as a 
factor in mining is wholly ignored by such laws as exist. 
We ask immediate action for amelioration of these omis- 

A committee of electrical engineers, mining engineers, 
and practical mining men should be appointed to confer 
at once with the state department of mines and to draft all 
such additional regulations as will fit the present conditions 
of mining and meet the problems that miners of this day 
must face. Continual reference to mining practice and 
comparative attention to the laws governing the industry 
should be the rule of caution from this time forward. 

July 10, 1919 



The Texas Lignite Industry 

By Bruce Gentry 

state Inspector of Mines, Rockd:il>\ Tex. 

The recent appropriation by the United States Gov- 
ernment of $100,000 for the establishment of a lignite 
experimental demonstration plant will doubtless create 
an interest in the minds of many in regard to this fuel. 
It is proposed to locate the experimental plant in Texas 
or North Dakota, as these states contain the largest 
deposits of lignite. It is probable that the plant will 
be located in some one of the larger cities near the 

The principal lignite deposits distributed through- 
out the United States have been estimated to be approx- 
imately as follows: 

Square Miles 

Alabama 6,000 

Arkansas - - 5,900 

Kentucky . 500 

Louisiana 8.800 

Mississippi- 3,000 

Montana 7,000 

North Dakota 31,000 

South Dakota 4,000 

Tennessee 1,000 

Texas 50,000 

Total 117,200 

In addition to the lignite areas given, Alaska contains 
vast deposits, while adjacent to North Dakota across 
the Canadian border is a large area underlain with this 
fuel, in the Saskatchewan province. 

There are a great variety of lignites, some of which 
range from carbonized wood to a semi-bituminous coal. 
In appearance and weight lignite is somewhat similar 
to bituminous coal. As they come from the mines there 
it little difference in the size and shape of the lumps of 
these two fuels, the principal difference in appearance 
being that the lignite lacks the gloss or luster common 
to bituminous coals. Lignite has been termed "brown 
coal," but as a matter of fact the color of the different 
varieties ranges from a reddish brown to a jet black. 
On account of the high moisture content, lignite slacks 
or breaks into small pieces upon being exposed to the 
weather for any considerable length of time. 

The average Texas lignite weighs about 83 lb. per 
cu.ft. Texas has almost every known variety of lignite, 
the best of which shows about the following analysis : 

Per Cent. 

Moisture 31 

Volatile combustible matter 32 

Fixed carbon 29 

Ash 8 

Sulphur 1 

B.t.u. per lb. of fuel 8.000 

The Texas lignite fields, which constitute almost one- 
half of the known lignite area of the United States, 
are estimated to have originally contained approxi- 
mately 30,000,000,000 tons; the total tonnage mined to 
date is probably 18,000,000 tons. The average annual 
output for the past two or three years has been about 
1,500,000 tons. The lignite-bearing formations of Texas 
comprise a belt with a length of over 600 miles by a 
width of 50 miles or more. This belt begins near the 
Red River in the northeastern corner of the state and 
extends entirely across in a. southwesterly direction to 
the Rio Grande or Mexican border. This belt is parallel 
to the Gulf coast line, lying from 100 to 150 miles in- 
land. Geologically these deposits belong to the Eocene 
series of the Tertiary period. 

The principal mining operations are at present car- 
ried on near the following towns: Rockdale, Milam 

County; Bastrop, Bastrop County; Calvert, Robertson 
County; .lewett, Leon County; Crockett, Houston 
County; Malakoff, Henderson County; Alba, Wood 
County; and Como, Hopkins County. Thirty-eight lig- 
nite mines were in operation in Texas at the beginning 
of the year 1919. Most of these operations are shaft 
mines; these mines are worked on the room-and-pillar 
plan. No strip-pit mines have been operated in the lig- 
nite fields to date. 

Most of the mining in Texas up to the present time 
has been along or near the outcrop of the various seams, 
the depth being between 40 and 150 ft. In several parts 
of the state there are two or more workable seams, one 
overlying the other. In thickness the seams are from 
a few inches to 20 ft.; the overburden running from 20 
to 800 ft. At the present time no seam is mined where 
the thickness of the bed is less than 5 ft., and in the 
majority of the mines the seam worked runs from 7 to 
12 ft. in thickness. The lignite deposits have not been 
well explored, most of the exploration having been ac- 
complished by some system of hand-drilling or by power- 
driven churn drill. It is doubtful whether a core drill 
has been used in any part of the lignite field. In some 
parts of the state quite thin seams have been mined for 
years, while there was a thick seam only 75 to 100 ft. 
below, the location of which was unknown to the oper- 
ators of that district. 

Mines Ahe Worked on Room-a.nd-Pii.lar Plan 

As stated these mines are worked on the room-and- 
pillar plan, usually on the double-entry system. Mule 
haulage is almost universal, though a few operators use 
electric or gasoline-motor haulage. The track gage runs 
from 30 to 36 in., while ton pit-cars are used. Many of 
the mine tipples are equipped with self-dumping cages, 
though manj' still employ the hand dump. The roof 
conditions of these mines are fairly good, and where the 
height of the seam is sufficient to leave even a few 
inches of lignite overhead no timbering is necessary. 
The pillars are usually drawn after the mine has been 
worked to the property limits. The lignite extraction 
varies, of course, according to conditions, but 50 to 75 
per cent, is about the average. As the depth to the 
lignite seams is shallow, the mining operations usually 
cause a subsidence of the surface. Quite often this 
subsidence causes open breaks and deep holes, while in 
other instances the settlement is over large areas, the 
surface sinking without any great disturbance. Most 
of the land overlying the lignite belt is good for agri- 
cultural purposes, and farming operations are extensive 
throughout this section. 

Gas is never encountered in the lignite mines of 
Texas. Open carbide lights are used almost exclusively. 
Most of the lignite is pick-mined, though it is blasted in 
some parts of the state. Serious accidents are almost 
unknown. At the present time there are probably not 
to exceed 3500 men employed at the mines, most of these 
miners being Mexicans. 

The fluctuating market and competition with crude 
oil has tended to hamper the full development of the 
lignite industry. Crude oil is no longer the keen 
competitor of a few years ago, and lignite is becoming 
better known, its use is increasing, and the market is 
improving. The development of the lignite industry 
will doubtless be similar to that of the oil industry, and 
will only be complete when the lignite, like the oil, is 
passed through processes of refining and the valuable 



Vol. 16, No. 2 





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byproducts are recovered. The byproducts of the lig- making producer gas. As compared with bituminous 

nite, like the byproducts of the oil, will be greater in coal the value of this lignite for producer gas, for use in 

value than the original fuel. The lignites of Europe, gas engines, is practically in direct ratio to the B.t.u.'s 

which are similar to ours, have for years been used to per pound of the respective fuels. The extra weight of 

produce more concentrated fuels and made to yield their lignite required to develop a given power does not neces- 

byproducts. sitate a proportionately larger producer than required 

Texas lignites have been used quite successfully in for bituminous coal, and in a suitable type of producer 

July 10, 1919 



Texas lignite can be utilized as conveniently and effi- 
ciently in proportion to its actual thermal value as any 
fuel.' It would seem that Texas oflfera an attractive field 
for the location of large central power plants. In these 
plants the lignite could be converted into gas. This gas 
could be used in internal combustion engines, and so 
converted into electrical energy. This electricity could 
be distributed to the surrounding cities and territory 
over transmission lines. Surplus gas could also be sold 
to the nearby cities. In such plants the byproducts such 
as tars, oils, etc., could be recovered while the residue 
could be converted into briquets, furnishing a fuel the 
equal of if not superior to anthracite coal. 

At the present time practically all of the lignite mined 
is used under boilers in its raw state. Near the mines 
lignite is used quite successfully for domestic purposes. 
In the raw state it is a satisfactory fuel. But the per- 
fection of a method of extracting the byproducts and the 
briqueting of the carbonized lignite into a more con- 
centrated fuel would mean a better fuel supply to Texas 
and the surrounding states; therefore the people are 
much interested in the plant that will be erected by the 
Government. There can be no doubt that the successful 
termination of the experiment will see many similar 
plants erected by private capital. 

First Reinforced-Concrete Railroad Car 

The accompanying illustration shows the first rein- 
forced-concrete railroad car built in this country. It 
was constructed under the supervision of the U. S. Rail- 
road Administration and was turned over to the Illinois 
Central R.R. on Mar. 17 last. Since then the car has 
been subjected to the severe usage entailed by railroad 
freight service. As the object in view was to test the 

car thoroughly, it was not sjared in the least but was 
subjected to treatment rather more severe than that 
given the ordinary freight car. 

In spite of its rough handling, the car passed success- 
fully through all tests and was recently turned over 
to the Pennsylvania R.R. for service upon its lines. 
Immediately following the transfer the car was sent 
from Chicago to Loraine, Ohio, with a load of steel 
billets. This trip resembled a continuous ceremony, as 
the car was placed upon exhibition in and was visited 
and inspected by the citizens of the towns passed 
through. The photograph here reproduced shows the 
car loaded with coal just before it was turned over by 
the Illinois Central to the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

'See University of Texas Bulletin No. 307. 

Protecting Pumps Against Acid Mine Water 

By Harry Goodnow 

Du Quoin. Illinois 

A simple, cheap and efficient method of protecting 
mine pumps from the corrosive action of some par- 
ticularly bad mine water was recently tried out suc- 
cessfully at Herrin, 111. After five pumps had been 
put on the scrap pile one after the other, Elmer Mayor, 
the top boss, conceived the idea of using beeswax on 
the parts of the pump exposed to the action of the 
water. Accordingly, he took apart a new pump, carefully 
wiped off all grease and dirt from the faces and even 
from the bolts that clamped the parts together. After 
carefully heating the clean surfaces he applied the 
melted beeswax to form an even, thin coating and 
bolted all the parts together with similarly treated 
bolts. The pump was then installed and has run with- 
out any further attention except the regular oiling. 
Before the beeswa.x was tried the pumps lasted from 
one to three days. The treated pump has been running 
for several months. 




Vol. 16, No. i: 

Published bt McGraw-Hill Cumpany, Inc. 

Tenth Ave. at 36th St., New York 

Address all communications to Coal Age 

Volume 16 

July 10, 1919 

Number 2 

The Baltimore Tunnel Disaster 

WE PRINT on page 55 of this issue the facts, 
as nearly as they could be learned, concerning the 
occurrence of the powder flare in the Baltimore Tunnel 
at Wilkes-Barre on June 5 last, also the verdict of the 
coroner's jury. Because the impaneled men in this case 
failed to name a specific cause for the accident does not 
signify that its occurrence was an act of Providence 
beyond the power of man to prevent. That the accident 
in the Baltimore Tunnel could not have been averted no 
one attempts to assert. 

Men who survived the horrors of the disaster on the 
morning of June 5 last state that they had, and still 
have, absolute confidence in the carefulness and consci- 
entious thoroughness of the underground foreman. As 
one of the men who passed through the flare-up ex- 
pressed it to a Coal Age representative: "There ain't 
no carefuller man in this valley anywhere than that 
foreman, and yet he had to have that accident." All of 
which goes to show that the care and pains taken by 
one man amounts to little if many are involved. 

Of all the explosives, of all the dangerous chemical 
mixtures and compounds man has yet devised, black pow- 
der is probably the most universally known. A man's 
acquaintance with it usually begins when he shoots his 
first firecracker at the age of five or six, or possibly less. 
Few, indeed, are the persons who reach mature years 
ignorant of the behavior of black gunpowder when 
touched by fire or raised to the temperature of ignition. 
It was certainly not because of ignorance of probable 
consequences on the part of anyone that the powder car- 
ried on the man trip in the Baltimore Tunnel became 

It is sometimes said that it ill becomes a living person 
to hide behind a dead man's corpse. By the same token 
the survivor of any accident should not fail to profit by 
and pass on to others the experience gained in the loss 
of his less fortunate companions. 

The flare-up in the Baltimore Tunnel demonstrated no 
new, unknown or occult property of explosives. It was 
rather a convincing, albeit a tremendously costly, dem- 
onstration of the fact that black powder and flaming 
pit lamps or smoldering pipes form a bad combination. 
The price of safety in mining is eternal vigilance and 
painstaking self-sacrifice on the part, not of any one man 
or any one class or set of men, but upon the part of 
every living soul in the mine workings. 

Well has the union argued that the operator on mak- 
ing the next contract should not seek to enforce a lower 
wage on the mine worker even if times are bad. The 
wheel has turned, meanwhile, and the new contract 
comes with steady work and with a labor shortage in 
-prospect. The mine worker should realize that the mod- 
eration with which he counseled the operator he should 
now exhibit himself. 

The Coal Operator's Largest Customer 

AT LAST the railroad problem is seen in its true 
perspective. This, the most important of the coun- 
try's public utilities, is the arterial system through 
which flows the lifeblood of the nation. To coal men 
the railroads are of peculiar interest. Not only would 
mining be practically paralyzed without rail transporta- 
tion, but these same public servants constitute the coal 
industry's best customer. If facts are needed to sub- 
stantiate these claims the evidence is furnished in a 
recent report of the U. S. Railroad Administration giv- 
ing a summary of locomotive fuel performance for 1916, 
1917 and 1918. 

The three years covered by this report include the 
stormiest period of the railroads' existence, the culmi- 
nation of a long siege of public criticism, adverse 
statutes and Federal and State Commission regulation. 
Owing to the disturbing influences of the war and 
Government control and operation, the time is not op- 
portune for the most satisfactory analysis of railroad 
performance. The favorable aspects of the situation 
are unity of control and the successful operation under 
a management able to inaugurate reforms long desired 
by practical railroad men but impossible of adoption 
under existing legislation. The report in question was 
compiled by the Fuel Conservation Section of the Rail- 
road Administration under the management of Eugene 
McAulifl'e, who is prominently connected with impor- 
tant coal interests in the Middle West. 

This summary of locomotive fuel performance has to 
do with both freight- and passenger-train service, and 
the railroads of the country are included in seven nat- 
ural groups or regions. In comparing the results at- 
tained a number of factors should be considered such as 
the topography of the country traversed by the roads, 
extent of territory and the nature of the traffic handled. 
In round numbers 233.000 miles of the country's rail- 
roads were taken over by the Administration, of which 
mileage some 229,000 are covered by this report. Full 
information is not available for all the roads repre- 
sented and two sections are omitted in some totals for 
this reason. However, an average of 67 per cent, of all 
regions is reported and thus the conclusions drawn 
should have some weight. 

Considering freight-train service, the average gross 
ton-miles per locomotive-mile for all the regions con- 
sidered are 1317, 1297 and 1345 for the years 1916, 
1917 and 1918 respectively. It is to be regretted that 
the Pocahontas region division is not here considered, 
as the Virginian Ry. with its fine equipment and roadbed 
makes the best showing with an average of 2364 for the 
three years noted. The tons of coal consumed during 
1916, 1917 and 1918 are, in round millions, 794, 863 and 
86 i respectively. These are significant figures and show 
that during 1918 about 12A per cent, of the total coal 
mined (689,652,110 tons) in the United States was con- 
sumed in rail freight transportation. During the same 
three years, 192, 201 and 200 lb., respectively, of coal 
per 1000 gross ton-miles were consumed. These figures 
show an increase of 4.6 per cent, for 1917 compared 
with 1916, while there is a decrease of 0.6 per cent, 
for 1918 compared with 1917. 

In passenger-train service an average of 31,215,811 
tons of coal were consumed for each of the years 1916, 
1917 and 1918. Taking the total of the average amount 
of coal used for both freight and passenger service dur- 

July 10, 1919 



ing each of the past three years, we find that it repre- 
sents 16.7 per cent, of all coal mined in this country in 
1918. A customer who will take one-sixth of our total 
production is worthy of consideration, but hardly to 
the extent of mining at a loss in order to supply him 
with fuel for power to run a business to which we con- 
tribute a big slice. 

By recognizing, in legislation, the justice of auto- 
maticalhj increccsing salaries to accord with cost of liv- 
ing, the nation and the various states might keep within 
their service those faithfid servitors who have become 
fitted, largely at the expense of the state, for the services 
they rendered. The labor turnover in government 
departments is one of the most distressing features of 
the conduct of their affairs. 

kegs occasionally to find out if they are tight. The 
matter is one not to be overlooked. Where the defects 
prove that someone is carelessly handling the kegs every 
effort should be made to find out who it is and to 
compel him to use more caution. 

Defective kegs of powder can be found in storehouses 
the country over, for men will not use care in handling 
powder. A man who risks his own life is taking a 
chance on what belongs to himself. If he is a single 
man, he may be forgiven for his carelessness. But the 
man who tosses a powder keg or rolls it so that it is 
liable to be dented is taking on himself to expose the 
other fellow to risk. So likewise the man who, seeing 
a defective keg, fails to report it. Such doings as 
these, to say the least, are most unchivalrous acts, for 
every man owes a duty to his neighbor that he cannot 
lightly overlook. 

Motor Trucks in the Mine Fields 

LARGE though the sales of automobiles have been 
^in the mining fields, the motor truck appears 
to be comparatively slow of introduction. The motor 
truck and automobile are such complements that one 
would imagine both would be found at the mines to- 
gether. Where one can run, the other can find its way. 
The motor truck, no more than the automobile, is kept 
back by bad roads. Both ran around shell holes and 
ambled over corduroy in France. 

It is true that a motor car cannot do full service on 
a poor road, but the same may be truthfully said re- 
garding a horse-drawn wagon. We may have to ease 
the burden to both in order to suit the roads, but 
even under those circumstances the motor truck is well 
worth while, whether it is delivering goods from the 
store, timber for the tipple, props, oil, and rails for 
the mine or men to various construction jobs. Some 
operators have put bodies on motor trucks so that they 
can be made to carry several men. With these vehicles 
they have run a busline, carrying those of their men 
who resided in a distant town, forth and back, morning 
and evening. The uses of the motor truck are endless 
and when once properly introduced the "gas wagon" 
will be regarded as essential as any other piece of min- 
ing equipment. 

He who awards justice may rightly claim justice, 
but those tvho do nothing unless they are compelled 
to such action cannot expect others to show any sense 
of restraint. Either an equitable wage or a wage of 
violence and competition, it needs must be. If we 
choone the last we must not regard ourselves — workmen 
or capitalists — as unduly injured if the wage game runs 
against us. 

Defective Powder Kegs 

IT IS almost impossible to prevent those who have 
to handle powder kegs from doing it without proper 
care. Kegs of powder should not be rolled on a steep 
grade or thrown from hand to hand. Many men climb 
into moving cars with a keg tucked under one arm and 
are liable in doing so to jar the keg so that it leaks 
powder. Every foreman in states which permit of kegs 
being taken into the mine should try either by his 
own action or by that of his assistants to find out 
whether kegs are reaching the working places in a 
defective condition. He should look over the arriving 

In order to be successful in foreign coal markets it 
i'j necessary that American exporters have some degree 
of direct contact ivith the trade, as foreign coal buyers 
have certain peculiarities individually and locally 
which are perhaps more linked up tvith tradition and 
custom than is true of coal buyers in this country. 

Accelerated Obsolescence 

YEARS ago nothing became so hopelessly ancient as 
to be regarded as useless. So long as a machine 
would function, however inadequately, and no matter 
with what waste it turned potential into actual energy, 
it was still kept in service. Regardless of the prog- 
ress of invention, the old machine or the old factory 
was maintained, new parts, duplicates of the old, re- 
placing old parts when rust, fatigue or accident ren- 
dered such reconstruction necessary. Nothing was ever 
pulled down. If it crumbled, and it did not pay to re- 
pair it, it was nevertheless allowed to stand in memory 
of the fleeting years. Art was truly longer than life. 
The machine might fail to respond to the call made 
upon it, but as an exponent at least of the art at the 
time of its creation it was still permitted to exist. 

Nothing has marked the progress of the American 
people more clearly than the willingness of our nationals 
to recognize obsolescence and to fearlessly cast out 
anything that newer invention had rendered useless. 
The metal-mining engineer will replace machinery al- 
most before it is used if the progress of the art de- 
mands the change. Does a new development revolution- 
ize the industry, a mill awaiting completion may be torn 
almost to the ground and be in great measure rebuilt 
so as to utilize the new method. 

The speed of the obsolescence rapidly increases. There 
was a time when obsolescence could be permitted to 
hide behind the ample skirts of depreciation, for 
prosperity decayed sooner than invention dispossessed. 
But it is not so today. Obsolescence is getting to be a 
first charge on all kinds of equipment. Just as a change 
of style shelves clothing quicker even than wear, so a 
change in engineering practice causes the discarding 
of a machine even before its bearings have had to be 

Miners are coming to realize that most accidents are 
unnecessary, but they have not learned that sickness 
is just as preventable as accident. With proper care 
sickness can be avoided a,s easily as accidents. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 



General Labor Review 

Canada does not appear to be so greatly troubled by 
would-be nationalizers of industry as does Great Britain 
(or should it not rather be said as was Great Britain at 
the close of the war?), for a change seems to have taken 
place. The House of Commons of Canada received on July 
1 a report from the Commission on Industrial Relations 
in which many reforms are suggested, but among them 
does not appear nationalization of industry. 

As has been said, the mine workers and operators of the 
New River district have been meeting in the hope of writing 
a new agreement, and they have made good progress as 
far as working and wage conditions are concerned. The 
rock on which they split is the check-off. They want only 
small wage concessions, but they are adamant on their 
declaration that the operators take the names of members 
of the union from the local secretaries and check off on 
the pay rolls the dues of all those thus named. 

The operators say this is illegal, that they cannot de- 

The majority of the body favors the eight-hour working duct the check-off without an order from the employee him- 

day, the principle of collective bargaining, the unqualified 
approval of the right of workmen to organize, a weekly 
rest of not less than 24 hours, a minimum wage (especially 
for women, girls and unskilled labor) , public works to re- 
lieve unemployment, government 

aid in building workers' homes, ^™**"'™**^^^^^'^^^^^ 
full liberty of speech and press, 
the establishment of industrial 
councils and state insurance 
against sickness, unemployment 
and old age. Apparently, noth- 
ing is said as to nationalization 
of industry. It is not popular 
in Canada, and in England 200 
conservatives in the House of 
Commons who have been keep- 
ing very quiet for fear of ap- 
pearing to antagonize the coali- 
tion ministry are determined to 

self, specifically ordering or at least permitting it. The 
men want a closed shop. They don't care if a man votes 
as a union man, so long as he pays the taxes the union 

The conferences started at 
^^"^^™~""— ^*'™^^^^~ Atlantic City and commenced 
anew at Charleston on June 26, 

iam McKell, while that repre- 
senting the mine workers con- 
sted of J. R. Gilmore, Adam 

The following significant statement appeared ending at an early hour on Sat- 
in the Industrial Relations Commission's Major- urday morning, June 28. The 
ity Report to the House of Commons in the scale committee representing the 
Dominion of Canada: "The commission believes cperatoi^ consisted of C. C. 

that the day has passed when an employer ^'^"'^y- .^^"-^ '^^P"''°"' ,"J^- 
, , , , ,•'. i*^ ^1. ■ 1.^ ^ ■ Bertolet, S. A. Scott and Wil- 

should deny his employees the nght to organize - 

a right claimed by employers themselves and not 
denied by the workers. Employers gain nothing 

by opposition because the employees organize Wilkinson, Robert Gilmore, Law- 
anyway, and refusal only leaves in their minds rence Dwyer, L. M. McNeil, 
a rankling sense of injustice. The prudent em- Mote Thompson, Lawrence Pep- 
keep silence no longer, as there ployer will recognize such organization and deal pard, C. L. Noble, Alfred Lind- 
is now no enemy in the field. with its duly accredited representatives." "^r, Nick Geis and (ieorge Scott. 

They have met Andrew Bonar The mine workers' unions in 

Law, their representative in the Murphysboro, Jackson County, 

cabinet, and have received assur- Illinois, have on foot a move- 

ances from him that he does not believe in nationalization ment to join with other unions in the vicinity to start a 
of the railroads. He denies that the question of nationaliza- cooperative store in the city along the celebrated Rochelle 
tion is bound up in the Government's transport bill and cooperative lines. The store will sell goods at current 
affirms that he believes that nationalization is an evil. prices and pay dividends to purchasers in proportion to 
"Stand by the Premier," is no longer an effective slogan in their purchases. 

Great Britain, and Lloyd George's wishes are no longer the 
nation's laws. 

The matter of nationalization in Great Britain and in 
Canada needs our careful attention. Many of our labor 
leaders are of British birth, and while they are thoroughly 
naturalized they are nevertheless disposed to look to Great 
Britain for suggestions as to the conduct of labor matters. 
If Great Britain should turn toward nationalization, there 
would be not a few labor leaders of British extraction who 
would like the United States to show similar bad judgment. 

In the anthracite region the mine workers seem to desire 
to make the eight-hour day secure by obtaining it for every- 

The Kathleen mine at Dowell, 111., 5 miles south of 
Du Quoin, and owned by the Union Colliery Co., of St. 
Louis, Mo., has been idle since Tuesday morning, July 1, 
when the miners working at that plant came out on strike. 
The grievance is over a difference in wages paid the loaders 
for taking out top coal, and the entire top and bottom force 
laid down their tools and refused to work until the differ- 
ence was settled. All efforts made to reach an amicable 
settlement so far have failed. The shutdown is distinctively 
felt in Dowell, Elkville, St. Johns, Sunfield and Du Quoin. 

A strike was called at all the mines of the J. R. Crowe 
Coal and Mining Co., near Pittsburg, Kan., to take effect 

body, even those who merely put in their time watching July 2. Alexander Howat, president, and the board of Dis- 

a pump or a fan. Running a fan, especially, is the very 
job for which the word "sinecure" should have been coined. 
The contemplative philosophers who have this job to per- 
form hardly turn a hand from the time they go on the 
job till the time they quit. All they have to do in many 
cases is to see that the fan keeps turning all the time. The 

trict No. 14 ordered it. It is charged that the company 
has made a change in working conditions. The union men 
say the company should go back to the old conditions and 
submit the proposed changes to the officials of the operators' 
association and the union leaders. There are five of the 
Crowe mines. The company also has two steam-shovel 

only sacrifice they make is abstention from home, family plants. Altogther about 1000 men are employed. 

pleasures and domestic duties. 

The contemplation of the beauties of nature may be ex- 
tended to long hours without putting undue stress on the 
unsophisticated contemplator. But the mine workers want 
all men held down to eight hours whether they toil or thumb- 

In the Alabama district there have been two general 
wage conferences relative to the scale. On June 27 a joint 
conference was held, and the mine workers presented a 
scale which the operators rejected. The mine workers' 
president. Young, declares the men will stand firm, and a 
strike seems imminent. 

July 10, 1919 




Economic and Business Training for 

At the final session of a two-day conference, held 
in Washington, June 23-24, resolutions proposed by the 
conference committee of prominent educators were 
passed favoring the addition to engineering curricula 
of courses in general economics, cost accounting and 
business law and urging that the economic phases of 
engineering subjects should be emphasized in commer- 
cial instruction and that the institutions which have 
departments of engineering and economics or commerce 
be urged to consider some plan of coordination to 
develop a course to prepare men to meet the demand 
for large numbers of technically trained men for both 
foreign and domestic commerce. 

This conference was called by the Commission of 
Education through Dr. Glen L. Swiggett, specialist in 
charge of commercial education in the Bureau of Educa- 
tion, and a representative committee of educators. 
There were about 155 present from all sections of the 
country, the discussion centering on the announced 
subjects of business training for engineers and engi- 
neering training for students of business, and on the 
results of the war experience as affecting technical edu- 
cation and foreign trade. 

At the first session. Dean Anson Marston, of Iowa 
State College, led the discussion on business training 
for the engineer. Spencer Miller, vice president of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers and of the 
Lidgerwood Manufacturing Co., New York, placed first 
the need for developing character and outlined the 
qualities needed in engineering salesmen and the golden 
opportunities awaiting them. In the discussion was 
pointed out the danger of attracting too many men from 
the fields of design and research work, and the fact 
that it would be a mistake for all colleges to begin 
to train engineer.'^. Prof. G. H. Follows, head 
of the department of commercial engineering, Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Outlined by chart 
the course given in his department, and declared that 
a complete commercial training filled four years, it 
being almost impossible for men who had taken or- 
dinary engineering courses to become managers of men. 

Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Columbia University, in 
discussing engineering training for commercial enter- 
prises, insisted that no worth-while instruction could 
be given without highly paid teachers. A department 
of manufacturing is contemplated at Columbia as a 
6-ycar course. E. F. Dubrul, president of the Pyro 
Clay Products Co., Cincinnati, claimed that the science 
of business was as broad and its ethics as high as any 
profession, and that executives are highly paid because 
they control both the engineering production and the 
commercial or distribution phases of industry. Money 
will be provided by business men if the educator will 

show willingness to adopt new methods for supplying 
the kind of graduate they need — the course to be devised 
in conference. He called attention to the new college 
of engineering and commerce at the University of 
Cincinnati as oft'ering a cooperative course of large 
promise. In the discussion a Colorado executive was 
cited as authority for warning against too many busi- 
ness engineers, claiming 50 technical men were needed 
to 1 executive. 

The third session was devoted to the significance of 
the war experience for engineering education, a paper 
by Maj. General John F. O'Ryan, of New York, being 
read by Mr. Swiggett. He pointed out the shortcomings 
of the present educational system in character train- 
ing and suggested as a remedy the inclusion of non- 
sectarian moral law developed and applied by courses in 
psychology, leadership, responsibility, physical training. 

Dr. Charles R. Mann, chairman of the advisory board, 
committee on education and special training of the War 
Department, pointed out that both army men and prac- 
ticing engineers place character first. He raised the 
question as to just what is meant by the "fundamentals" 
which so many advocate, and claimed that these funda- 
mentals are at once apparent if the army method of 
beginning with a definite job is followed. Thus the 
motive — motivation — is developed, and results follow 
because the student is doing something definite and 
learns to think on the job. Morale is a dominant fac- 
tor, better than character as a test, and he would judge 
class work by group morale. The teacher should be a 
friendly investigator trying to lead the student to his 
best attainments rather than one who merely tries to 
meet certain set standards — and generally failing in 
a large proportion of cases. The classification and 
rating system of the army should be applied, helping 
to measure accomplishments. The chairman, Major- 
General W. M. Black, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
advocated less individualism and the development of 
more coordination; also training for self-mastering 
through the subordination of passion to duty. 

The work of the Engineer School al Camp Humphreys 
was described by Dean Evans, Toledo University, who 
had inspected the work in mechanics and by Profes- 
sor Hatt, of Purdue University, who inspected the work 
in engineering. Both testified to the evidence of high 
morale attained through the assignment of concrete 
problems, forcing the men to face a real design or 
investigation situation, used as the basis for develop- 
ing principles. Professor Hatt emphasized the need 
for developing a science of education. 

At the last session, on training for overseas engineer- 
ing projects, A. W. McLean, director of the War Finance 
Corporation, Washington, emphasized the need for 
financing foreign investments and for this country to 
a.ssume the lead in foreign fields, claiming that engineers 
and business men can take the position of leadership if 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

they have the courage and enterprise. C. H. Gardner, 
of the American International Corporation, New York, 
advocated more training in vision to see opportunities, 
especially in transportation, saying that the engineer 
should be the pioneer. He would have French and Latin 
required for college entrance. W. W. Nichols, chairman 
of the American Manufacturers' Export Association's 
committee on education, pointed out that industry and 
engineering are mutually dependent, that pure engi- 
neering belongs only to rare genius, and that the rank 
and file of engineers need a practical training. Foreign 
languages should be taught to develop knowledge of the 
customs and mental attitude of foreign peoples. 

Dr. Jeremiah W. Jenks, research professor, govern- 
ment and public administration, New York University, 
in an illuminating address, showed two kinds of prob- 
lems — to get trained men at once for overseas service 
and to develop such men for holding future supremacy 
in foreign trade. He classed commerce as one of the 
humanities, on a par with history and economics. Credit 
should be furnished in the foreign field, but only by 
controlling stock interests in order to insure wise and 
successful management. The discussion by men con- 
nected with industrial concerns interested in the foreign 
field developed the necessity for long-time credits and 
for using ingenuity to find men with language qualifica- 
tions and also with sufficient technical knowledge to 
represent them abroad. 

Western Branch of Canadian Mining Institute 
Holds General Meeting 

Coal-mining men were in the majority at the general 
meeting of the Western Branch of the Canadian Mining 
Institute held on June 4 and 5 at Nanaimo, B. C. All 
the collieries of Vancouver Isand were represented and 
some of those of the lower British Columbia mainland, 
but many of the persons expected did not attend because 
the steamboat service between the island and the main- 
land was interfered with by a strike of the mercantile 

W. M. Brewer, Government Mining Engineer, with 
headquarters at Nanaimo, occupied the chair and, after 
the announcement of the Institute ofl[icers for the next 
year, the formation of a coal-mining section was dis- 
cussed. The idea met with unanimous approval. It 
was felt that such a move would bring about a revival 
of interest among coal-mining men in the work of the 
Canadian Mining Institute. Those belonging to the 
proposed section could hold their meetings independent 
of the parent body, transact business having to do solely 
with the coal-mining industry, and adopt policies calcu- 
lated to benefit the" business of coal production both in 
relation to legislation and in regard to matters affecting 
only the collieries. At the same time it would be a part 
of the Canadian Mining Institute, its members would 
be members of the Canadian Mining Institute with all 
the privileges accruing to the same. 

The first step was the appointment of a committee 
consisting of Thomas Graham, general superintendent 
of the Canadian Collieries (D), Ltd.; George O'Brien, 
manager of No. 4 Colliery, Canadian Collieries (D), Ltd., 
and John Hunt, general superintendent of the Canadian 
Western Fuel Co., Ltd., to nominate a chairman and 
a council of five of the new section. The committee's 
report, which was adopted, made the following selec- 
tion : George Wilkinson, chief inspector of mines for 

British Columbia, chairman ; James Hargreaves, instruc- 
tor in connection with the technical branch of the Pro 
vincial Educational Department, secretary and editor; 
John Hunt, superintendent Canadian Western Fuel Co. ; 
Thomas Taylor, Pacific Coast Coal Mines, Ltd.; R. R. 
Wilson, manager, Granby Consolidated Mining and 
Smelting Co.'s coal mines, Cassidy's; Francis Glover, 
manager, Princeton Coal Mining Co.; Charles Graham, 
district superintendent, Comox Colliery, Canadian Col- 
lieries (D), Ltd., councillors. 

The afternoon session was devoted to the reading of 
papers as follows : "Taxation of Mines," by T. W. Bin- 
gay; "Mining Development in Northern British Colum- 
bia," by E. J. Conway; "Memorandum re Returned 
Soldiers Prospecting Organization," by Mortimer Lamb; 
"Tunneling at the Front," by Major A. W. Davies. 
Mr. Bingay's observations were along the same line 
as those he made at the recent International Convention 
at Vancouver. An interesting account of mining activ- 
ity in the northern districts, with particular reference 
to the work on the Hidden Creek mine of the Granby ^ 
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. near Anyox, was 
the subject matter of Mr. Conway's address. 

Mr. Lamb, in his memorandum, dealt with the pro- 
posal of the Canadian Mining Institute that the Domin- 
ion Government extend financial assistance to enable 
returned soldiers, with the necessary qualifications, to 
go into the hills for the purpose of prospecting. He 
pointed out that there were many who would prefer 
this to taking up land or to settling in cities; that it was 
a means whereby the latent mineral resources of the 
country might be brought to light and their develop- 
ment facilitated. 

Major Davies' address was one of the most interest- 
ing presented, being a personal account of some of his 
experiences in tunneling operations on the western 
front. He spoke of the difficulties with which those 
who burrowed under the enemies' lines had to contend, 
of the fortitude of those so engaged, of their successes 
and failures. 

The evening meeting was marked by the presentation 
of four papers, all of which related to coal mining. 
The first was entitled "Notes on Coal-Mine Air Sam- 
pling," by Dudley Michel, of the first-aid department 
of the Provincial Bureau of Mines. James Hargreaves 
followed on "Technical Education and its Relation to 
Coal Mining"; Charles Graham on "Regrading Slopes 
No. 4 Mine, Cumberland"; and H. H. Sanderson on 
"Development and Operation of Mine-Rescue Appar- 

On the morning of June 5 the delegates visited 
Cassidy's, the site of the new coal mine of the Granby 
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. They were es- 
corted over the plant by Mr. Wilson, the manager. The 
plant was pronounced the best installation yet seen in 
this part of Western Canada. 

Returning to Nanaimo the party augmented by a 
large section of the coal-mining fraternity of the city, 
witnessed at the Nanaimo Government Mine-Rescue 
Station a demonstration of the use of the Gibbs and 
the Paul mine-rescue apparatus by two mine-rescue 
corps, one from Ladysmith and the other from Nanaimo. 
The Ladysmith corps consisted of T. Davis, M. Thomp- 
son, A. Brovm and T. Hunter. The Nanaimo squad 
was composed of J. Kelly, H. Devlin, Jr., A. Mawhinney 
and J. Brown. The event closed in the evening with 
a delightful smoking concert which was largely attended. 

July 10, 1919 



Don't Handle Powder Kegs 



oufmay think it safe to handle powder roughly 
because there are no lights nearby. It isn't safe, 
of course, though you may think it is. But even 
if|it were safe — for you — it wouldjbe dangerous 
for others who have to take the kegs underground 
and handle them with lights on their heads. There 
never was a keg made so strong that it could 
not be sprung and caused to leak if handled with 
sufficient indifference to possible damage. 


a Powderman Holds the Lives of Men in His Two Hands 



Vol. 16, No. 2 



Certification and Safety 

Letter No. 10 — The discussion of this question has 
come to be very interesting. I had hoped that the 
earnest appeal made by James M. Roddie at the close 
of his letter, Coal Age, Apr. 17, p. 723, would bring a 
response from at least some of the mine inspectors of 
the country; but, on this as on all other questions per- 
taining to mining, there is a strange reluctance on the 
part of our inspectors to define their attitude and 

The present discussion grew out of the failure of the 
Coal Mining Institute of America (which includes a 
large number of coal mine inspectors) to come to any 
agreed conclusion as to whether the amended Penn- 
sylvania law, permitting the employment of uncerti- 
fied officials in coal mines, has been detrimental to the 
efficient and safe operation of the mines in that state, 
since the law went into effect. 

Time Reqiured to Ascektain the Effect of 
THE Law 

The question is not easy to answer and it is only 
natural that there should be some difference of opin- 
ion as to the effect of the amended law on the safety of 
the mines.' The best plan is to watch closely events 
as they transpire at the mines, which will show the 
practical working of the amended law. Time alone is 
required to show the effect of the enactment on the con- 
ditions of safety of mining operations. 

How long the amended mining law has been in force, 
permitting the employment of uncertified mine fore- 
men, I cannot say." I presume it is since the commence- 
ment of the war. As we all know, many of our coal 
mines were then operated under abnormal conditions. 
Discipline and vigilance gave way to the production of a 
greater output of coal, while hundreds of new and in- 
experienced men flocked to the mines seeking employ- 
ment. Under the conditions that prevailed on this ac- 
count, it seems only natural to believe that the acci- 
dents and injuries reported as having occurred during 
the period of the war were largely due to the inexperi- 

'It will be remembered that the Mine Inspectors' Institute 
of the United States of America, at their eighth annual meeting, 
June 10, 1915, St. Louis, Mo., discussed this same question at 
great length and unanimously adopted the following resolution : 
Resolved, that it is the sense of the Mine Inspectors' Institute 
that, in order to secure the greatest degree of safety in the 
operation of coal mines, it is absolutely essential that candidates 
for all positions of authority in respect to underground opera- 
tions should be required to qualify for such positions by passing 
an examination that will show their fitness and competency to 
conduct the operations in a mine in a safe manner. Coal Age, 
Vol. 9, p. 928 ; Transactions of the Institute, 1915, p. 74. 

=The amendment to the bituminous mine law of Pennsylvania, 
legalizing the employment of uncertified mine foremen, took 
effect June 1, 1915. The need of the amendment grew out of 
the adoption of the Compensation Law that made coal operators 
responsible and liable for injuries from accidents in their mines. 
The claim of the operators was that the liability rested with 
the state as long as operators were compelled to employ only 
mine foremen whose competency was certified to by the state. 
The matter was compromised by amending the law to permit 
operators to employ either a certified foreman or one "equally 

ence of the men employed, rather than to the ineffi- 
ciency of uncertified mine foremen. 

Referring again to the letter of Mr. Roddie, I fully 
agree with the opinion he expresses that applicants for 
certificates of competency should have a longer prac- 
tical mining experience than the five years required by 
law. Too often it happens that men are granted cer- 
tificates to act as mine foremen whose experience in 
mining has been no more than that of a timekeeper, 
clerk, or other employee whose duties required him to 
visit the inside of the mine only occasionally but who, by 
reading mining books and studying, have prepared 
themselves to pass the examination. In my judgment, 
there are many practical miners whose long experience 
underground makes them more fit to manage a mine 
than men of that class, notwithstanding their lack of 
technical education and knowledge. 

There is a class of miners who regard the mine fore- 
man's position as an easy one and seek to gain it because 
they do not like to work, and I regret to add that there 
are too many of this class who are granted certificates. 
Now, in order that the certificate granted a man shall 
be a better index of his ability and efficiency, the exami- 
nation should be made more rigid in its character, and 
the practical experience of the applicant should be made 
the determining factor in the granting of the certificate. 

There are many foremen now in charge of mines who 
obtained their certificates long ago, when the examina- 
tions were not as rigid or technical as is required today. 
Many of these, from the time they obtained their certifi- 
cates, have paid little or no attention to the study of 
mining questions and, of course, made no advance along 
this line. They are satisfied to think that the possession 
of their certificate is all that is necessary. 

Mine Foremen Need to Continue to Study 

It goes without saying that men who do not read 
and study fall far behind present-day requirements. On 
this account, it is my opinion that good results would 
follow if all certificates were limited to a period not 
exceeding ten years, and must then be renewed by the 
holder being required to pass another examination. This 
would have the eifect of keeping men reading and study- 
ing the many problems in mining and make them pro- 
gressive and up to date. 

Four j'ears' experience as state mine inspector 
brought me in contact with many mine officials and 
taught me that many men who hold high-grade certifi- 
cates are less competent to manage a mine safely than 
others holding a lower grade of certificate. To know how 
to operate a coal mine according to scientific and prac- 
tical methods is one thing, but to apply this knowledge 
is quite another thing, and here is where many men who 
have passed the examination fail in practice. 

In my judgment, the efficient mine foreman is the 
man who has plenty of both technical and practical min- 

July 10, 1919 



ing knowledge, a long experience and the energy to 
utilize these qualifications in the operation of a mine, 
and certification should depend on methods that clearly 
demonstrate these qualifications for service. 

Dayton, Tenn. John ROSE. 

Letter No. 11 — I have followed with intei'est the dis- 
cussion of the relation of the certification of mine 
officials to the safety in the mine, and can say, without 
hesitation, that I am not in favor of doing away with 
the examination of candidates for mine foreman's certif- 
icates. In my opinion, that would be a retrograde 

While it is true that a certificate held by a man does 
not make him better or worse, it does show certain 
traits in his character and marks him as a man posses- 
sing more or less ability and having a reasonably good 
character. This is evident, as readily appears, when 
we consider that there are a number of things required 
of a man before he can take the examination for a 
certificate of competency. For example, he must be a 
citizen of the United States and, in Pennsylvania, must 
have had five years' practical experience in the mines 
of that state and be sober and of temperate habits. 

What the Certificate Does Show 

The fact that a man holds a certificate shows that he 
has sufficient education to reason a thing out and is 
able to perform at least most of the duties required of 
a mine foreman and calling for a knowledge of the 
theory of mining or, in other words, a technical knowl- 
edge. It also shows that he is familiar with the min- 
ing laws of the state, as a large number of the questions 
asked in examinations, today, concern the requirements 
of the law in the operation of mines. 

The oral examination that the candidate must pass is 
intended more to show his knowledge of mine gases, 
their behavior and where they are to be found in the 
mine, besides ascertaining the man's ability to detect 
the presence of gas and protect the men placed daily in 
his charge. In fact, the certificate that a man holds is 
a mark of his general intelligence on the subject of 
coal mining. 

What Stitdy Does for a Mine Foreman 

Consider, for a moment, the man who has a limited 
education, one who left school when he was 11 or 12 
years of age, as I did myself. If such a one makes no 
attempt to study and improve himself, he will grow 
up to have a very narrow view of things. On the other 
hand, if he starts to study and takes a course of lessons 
and masters them, everything will appear to him in a 
different light than before. It is like the view from a 
porthole being suddenly enlarged to take in the entire 

There is no question but that a practical man is a 
good asset in mining; but when practice is supple- 
mented by a knowledge of theory, the benefit is far 
greater. Therefore, while a certificate is not worth 
more than the paper it is printed on, its possession 
shows a knowledge that is of far greater benefit to the 
man who has gained that knowledge by studying and 
reading. No one can convince me that a man who has 
gained his certificate by hard study is no better than 
the man who has not studied and holds no certificate. 
Today, no good reliable company thinks of employing 

an uncertified mine foreman if a certified man can be 

Only recently, I attended a superintendents' meeting 
where the management gave the men to understand 
that they desired them to employ only certified men as 
foremen and assistant foremen. Things are changing 
and changing fast in this respect. It used to be that 
any man having a good education was thought to be 
all right for the position of superintendent of a coal 
mine. Now, I dare say, 90 per cent, of the superintend- 
ents with whom I am acquainted are men who hold first- 
class certificates and have gone through the mill, 
serving as fireboss, assistant mine foreman and fore- 
man, until they reached their present position. There- 
fore let me advise any young man that has his eye on a 
superintendent's job to get busy and start from the 
bottom, as that is the only way to climb the ladder 
to success. Thomas Hogarth. 

Mclntyre, Penn. 

Waste of Coal 

Letter No. 7 — While it is not my disposition to find 
fault with the methods employed in this, my adopted 
country, I could not but feel deeply interested in the 
letter on this subject by F. C. Sanner, Coal Age, May 
22, p. 964. It is only too true that the waste of coal 
in this country is enormous. Mining conditions here 
and in England are quite similar in many respects, but 
there is not the same waste in mining in the old country 
that is manifest in this field where I am located at 

Let me illustrate by citing the conditions here, in the 
working of the No. 3 seam, which has an average thick- 
ness of from 5 to 7 ft. The coal is good but the roof 
conditions are poor, which often causes the miners to 
load dirty coal. However, I have seen far worse con- 
ditions in mines. The only method employed in the 
working of this coal seems to be the panel system. The 
panels are about 400 ft. in depth, while the rooms are 
driven on 33-ft. centers. 

In more than one instance, I have seen rooms driven 
40 to oO ft. in and then abandoned because of a roof 
fall in the room. No effort would be made to recover 
the balance of the coal in such rooms, but the track 
would be pulled out, and that was the end of it. The 
No. 4 seam, which is also worked here, has a thickness 
in some mines of only 3 J or 4 ft. The same method of 
mining is employed in this seam, but the waste of coal 
is not quite as large as in No. 3 seam. 

Results of Frequent Changes in Mine Foremen 

In one mine, in particular, the conditions are some- 
thing that would turn a practical mine foreman's hair 
gray in a short time. There is hardly a straight road in 
the mine, and the output is from 400 to 600 tons a day. 
The condition in this mine is the result of having 
changed bosses frequently. Most of these men knew 
nothing more than the panel system of mining, which 
was the limit of their experience. They received their 
certificates long ago, before examinations in mining 
were as strict as they are today. 

Now if a practical mine foreman who has had ex- 
perience in different methods of mining and under- 
stands longwall work could be given a free hand in 
this mine, it would not be long before he could raise 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

the tonnage to 1000 tons a day, by adopting the long- 
wall method of mining, and installing Blackett con- 
veyors at the working face. Coal-cutting machines 
are already employed in this mine, but the waste of 
coal will continue until improved mining methods are 
-, Ind. Mine Foreman. 

Specific Gravity Determination 
of Coal 

Letter No. 3 — Only recently I have been able to read 
carefully the extremely interesting letter by H. M. 
Chance, which appeared in Coal Age, Jan. 9, p. 68, 
concerning the specific gravity determination of coal. 
As his letter refers, in part, to my previous article 
on the routine determination of the specific gravity of 
coal, I may be permitted to add a few words. 

Dr. Chance refers to the close agreement of my 
figures. Attention should be directed to the fact that 
most of the figures given were averages, and that the 
agreement may be largely ascribed to the law of aver- 
ages. The method described by me was offered simply 
as a routine method, and particular accuracy was never 
claimed. The accuracy stated in the paper was given 
as 0.02 unit of specific gravity. 

Analyses Prove Specific Gravity Determination 

The average specific gravity of the ash of the hard 
white-ash coal referred to in my previous paper would. 
1 am convinced, be as high as the figures given by Dr. 
Chance, namely, 2.55, or 2.56, which figures he considers 
sui^prisingly high. I have selected about twenty 
analyses of the material commonly designated at the 
mines as "slate." These analyses were merely picked 
out at random, and show the following average ap- 
proximate results: 

Specific gravity 2.34 

Ash content 72% 

Sulphur content 0. 96% 

The twenty coal analyses from which these figures 
were averaged show ash percentages varjing from 48 
to 86 per cent. 

Hard white-ash coals do not commonly contain a 
large quantity of pyrite; in fact, the average sulphur 
content of such coal lies between 0.70 and 0.80 per cent. 

Dr. Chance calls attention to the variation in specific 
gravity of coals from different districts. This is an 
important point and one that is quite frequently 
neglected in practice. We have noticed that, for a given 
ash content, coals from different districts will have 
quite different specific gravities. The following table 
shows the specific gravity of coals from different dis- 
tricts, the figures being the average corresponding to 
an ash content of 18 per cent. Results showing average 
sulphur content are included as a matter of interest. 

Specific Gravity 

of Coal with Per Cent. 

Classification of Coals 18 Per Cent. Ash Sulphur 

Hard, white ash 1.68 0.70 

Free-burning white ash 1.66 0.74 

Schuylkill red ash 1.62 0.62 

Locust Mountain , 1.58 0.85 

Lorberry 1-56 . 66 

Lykens Valley 1-56 0. 56 

Shamokin 1.51 95 

It seems of interest to note here that, in the case 
of freshly mined anthracite, the specific gravity de- 
creases with an increasing volatile-matter content. For 

a difference of 0.17, frr specific gravity, as shown be- 
tween the two extremes in the table above, there will 
be a corresponding dffference of over 3 per cent, of 
volatile matter, the lower specific-gravity coal having 
the higher volatile-matter content. With decreasing 
specific gravity, coals of a given ash content will show 
a relatively higher heating value. 

Dr. Chance calls attention to the possible differences 
in the specific gravity of the ash of coal and the specific 
gravity of the ash of the so-called "slate." There is 
no question but that the data suggested by Dr. Chance 
could readily be obtained and published. I have myself 
taken just such low-ash samples picked free from bony 
coal or slate, such as referred to by Dr. Chancer bat 
the specific gravity of the samples was not determined 
at the time, and they were not kept. One such coal 
sample contained only 1.2 per cent, of ash. 

Results of some tests made on 14 samples of hard 
white-ash coal, the size known as "broken," showed an 
average specific gravity of 1.61, corresponding to an ash 
content of 9.02 per cent, and a sulphur content of 0.68 
per cent. I would assume that the specific gravity of 
ash-free coal of this nature would be approximately 1.52. 

Practical Use of Specific-Gravity Method 

Observation inclines me to believe, however, that, for 
the theoretical purposes brought out in Dr. Chance's 
letter, the specific-gravity determinations ought to be 
made by a more accurate method. The method described 
by me is simply a routine method and one that gives 
reasonable accuracy with little expenditure of time, and 
is adapted to finely crushed-coal samples. 

Departing somewhat from the subject under discus- 
sion, if I may, allow me to direct attention to a possible 
use of specific-gravity determinations; namely, the 
means they afford of judging the quality of the smaller 
sizes of coal, at the breakers. The specific-gravity 
figures offer a more reliable standard by which to judge 
the ash content of small coal than does the amount 
of slate found by an inspector. 

Moreover the specific-gravity determination can be 
made in less time. A small crusher could be installed 
to crush the coal sample, in order that a representative 
sample be thus obtained for making a specific-gravity 
determination; although the specific gravity might be 
determined on a larger sample, by means of a somewhat 
modified method, or by any different method. I simply 
mention this matter briefly, as it was not my purpose 
to discuss this aspect of the proposition, in this letter. 
A. G. Blakeley, Chief Chemist, 
Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron Co. 

Pottsville, Penn. 

Mine -Haulage Proposition 

Letter No. 3 — Looking over Coal Age, under date of 
June 5, p. 1053, I came across the inquiry of J. H. Dick- 
erson, of Cambridge, Ohio, with regard to a proposed 
change in the hauling system of his mine. To many 
people Mr. Dickerson's inquiry might give the impres- 
sion of inability on his part. However, the real mining 
man is never afraid to accept the viewpoint of his fel- 
lows ; nor yet is he adverse to criticism when it is con- 
ducted along legitimate lines. 

If we mining men, as a whole, adopted Mr. Dickerson's 
system with reference to many a problem that might 
come before us it is safe to say that considerable benefit 

July 10, 1919 



would result to all concerned. The problem he presents 
is one that most mining men run up against, from time 
to time, and no doubt will bring out much valuable 
comment from the more advanced readers of this val- 
uable magazine, which we have learned to love. 

To begin with, insofar as the grades go, the old 
haulage road is the most favorable. The difference is 
so slight, however, that this factor need not be consid- 
ered in opposition to the adoption of the new system. 
Eliminating the sharp curves at F, G, B and C on the 
old road will provide a more direct and ideal haul, and it 
should be possible for the motors to make better time 
even considering the slight plus grade between E and A. 

Estimating the Daily Saving by the Change 

Assuming that the original trip speed is maintained 
on an average over the entire haul after the change 
has been made, the output will increase in proportion to 
the decrease in the haulage distance. In other words, 
the output will be increased 85 tons per day, without 
increasing the original haulage equipment or crew. To 
be on the safe side, however, we will deduct 25 per cent, 
from this increase, and assume that the net gain is, 
say 65 tons per day, making total output, per shift, of 
1265 tons. 

Now, I will assume that the coal, f.o.b. the mine, is 
valued at $3 per ton, which is a conservative figure. 
Also, I will assume that the same underground and sur- 
face company force is capable of handling this increased 
output. If so it will mean a saving of $195 per day, 
or a net reduction on the increased output of 15c. per 
ton. This, to my mind, is the most important factor 
entering into the whole subject. 

Should the plus grade, shown at EA on the proposed 
cutoff, interfere with the efficiency of the motors, no 

°^jfp^fi O' ^^ -too' B 



Z'WO'Vi^SO' \^ 

■;ho\vin(; another proposed road 

great difficulty would be experienced in cutting this 
grade down, later. Any time lost, however, in ascend- 
ing the plus grade EA, should be easily off.set, during 
the descent of the minus grade from A to Z>. 

To go into the proposed change fully it is very 
necessary to have more data relative to local conditions. 
Mr. Dickerson does not state the size, amount, or 
cost of timber required for the cutoff, or the amount 
of bottom brushing or other rockwork to be done in 
order to secure the necessary height and width and the 
proposed grades. The efficiency of the labor available 
and the wages paid will also be a big matter for con- 
sideration. On the whole, however, I can see no serious 
difficulty in the way if the conditions existing through- 

out the entire length of the cutoff ED are at all normal. 
Mr. Dickerson states that he has two million tons of 
coal in sight. Then, assuming that he proceeds with 
the new road and increases his daily output 65 tons per 
day, estimating on 260 working days in a year, the 
tonnage in sight, assuming a 90 per cent, recovery, is 
suflScient to keep the mine running at the increased 
output. If so it will mean a saving of $195 per day, 
output for 5.47 years. Should the market value per 
ton remain at $3 during the entire period mentioned 
and an output of 1265 tons per day be maintained, the 
actual saving in that time will run well into six figures. 
As already stated, Mr. Dickerson has not supplied 
sufficient data with regard to local conditions, and one 
is liable to be considerably off when figuring the ulti- 
mate cost of the proposed change. I would, however, 
place the cost of completing the proposed cutoff at not 
more than $20,000, including all labor and material, 
which amount would be returned in less than four 
months' operation on the new road. Moreover, owing 
to the total haul between the face entry and the shaft 
being reduced in length, there should be a corresponding 
decrease in the per-ton cost for maintenance, during the 
entire life of the mine. 

SuGGFSTs Another Proposition 

In my opinion, if I may be allowed to criticize the 
proposed change, the better and most economical method 
would have been to commence the cutoff road at H. 
850 ft. outby, or toward the shaft, from the point 
marked C on the plan, and with a deviation of 45 deg. 
from the line CDE. This cutoff would touch the point 
B and cut through the corner at F ; and, assuming the 
face entry maintains the course shown on the plan, this 
cutoff would connect with the face entry at a point 
1175 ft. from the point E. The total length of this 
route El would be 3430 ft., as against 4875 ft. on the 
original haulage route. In Mr. Dickerson's proposed 
cutoff, the length between the same points H and / 
would be 4050 ft., or a difference of 875 ft. in favor of 
his proposed cutoff. 

With a cutoff such as I have proposed, it will be 
possible to reduce the entire length of the haul from 
the face entry to the shaft 1445 ft. My proposed 
method, however, would only hold good provided suitable 
grades could be maintained throughout its entire length. 
Being further away from the horseback shown on the 
plan, I would assume that the roof conditions through- 
out my proposed route would be much better than that 
of the route proposed by Mr. Dickerson. 

If such grades could be secured that would permit 
the original trip speed to be maintained the reduction 
of the haul, by adopting my proposed route, would 
mean that the output would be increased 147 tons, 
making the total possible output per shift 1347 tons; 
and, deducting 25 per cent, for emergencies, we can 
assume that the actual increase would be 110 tons. 

These figures, it is understood, are based on the 
original trip speed being maintained after the change. 
If conditions are favorable the latter method is prefer- 
able, and would produce much better results than the 
one proposed by Mr. Dickerson, which nevertheless in 
itself is good, and should be proceeded with for the 
following reasons: 

1. It will afford a more direct and ideal route from 
the live workings to the shaft. 

2. The total haul will be reduced 875 ft., which means 
that the motors can haul approximately 65 tons per 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

shift more than formerly without increasing the haulage 
crew or shaft bottom force. 

3. The first cost of equipping this proposed route 
should not exceed $20,000, for all labor and material. 

4. Based on the market value of $3 per ton at 
the mine, the saving due to the increased output would 
be roughly $195 per day, which means that the total 
cost of equipping the proposed route would be returned 
in less than four months. 

5. Having four and a half years' tonnage in sight 
and assuming that the shaft and tipple equipment is 
sufficient to handle the increased output without in- 
creasing the day force at the shaft bottom or on the 
tipple, the proposed change is justified. Even if the 
saving per ton is on the large side, and the figures 
quoted be cut in two the day company force remaining 
stationary, I would still consider the change a good 
investment and would loose no time in having the pro- 
posed cutoff completed and put in operation. 

J. H. McMillan, General Superintendent, 

Jasper Park Collieries, Ltd. 
Pocahontas, Alta., Canada. 

Labor and Democracy 

Letter No. 1 — In his cabled address to Congress, 
President Wilson says, in regard to the labor question : 
We must find another road, leading In another direction 
and to a very different destination. It must lead not merely 
to accommodation, but also to a genuine cooperation and 
partnership, based upon a real community of interest and 
participation (of employees) in control. . . . The object 
of all reform in this essential matter must be the genuine 
democratization of industry based upon a full recognition 
of the right of those who work ... to participate in some 
organic way in every decision which directly affects their 
welfare or the part they are to play in the industry. 

Whether or not we agree with the President, we can 
not but recognize the tremendous importance of his 
words. If based upon a wrong conception of business 
principles, or a mistaken theory of economics, their 
harmful effect upon industry, in general, will be well 
nigh incalculable, and we should at once make every 
effort to counteract their baneful influence. On the 
other hand, if his opinion embodies a sound business 
principle, based on a true theory of political economy, 
prudence would dictate that we cast about for a method 
by which his suggestion may be put into practical and 
early execution. 

However, if we attribute the President's remarks to a 
purely political motive it will be well to remember that 
the "Whitely Plan" — a cumbersome scheme looking to 
the democratization of industry, to the end the Presi- 
dent has in mind, and working through joint commit- 
tees of owners and employees — is now being given 
a tryout in England. 

England, as a natural consequence of the greater 
density of her population, may be logically expected to 
arrive at a definite and necessary labor program several 
decades before the problem can become economically 
acute in this country. But, because of the stand taken 
by the President, the question of the democratization 
of such industries as coal mines, railways and tele- 
graph lines will probably become politically paramount 
in the campaign of 1920 and there is a possibility, 
remotely probable, that some legislation looking to this 
end may be forced on the government. 

Viewed from a distance the "Whitely Plan," which is 

essentially English, does not lend itself to modification 
that would permit of its satisfactory application to 
American industry. Incidentally, there seem to be grave 
doubts, even among the English, of its applicability 
to the industries of the British Isles. 

Without entering into the question as to whether 
or not that portion of the President's cabled address 
dealing with proposed labor legislation is justified by 
existing conditions in America, we may safely assume 
that a ball has been started rolling which it will be 
difficult to stop. But, in the event of our failing to 
stop or even seriously impede its progress, a carefully 
thought out and well formulated plan for the democrati- 
zation of industry will then be helpful. 

Charles P. Steinmetz, in his recent article, entitled 
"How to Compass Industrial Cooperation," Coal Age, 
May 15, p. 904, has demonstrated that, in a very essen- 
tial particular, the interests of labor and capital are 
antagonistic. How then, may I ask, is it possible to 
reconcile these conflicting interests and secure com- 
plete cooperation? 

Under existing conditions the workman is capable 
of taking the viewpoint of the workman only. If, in 
addition to being a workman, he was also part owner 
of the concern for which he works, his breadth of 
vision would be so increased as to enable him to com- 
plete the symmetry of his outlook. This ability, even 
though his principal income continued to be derived from 
his labor, would qualify him to accord his employers 
a degree of cooperation not possible under present con- 

Concrete Example of Democratizing Industry 
Let me assume, for example, that a coal operation 
valued at $200,000 employs 100 workmen. In order 
that the employees might actually participate in both 
the profits and control of the organization, it would 
be necessary that they hold or control 50 per cent, of the 
capital stock. In that case, stock to the value of 
$100,000 would be issued to 100 workmen pro rata, or 
$1000, in stock, to each workman. In few instances 
could the man be expected to pay for this stock, which 
would necessitate the holding of the certificate in the 
company's treasury as collateral, and charging the 
worker with interest at 6 per cent, per annum, or $2.50 

The voting power of the stock would now be vested 
in the workman, which would entitle him to all infor- 
mation relative to the company's financial affairs and 
give him an actual voice in the shaping of the company's 
policies. He would also be entitled to receive any 
dividend earned on the company's stock, which, if the 
corporation were managed with reasonable efficiency, 
should considerably more than repay the amount de- 
ducted from his earnings as interest on his stock. 

It is readily realized that many complex details would 
have to be worked out in order that the organization 
might have a reasonable degree of flexibility; but the 
plan seemingly offers no diflSculties that are impossible 
of solution. Properly executed, the plan should fulfill 
the president's requirements of participation in control 
and give to workers a voice in the policy of the business 
that employs them. It should secure for capital a 
greater degree of cooperation on the part of all em- 
ployees and a material reduction of labor turnover, 
while assuring a 6 per cent, yield on 50 per cent, of the 
total invested capital. ECONOMIST. 
, Ky. 

July 10, 1919 





Installing High-Tension Lines 

Kindly explain a safe method of conducting electric 
power into a mine, a distance of nearly two miles 
(10,000 ft.) to the working face, for the operation of 
coal-cutting machines with direct current. According 
to the best information we have at hand, this propo- 
sition is going to be an expensive one, and we are anx- 
ious to learn what method can be adopted to insure 
the greatest safety and reduce the expense of the in- 
stallation. Operator. 

— , Tenn. 

The transmission of electric power long distances 
underground is always attended with danger to the 
workers employed in the mine and involves, besides, 
a considerable expenditure in making the installation. 
Whenever possible, a safer and more economical method 
to adopt is to sink a borehole from the surface, at a 
point immediately over the center of distribution in 
the mine workings, and erect a power line on the 
surface running direct from the power station to the 
drillhole. This power line should be carried on sub- 
stantial supports and the wire cable properly insulated 
and protected by a covering that will resist the weather. 
The drillhole should be cased with a pipe and the end 
of the pipe allowed to extend 10 or 15 ft. above the 
surface, so as to prevent accidental injury to the con- 
ductor where it enters the hole and passes down into 
the mine. 

In general, in long distance transmission, a.c. cur- 
rent should be employed and a transformer installed 
at the farther end of the line to step down the high 
voltage of the current, for the operation of the ma- 
chines in the mine. Or, if the machines are to be 
operated by d.c. current, a rotary converter should be 
employed to transform the a.c. current for use in such 
machines. An a.c. generator has no commutator, it 
does not present the difficulties due to sparking at the 
brushes, which always occurs when a d.c. generator is 
operated at a pressure exceeding, say 500 to 600 volts. 

It should be understood, here, that the saving effected 
in the transmission of a.c. current over long distances, 
by the reduction in the outlay for copper, will generally 
cover the expense of installing a converter set. For the 
same power transmitted, the weight of copper required 
decreases as the square of the voltage increases. For 
this reason, economy in transmission demands a high- 
voltage and small current, which is made possible by 
the use of an a.c. generator. 

To illustrate, the transmission of 30 hp., correspond- 
ing to a current of 22 amp. at 1000 volts pressure, a 
distance of 1 mile, allowing for a 15 per cent, line drop 
and wire return, would require a No. 8, B & S wire, 
having a diameter of practically 4 in. But, to transmit 
this same power at 250 volts (88 amp.) would require 
a wire having 16 times the sectional area, or 4 times 

the diameter. In other words, the second voltage men- 
tioned being one-fourth of the first, requires 4 times the 
current to produce the same power, and 16 times the 
weight of copper for its transmission over the same 
distance. Therefore, as previously stated, the weight 
of copper required for the transmission of a given 
power a given distance varies inversely as the square 
of the voltage, which makes a high voltage desirable 
in long distance transmission. 

It is not always practicable, however, to carry high- 
tension lines over the surface, in the manner described. 
Numerous conditions may demand that the power line 
be conducted through the mine, to the distributing point 
far back in the workings. In that case, it is absolutely 
essential that every precaution should be taken to safe- 
guard employees against the danger of contact with the 
line. As before, a high-tension conductor must be thor- 
oughly insulated and protected from injury, by means 
of suitable covering throughout its length. In addition, 
these high-tension cables must be substantially sup- 
ported by insulated hangers dropped from the roof of 
the entry, or attached to insulated supports affixed to 
the mine timbers. 

Welding Split Gears to Axle 

I want to a-sk the many readers of Coal Age if any of 
them have had experience in electric welding. At the 
present time, I have a hard proposition in the shape of 
a pair of split gears that are a trifle too large in the 
bore for the axle on which I desire to mount them. 

I want to ask if anyone has had a similar job and 
been able to handle it successfully, either by the process 
of electric welding or any other means that will serve 
to hold the gears tight on the axle. In this case, they 
nre to be mounted on the axle of an electric mine 

If someone who has performed the trick will state 
the process that he used in welding and the results ob- 
tained, the information will be greatly appreciated. If 
the acetylene torch was used in making the weld, did the 
heat of the flame make th3 axle brittle at that point? 
If the electric process was employed, what additional 
metal was used in making the weld? 

Perhaps some readers have used other means than 
welding for securing split gears on an axle that was too 
small for them and will be willing to tell how it was 
accomplished and with what success. I shall be glad 
of any information along this line. 

, W. Va. Mine Mechanic. 

Although the process of electric welding, now 80 
widely used, is comparatively new in mining practice, 
Coal Age is sure that some of its readers will be able 
to give the results of their experience in work similar 
to that described by this correspondent, and we hope 
for a generous re.sponse. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 




Mine Managers' Examination, 

Springfield, 111., April 8, 1919 

(Selected Questions) 

Ques. — What will be the diameter of an upcast 
shaft necessary to pass 200,000 cu.ft. per min., with a 
velocity of 500 ft. per minute? 

Ans. — The sectional area of this shaft is 200,000 h- 
500 := 400 sq.ft. Since the cross-section is a circle 
its diameter is rf = \/400/0.78.54 = 22.57, say 22 ft. 
7 in. 

Ques. — A return airway is 10 ft. wide and 5 ft. 
high, and the velocity 600 ft. per min. The air is 
composed by volume as follows: Nitrogen, 79 per cent.; 
oxygen, 20.96 per cent. ; carbide dioxide, 0.04 per cent. 
Find the number of cubic feet of each gas passing in 
this airway per minute. 

Ans. — The sectional area of the airway is 5 X 10 
= 50 sq.ft., and the volume of air passing, 50 X 600 
^ 30,000 cu.ft. per min. Therefore, the volume of 
nitrogen in the air current is 30,000 X 0.79 = 23,700 
cu.ft.; the volume of oxygen, 30,000 X 0.2096 == 6288 
cu.ft. ; and the volume of carbon dioxide, 30,000 X 
0.0004 = 12 cu.ft. 

Ques. — Taking the weight of a cubic foot of air at 
0.086 lb., what will be the weight of the air in a 
shaft 15 ft. in diameter and 250 yd. deep? 

Ans. — The sectional area of a shaft 15 ft. in diameter 
is 0.7854 X 15' = 176.715 sq.ft. The volume of air 
filling this shaft, or the cubic contents of the shaft 
for a depth of 3 X 250 = 750 ft., is 750 X 176715 
= 132,536-|- cu.ft., and the weight of this air is 
132,536 X 0.086 = 11,398+ lb. 

Ques. — A pillar of coal 450 ft. long and 132 ft. wide 
has been worked. The total weight of the coal is found 
to be 12,430 tons and its specific gravity 1.25. What 
was the thickness of the seam? 

Ans. — A horizontal section taken through this pillar 
has an area of 450 X 132 = 59,400 sq.ft. The weight 
of a cu.ft. of coal having a specific gravity of 1.25 
is 1.25 X 62.5 = 78.125 lb. Again, the cubic con- 
tents of 12,430 short tons of this coal is, therefore, 
(12,430 X 2000) -^ 78.125 = 318,208 cu.ft. Finally, 
the thickness of the coal in this pillar is 318,208 -^ 
59,400 = 5.35 ft. ; or 5 ft. 4i in. 

Ques. — Find the length of a dumb drift, which is 
driven from a level, starting 240 ft. from the shaft, 
;ind which enters the shaft 100 ft. above the level. 

Ans. — This is the dumb drift formerly used in the 
ventilation of a mine generating some gas and where 
the ventilation is produced by a furnace. The return 
air current, charged with gas, passed through the drift 
and entered the shaft at a point where there was less 
danger of the gas being ignited by the heat or by 
sparks from the furnace. The arrangement is seldom 

found in coal mining, today. The dumb drift repre- 
sents the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose respec- 
tive sides are 240 and 100 ft. in length. Therefore, 
the length of the drift is \/i00' + 240= = 260 ft. 

Ques. — (a) Name the gases found in the coal mines 
of this state, (b) Tell which gas is the most difficult 
to remove, (c) Which are explosive and which are 
non-explosive? (d) Give their chemical symbols. 

Ans. — (a) The common mine gases found in the 
mines of Illinois are methane or marsh gas ; carbon 
dioxide; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulphide and 
possibly, associated with methane, the heavy hydro- 
carbon gases, olefiant gas and ethane. The nitrogen and 
oxygen of the air are always present, (b) Probably 
the most difficult gas to remove is carbon dioxide when 
accumulated at the face of a dip heading or in dip 
workings. Methane, accumulated at the face of a pitch, 
is also difficult of removal, but less so than carbon 
dioxide in the dip, owing to the lesser density of the 
methane. (c) Of the gases named, those that are 
explosive when mixed with air in proper proportion are 
methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and the 
two heavy hydrocarbon gases mentioned. The non- 
explosive gases of those mentioned are carbon dioxide 
and nitrogen, (d) The symbols of the gases mentioned 
in the order given are CH,, CO,, CO, H.S, C,H,, 
C,H„, N, and 0,. 

Ques. — What is the real object of artificial respira- 

Ans. — The object of artificial respiration is to re- 
store the action of breathing, by alternately and 
mechanically contracting and expanding the lungs, 
thereby expelling the noxious gases or water from 
the lungs and causing the inhalation of pure air. 

Ques. — If an airtight stopping be erected in the main 
return airway, at a point 100 ft. from the fan, what 
effect will be produced on the fan? 

Ans. — The placing of an airtight stopping in the main 
return airway will block the further passage of air. 
The result is that the air will simply be churned 
within the fan and no current produced. The effect 
in the fan drift, outby from the stopping, is to in- 
crease the pressure to what is called the "static pres- 
sure" due to the fan. The static pressure due to a 
fan's action may be calculated, by multiplying the 
actual pressure produced by that fan when running 
at the same speed and discharging into the unobstructed 
fan drift, by the ratio of twice the acceleration due to 
gravity (64.32 ft. per sec), to the velocity (ft. per sec."* 
of the air in the unobstructed airway. In other words, 
the ratio of the static pressure to the actual pressure 
produced when a centrifugal fan is discharging into an 
unobstructed airway is equal to the ratio of twice the 
acceleration due to gravity, to the velocity of the air 
current that would be generated in the unobstructed 
airway, by the fan running at the given speed. 

July 10, 1919 






Suggests That American and English Coal 
Operators and Shippers Combine 

C. B. Wynkoop, President of Cosgrove & Wynkoop, Believes It 

Would Be to the Mutual Interest of American and English 

Coalmen to Get Together — Foreigners Need Coal 

CB. WYNKOOP, president of Cosgrove 
& Wynkoop, Ltd.. of 149 Broadway. 
* New York City, who recently returned 
from a six weeks' tour of liurope. wliere 
he went to look into coal-market conditions, 
believes it would be advantageous to all 
producers and shippers of American and 
English coals if they would get together 
under a sort of working agreement, as a 
result of which there would no longer be 
any obnoxious fighting between the coal- 
men of Arnerica and England. Mr. Wyn- 
koop has reached this conclusion after an 
exhaustive study of the situation as it af- 
fects mine owners in both countries. 

Mr. WjTikoop returns to America con- 
vinced that there is a big market for 
American coal on the other side of the 
Atlantic France and Italy, he says, are 
In dire straits for lack of coal, and the 
Italian railroads are burning anything that 
is burnable in order to move their trains. 
the fuel consisting largely of the bark of 
trees and the smaller limbs, the trunks 
being used for building purposes. 

"England," said Mr. Wynkoop, "is not 
producing coal enough to meet its own re- 
quirements, to say nothing of shipping it to 
outside maxkets. The producers are try- 
ing to hang on to the export trade but are 
finding it extremely hard. Their own do- 
mestic requirements are taking as much 
coal as they can produce. So long as 
these conditions exist (and it will take be- 
tween three and four years for mining to 
become anything like it was under pre- 
war conditions) there i.s a big field for 
American coals in foreign countries here- 
tofore supplied by the English. By that 
time our coal ought to be s' 
in these foreign markets as to make it 
exceedingly hard for Americans to lose the 

"To my surprise I found that the Eng- 
lish, instead of objecting seriously to an 
invasion of their markets by Americans, 
are anxious to make friends with the 
American coalman. 

"The conditions in Italy are extremely 
bad. American coals have been well re- 
ceived, and I heard nothing but good 
reports about their burning qualities. If 
we Americans do the right thing I think 
the chances for permanent business are 
good ; and there is plenty of business to 
be obtained. 

"There is a big market for the coals of 
the United States all through the Medi- 
terranean, but it must not be forgotten 
that con.sumers there have a lot of con- 
fidence in the English and will expect the 
same treatment from the American coal- 

Mr. W.\Tikoop is firmly of the belief that 
If American coals once get established in 
foreign lands and the coalmen wjU<e up to 
the situation English shippers will not be 
able to recover the business. One thing 
will be necessary, however, he declared 
and that Is that the American coalman 
revise his methods of doing buiness. 

Mr. Wynkoop spoke of the necessity of 
living up to contracts, which a great nianv 
in this country regard as "mere scraps of 
paper." In .\merlca, he sn.Ul. one party 
tried to make it as hard as possible for 
the other party to the contract and fre- 
quently Is able to squirm out of the agree- 
S?;^r! ''^u """ «'i»^''t''>^' in other 
words, the contract is regarded loosely. 

Forbids Export of British Coal 
to Marseilles 

The coal firms at Marseilles have taken 
exception to the action of the Ministry of 
Shipping in London, who refused to sanc- 
tion the export of any more coal to Mar- 
seilles in British ships, owing to informa- 
tion having reached them that coal in- 
tended for Marseilles has been re-exported 
at very higii prices, to Italy and Roumania! 
coals with those of England Mr Wvnkooo ;?■'",. ''^''*^' I? 'ookmg into the matter the 
believes that Pocahontas ir New Rive? Sieree^" ?Ll^'L?r"\'^^'^^^''"'^''' ?^ ^om- 
coals are equal to anything England Stf ?o w M n?S= decided to send a pro- 
produces, although the opinion might be from wh^nh ,h /',','"°^'""'?' "" Marseilles, 
contrary to the analyses. He said these ° Thi^^^t'^" J°"°"''?^ '^ """ e-^fact : 
' -■- - - - . . inis matter being of urgent importance 

to British interests here. I have brought 
It before my council and also before our 
Coal Advisory Committee, and the council 
are of opinion that the action of the Min- 
istry of Shipping was not justified on the 
facts at present known, and that it is ur- 
gently necessary that the decision of the 
Ministry of Shipping be reconsidered with- 
out delay. After careful examination this 
Chaniber is unable to trace any justifica- 
tion for the charges mentioned, and would 
be yery glad, if desired, to investigate any 

two grades of American coals were now 
doing the heavy work in some foreign 
countries better than it was being done 
by the best grades of English coals, and 
that they had already made a market for 

Another departure advocated by Mr 
WjTikoop is that every coal-selling" com- 
pany in this country send a salesman to 
Europe to become acquainted with the trade 
and to learn their methods of doing busi- 
ness. The method of salesmanship, he 

says, is entirely different from that em- o.,oi, „i - ■.' -" — ^.= ,^,sai^c mij 

Ployed here. The English salesman is n™t ?"trust ?hff «"?°," Z^*'''''''" "' ''"'■"^*"' '^''*^'^ 
as aggressive as his American brother, ■ • ^' ^ solution may soon be found 

and even in these strenuous davs finds" thne 
to take his afternoon tea and a frequent 

The Southern American trade, Mr. Wyn- 
koop declared, should belong to Ameri- 
cans. He said the English were badly 
frightened over the fact that that market 
IS gradually but surely getting awav from 
them, and that the prospects of their ever 
being able to regain it are becoming more 
remote every day. But, he declared 
Americans must be careful as to the qual- 
ity of coal they send to these South Ameri- 
can countries if they wish to retain those 
markets. Consumers there are familiar 
on y with the best the market affords and 
will insist upon receiving the same grades 
from the United States. Then it should 
also be remembered, added Mr. Wynkoop 

... . . , may soon be found, 

as it IS obviously extremely hard on the 
many British and French firms engaged 
in this trade that they should be penalized 
in this way. and if an offender exists it 
would presumably be suflicient to blacklist 
that offender. 

High Wages Paid to English Coal 

Shipowners have been called upon to face 
unusually heavy bills for 
" the South Wales 

trimming coal 

T- , -," "'^" ports, remarks the 

Liverpool Journal of Commerce. Recently 
a case has occurred in whinh a <r<,„„ „<= <^„/ 

case has 9ccurred in which a gang of Car- 
^.iff coal trimmers received £16 per man for 
^^'^ J^^'^, '^'"'^ ""^ "''^ present limited hours 
and another case is recorded in which eacli 
for three hours' work. 

II established that America will take coniparativeiv little man drew 

■ ?L ^ products of South America in'retum demand maue ov uie south whales nriai t-i,,, 

nnon 'fh»?^'' ''■'J"-^ England is dependent mers for a further In per cent fncrease ha," 

and h?des °°""tries for much of its grain been rejected by the Tfimmfng Board ''on^? 

Export Association to Assist 
Foreign Buyers 

Arrangements have been made bv the 
American Manufacturers' Export Associa- 
tion whereby introduction cards will be 
placed in the hands of foreign buyers about 
to visit this ciuinlry. These cards, properly 
.signed by representatives of the United 
htates Government abroad, hanks cham- 
bers of commerce and the representative of 
the Export As.sociation In foreign lands, will 
serve to accredit visiting buyers to the 
^ew "Vork ofiice of the Export Association. 
Buyers seeking particular kinds of mer- 
chandise will thus be aided bv the a.sso- 
eiation in getting in touch with American 
manufacturers producing the kind of goods 
desired. This will result in putting foreign 
purcha.sers in direct touch with American 

wh;;',K-; ;u" »g"'<?ement was arrived at 
Whereby the employers gave an extra 20 
^^L,'^ ■ !"crease in wages, making their 
total earnings 116 per cent, above prewar 


South Wales coal trimmers' „, 

comments the Nautical Gasette, therefore 
are above the remuneration of many pro- 

^Ihfl'i'i'v'^If'"''"- ^^""^ !?' however, no pos- 
sibihtj of any great influx of labor to coal 
trimming, inasmuch as it is not possible it 
IS understood, to become a eoal trimmer 
TT^iti^" .u '* consent of the Coal Trimmers' 
^I^^»;. '^^ nuahfication being that the ap- 
plicant s father must be a coal trimmer 

■nie War Trade Board announced on June 
-1 that shipments of coal may now he 

hoard and that the collectors of customs 
have been notified to disregard the provision 
contained in export licenses already issued 
to theeffect shipment must be made 
south thereof. 

from Philadelphia or ports 

The Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung learns Market for Coal in Pernainhii/.r. 
at a new coal agreement h;is been con- '""^'-■- a^i vji»ai iii rerndmnUCO 


eluded between Germany and .Switzerland 

effective as from June 1. for the delivery 

of sn.nno tons of coke and 20,0(10 tons of 

coal per month for a period of six months 

Iirobable that a further 12.000 tons briquets will also be dellv- 

figures ^iven refer exclusively 

if bro 
to fuel from" the Ruhr district 

comparing '"t1?e^%ua.lty of American ^'n%^n-'a^^e?ig^S'f 'a°bo^u\ Ts^Vr." pr^fo^.''"' 

The coals used for bunkering steamships, 
reports Consul A. T. Haeberle. Pernambuco. 
Brazil, under date of Mar. 9. 1919 arc 
Pocahonta.s .-rnd Now River from the United 
?.o J'c^''"'' .^"'■'h Country from lOngland. 
Cardiff coal has not been .Mhipped Into 
Pernambuco for some time, although It Is 
preferred for bunkering and no 
doubt \vhen things are normal it will be 
Imported again to a great extent. Re- 
cently the average price of coal, either gas 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

or steam coal, has been about £8 10s. 
($41.3 6) per ton, but there is every reason 
to believe it will be reduced considerably 
within a short period. 

The gas worlds in Pernambuco are man- 
aged by the tramways, and they have been 
receiving coal from Lancashire, although 
in June last year a shipment came from 
Newport News. The price of American 
coal alongside quay was practically that 
given above. The gas company is said 
to consume a great deal of wood in gas 
production. The tramways have been 
generating their power from wood for some 
time, and until coal returns to a normal 
figure they will probably continue to do so. 

The local rate for unloading a steamer 
with the use of winches and winchmen is 
2 milreis (50 cents United States currency) 
per ton, and that for a sailer varies be- 
tween 2 and 3 milreis, according to facili- 
ties offered by the ship's gear, as there are 
times when the master of a sailer refuses 
to allow the use of the winch. In any 
case, the price for the latter can be reck- 
oned at 3 milreis. 

The impori uuty on coal at present is 
2 per cent, on a fixed value of 20 milreis 
per ton. The customs authorities are en- 
deavoring to base the duty on the invoice 
value, but up to the present no change has 
been made. There is also 1 milreis per 
ton paid by the ship to the port works as 
a conservancy tax, and another tax of 4 
milreis per ton, which is, for the present, 
in abeyance, as the port authorities can 
not collect this latter amount until an offi- 
cial coal depot is made by the port works. 

American Coal for France 

The French Government is arranging to 
import 1.000,000 tons of coal from the 
United States, and will employ a special 
fleet of ships for the purpose. Louis 
Loucheur, Minister of Reconstruction, said 
in the Chamber of Deputies recently that 
while France might not be able to face tut 
coming winter without misgivings regard- 
ing the fuel supply, she would be able 
to tide over the coal crisis, which, he added, 
is worldwide. 

Great Britain, -which exported 80.000,000 
tons of coal a year before the w^ar, he re- 
marked, has reduced her sales abroad to 
40,000.000 tons, and will perhaps shut off 
exportation altogether. He continued by 
sayiner that France must rely on Germany 
for 20.000,000 tons of coal annually, to re- 
place the diminished production in the 
north of France, and 7,000.000 tons in addi- 
tion, which France imported from Germany 
each year before the war. 

Coal Production of Dutch East 

According to the Dutch Bast Indian 
Archipelae-o. the consumption of coal in the 
Dutch Fist Indies has increased from 
600.000 to"s for the year 1914 to 1.000 000 
tons in IfliS. Before the war about 400,- 
000 tons were imported from Australia and 
Japan, a cnn^iderable portion of it being 
for state railwnvs. which in 191.^ consumed 
more than 1K0.0OO tons of foreign coal. 

The scarcity of tonnage on the usual 

trade routes was the direct cause of the Cincan Vr-fiaVit Ratf>e nn Crta} 

increase in the use of home coal. It is V^Cean rrClgni liaiCS On \_.Oai 

possible that Australian and Japanese coal Ti^rntn fTnitprI ^tatps 

will again find a market in Java and the T rom UnUCQ OiatCS 

outer possessions, as boats from those two 

countries coming to the Dutch East Indies The United States Shipping Board's rates 

for raw materials will bring coal as ballast on export coal to European ports aro as 

Moreover, it is possible that Indian coal follows per gross ton; 

may find a market in Singapore and Daily 

Padang, which import about 1.000,000 tons Discharge,* 

from Australia, Japan and British India. To 'Tona Rate 

The chief sources of, supply of Indian Bordeaux and Havre 700 $22.50 

coal are the Ombilm mines, situated near Antwerp and Rotterdam 1000 22.50 

Padang, Sumatra, and the mines of Pulo Christiania 1000 27 00 

Laut, a -small island lying off the south- Gothenburg (Sweden) .'.■.■.■.■,■..■: i.'! .' 1000 26.'50 
east coast of Borneo, both areas being Heisingfors 800 30 00 

worked by the Government. The Ombilin Copenhagen or iloune (Denmark).'.! 1000 27100 
mines are by far the more important, pro- Landskrona or Malmo (Sweden) .. . 1000 27.00 

ducing about 480.000 tons in 1917 and 470.- Oxelosund 1000 28 00 

000 tons in 1918. The Pulo Laut mines Stockholm 1500 28 00 

average 120.000 tons a year. Private min- Marseilles '.'.'.'.'.".'..'...'.', 1000 26.00 

ing companies produce about 110,000 tons Spanish Mediterranean ports 1000 26.00 

a year. The output of the Lemantang Genoa 1000 26.50 

area, Sumatra, is expected to reach fully Leghorn 700 26.50 

200.000 tons, and an endeavor will be made Naples 1000 26.00 

to increase this by about 20.000 tons each Trieste, Fiume or 'Venice 800 31.00 

year. There is a coal area at Tandjoeng, Patras and Piraeus 700 28 50 

Sumatra, which, it is claimed, yields good St. Nazaire 700 22.50 

steam coal; in fact, it is considered the Cherbourg 700 22.50 

best produced in the colonies. The Gov- Rouen 1000 23.00 

ernment proposes to develop this district. Ternewzen 1000 22.50 

The port of delivery of the Ombilin coal Heisingfors, Sundsvall 800 30.00 

is Emmahaven, the port of Padang. It is Bergen, Christiania 1000 27.00 

connected witli the coal mines by a rail- Korsor 1000 27.00 

way about 9.t miles long, a part, owing to Trondhjem 1000 28.00 

the very hilly country, being constructed Lisbon 1000 22.50 

on the cogTVheel system. The Government Cadiz 1000 23.50 

has constructed all modern appliances at Bilboa, Cartagena, Barcelona 1000 26.00 

Emmahaven for the quick dispatch of coal. Cette 1000 26.00 

The Ombilin fields extend for 10 kilo- Civitavecchia.. ..... . 000 26.00 

meters (6.2 miles) and have a breadth of Nice. Leghorn, Spezia, Savona 000 26.50 

9 kilometers (5.6 miles). The seams are J'^aeua 1000 |?-50 

usually very thick, some being 23 meters Salonica 000 31.00 

(75 ft.). The mines are generally worked ^^"- ■■■.■■■ y ■;^- ■■ ■ ^,- J™ l",)!,^ 

by tunnels, and all modern equipment Is Constantinople, Constanza, Smyrna 1000 31.00 

employed. The supply is estimated at Algiers, Oran 800 26.00 

200.000,000 metric tons of coal, and about '""'s """ ^°ll! 

Issi'Tdlle.^ '""''^ ^''" extracted from i'S-dHa.PorlSaid.:::::::;:::: ISoO 31.05 

* Discharge is as indicated in the tabulation, with 

T-v r o rn 1 /*\ time counting 24 hours, after arrival of vessel. 

Department OI state 1 akeS Uver whether in berth or not, Sundays and holidays only 

.... r xvr Ti 1 n 1 excepted. If discharge is not completed within the 

Actl'VltieS OI War Irade rJOard time specified demurrage is to be paid at the rate of 

„, $1.00 per net registered ton per running day, payable 

The Department of State and the War day by day. 

Trade Board announce that, pursuant to an 

executive order signed by tlie President on 
May 12, 1919, the present personnel, duties, 
powers, functions and records of the War 
Trade Board have been transferred to the 
Department of State as of July 1, 1919. 

This transfer will not affect nor incon- 
venience the exporting and importing pub- 
lic in any way. All licenses heretofore 
issued by the War Trade Board will con- 
tinue to be valid except licenses for the 
exportation or importation of wheat and 
wheat flour. 

The functions of the War Trade Board 
thus transferred to the Department of State 
will continue to be performed by the pres- 
ent personnel of the War Trade Board in 
the War Trade Board building at Twentieth 
and C Sts.. Washington. D. C. 

All licenses will continue to be issued in 
the n.ime of the War Trade Board, and all 
applicntions for licenses, and all corre- 
Ronndence pertaining to the activities of the 
Wnr Trade Board, now assumed by the 
Department of State, should be addressed 
to the War Trade Board as heretofore. 

Coal and Coke Exports from 
New York in May, 1919 

The exports of coal and coke through 
the Port of New York during May of this 
year were the smallest in three years, those 
of 1917 and 1918 exceeding them both in 
tonnage and value, although the average 
price per ton this year was larger than 
the previous years, with the exception ot 
coke in 1917. 

But three countries received bituminous 
coal through New York during May of 
this year, a decrease of two countries when 
compared with either of the two previous 
years. Fourteen countries received ship- 
ments of anthracite through this port in 

1917 as compared with five countries in 

1918 and seven this year. 

Comparison of tonnages and values for 
the three years is shown In the following 
tabulation : 

. I9I7 . 

Tona "Value 

Argentina 22 $375 



Bra7il 168 1,597 

British <3uiana 

Canada 10,621 83,844 

Chile 391 6,118 

Colombia 9 145 

Costa Rica 5 75 

Cuba 1396 7,000 

Danish West Indies 

Dutch East Indies 

Ecuador 25 400 


French W.I 


Haiti 50 725 

Italy, ■• 

Jamaica 2 27 

Mexico 69 443 

Newfoundland 1,645 14,128 



Portucal - ■ ■ 

San Domingo 2,301 18,128 


'Venezuela 10 150 

Total 16,714 $133,327 

Av. cost per ton $7.97-1- 

. 1918 . . 1919 . . — 1917 — . . 1918 . ^—1919 — . . 1917 . - 

Tons Value Tons Value Tons Value Tona Value Tons Value Tons Value Tons Value 

263 $6,100 

23 $215 25 $334 

50 $500 

482 3,736 352 2,376 7.437 52,734 14 $210 



3,341 21,627 2,431 20,232 



1,258 25,899 


501 3,215 200 1.670 

600 195 2,067 




120 3,800 

25 700 

1,540 15,000 

21 472 17 393 



4,444 $30,158 3,601 $29,402 995 $7,147 8,117 $58,118 540 $4,517 1,900 $38,063 2,153 $30,868 
$6.78-1- $8.16+ $7.19-1- $7.16-1- $8.36+ $20.03+ $14.33+ 

July 10, 1919 




Harrisburg, Penn. 

The bill presented by Senator Crow of 
-Fayette County, granting the right and 
lawful authority to corporations to con- 
struct and operate tunnels under the bed 
-of navigable streams where necessary to 
reach their coal supply, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Water Supply Commission, 
is in the hands of the Governor. 

This bill went through the Legislature 
without much noise, and provides that from 
and after the passage of the act, that 
where any power or manufacturing plant 
of any company heretofore or hereafter 
incorporated under the laws of Pennsyl- 
vania is situated upon or near the bank of 
any navigable stream, and such company 
has the right, either as the owner in fee 
or by lease, to mine coal from or under 
lands adjoining or adjacent to the opposite 
■bank, then the company shall have the 
right and lawful authority to construct, 
operate and maintain tunnels under such 
a navigable stream so as to connect its 
coal lands and any mine operated in con- 
nection with such coal lands with a power 
plant of the company, provided, before any 
company begins the construction of any 
tunnel, it shall make application to and 
secure the approval of the Water Supply 
Commission of Pennsylvania. The bill also 
provides that the corporation constructing 
such a tunnel shall pay to the State of 
Pennsylvania the fair market value for all 
coal mined in constructing such a tunnel. 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Mliile the same conditions did not apply 
in other parts of the state, yet in this sec- 
tion under improved transportation con- 
ditions, mines were able to get out more 
coal during the last week of June than at 
any time during that month, which has so 
far proved to be the best of the calendar 
year ; although floods in one or two sec- 
tions of the Kanawha Valley virtually 
marooned all mines on certain railroads for 
a period of three or four days, so that no 
coal whatsoever was shipped. However, 
traffic on trunk lines operating in this ter- 
ritory was not affected. Careful inquiry 
in the producing fields of this section 
elicits the information, that there was dur- 
ing the last week of June at least a ten 
per cent, increase in the output mainly 
due to the fact that more cars were fur- 
nished the mines than at any time in the 
month ; other districts, however, did not 
fare quite so welL 

While production in general has not 
reached its maximum, the trend is rapidly 
tending in that direction in West Virginia, 
at least in so far as market conditions are 
concerned ; local conditions are mainly 
responsible for holding back production 
and in some sections in this part of the 
state the output now equals about 85 per 
cent, of capacity. Labor gives the impres- 
sion of becoming scarcer each succeeding 
week in the face of a more plentiful car 
supply, which gives the mines larger op- 
portunities for work. The demand for all 
kinds of coal was most pronounced in West 
Virginia at the beginning of July, e.specially 
as to smokeless, moat of which is said to 
be under contract. In fact smokeless pro- 
ducers claim that fully 90 per cent, of the 
output of smokeless regions is under con- 
tract now. 

Gas and splint coal mine-run are also 
finding a much readier market than was 
the case even by the middle of June AI- 
Thouirh there is room for improvement as 
to steam coal, still with industrial con- 
sumers, under the necessity of restocking 
and making provision for future needs, even 
that coal is showing greater .activity. 
Eastern markets on the whole are using 
bv far the larirest proportion of West Vir- 
ginia coal, although Western markets are 
also showing increased activity. 'tide- 
water shipments during the week ended 
June 2^ were heavy. Indicating 
a marked crowth In the export demand. As 
the demand becomes stifter. prices on ail 

kinds of West Virginia coal are also mov- 
ing upward. As one West Virginia oper- 
ator puts it, it is more a question of get- 
ting coal loaded than of selling It 

Production in the New River field was 
unusually heavy at the end of June, an 
excellent car supply enabling the mines to 
run continuously throughout the week. A 
number of companies had about a 100 per 
cent, supply of cars, though the general 
average was somewhat lower than that. 
The return of a certain number of mine 
workers to the field has also made it pos- 
sible to produce more coal in the district, 
though in general miners are still hard to 
secure and for that reason there is not a 
full production. As was the case earlier 
in June the greater part of New River ton- 
nage was being moved to tidewater and 
general Eastern markets for bunkering and 
export, although the Navy was a heavy 
consumer of New River coal. The demand 
for mine-run smokeless was becoming heav- 
ier and consequently there was an increase 
in the price, the average quotation for 
mine-run being $3.25 a ton. Prepared sizes 
ranged in price from $3.50 to $4.00 a ton. 
With mine-run in heavier demand it was 
found easier to move stock. 

By the end of June the mines of the 
Kanawha district had almost succeeded in 
reaching a production as high as that at- 
tained during most of the time in 1918. 
the output during the last week of June 
being approximately 75 per cent, of full 
time capacity ; total production was close 
to 190.000 tons, an increase of about 10 or 
15 per cent, over the previous week. It was 
largely through a better car supply that 
such results were secured. Inquiries for all 
kinds of coal were much heavier. It was 
apparent in fact that market conditions 
were still becoming more favorable. That 
was true at least as to splint and gas 
mine-run, the demand for which in the 
East has become sustained, much of such 
coal being consigned to tidewater. While 
the sales of steam coal were larger than 
during previous weeks, such coals were not 
quite as active as others. A surprisingly 
large amount of Kanawha coal is being 
shipped eastward, although usually the 
markets for Kanawha coal have been in 
the West rather than the East The last 
week in June found an additional number 
of companies with their product under con- 
tract. Contract mine-run had reached a 
price of from $2.25 to $2.35, while mine-run 
spot was averaging $2.25. Prepared sizes 
advanced in price from about $3.00 to $3.25 
a ton. 

Huntington, W. Va. 

Further gains were scored in the produc- 
tion of coal in the Logan mining district 
during the week ended June 28, the total 
output being 237,759 tons, as compared with 
232.129 tons for the previous week. There 
was an output of 237,708 tons during the 
corresponding period of last year. There 
was a very slight increase in the car short- 
age loss during the week, lack of cars still 
affecting production to the extent of 30,859 
tons or about 10 per cent of capacity. This 
was offset, however, by a somewhat im- 
proved market, only 23,776 tons being lost 
because of no market. Mine workers were 
somewhat more scarce, the percentage of 
less from labor .shortage being almost 3 
per cent or 8593 tons as against 2722 for 
the previous week. The output now 
amounts to 76 per cent, of capacity. 

It became necessary on July 3 to place 
an embargo on Lake shipments, according 
to a notice received by operators of the 
Guyan Valley, owing to an accumulation 
of I^ake coal on port roads ; also owing 
to the small number of vessels av.allable. 
an embargo was impo.<<id on the loading 
of all T,ake coal to Toledo, covering a period 
of 72 hrs. or up until July 6 Between the 
embarero and the fact so mtiny miners 
were helping to bury John Barleycorn as 
well as to celebrate Independence Day, pro- 
duction probably slumped to 5ft per cent, 
during the first five days of July. 

Another gain in Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 
coal loading was revealed in the official 
figures issued at the local offices. Five 
hundred more cars were loaded in June, 
1919, than in June, 1918, a month when 
war production was at a high level. 

Fairmont, W. Va. 

Dents were made in the production of 
the Fairmont and other northern West Vir- 
ginia fields, served by the Baltimore & 
Ohio, during the last ten days of June, 
by a quite acute car shortage which, while 
generally anticipated, was not expected so 
soon. The fact that there were a surplus 
number of cars on hand, owing to the heavy 
car supply of earlier weeks, was all that 
prevented a general suspension or at least 
a limitation of operations throughout north- 
ern West Virginia fields. As It was 25 
companies were affected in the Fairmont 
district proper for a day or so, there being 
only about 500 cars furnished along toward 
the middle of the last week of the month 
as against a requirement of about 900. 
There was no improvement as to Lake ship- 
ments. Producers ascribe the limited ton- 
nage moving to the Lakes from northern 
West Virginia fields as being due largely 
to rate discrimination. The tonnage mov- 
ing Lakeward was even less than during 
the "week ended June 21 : while on the 
contrary shipments to tidewater were some- 
what heavier. There was an enlarged de- 
mand for railroad fuel apparent during the 
week- 'While Western tonnage has been 
running rather light, the loss has been more 
than compensated for by a gain in Eastern 
business. It also became apparent that 
industrial consumers were buying more 

Bluefield, W. Va. 

There was a complete recovery in the 
Pocahontas district during the week ended 
June 2S from the production slump of the 
previous week, production reaching the 
highest point in recent months, 336,695 
tons, as against 156,000 tons for the previ- 
ous week, a gain of 140.000 tons. Such re- 
covery was made possible entirely because 
of a most marked improvement in car 
service, the loss from a shortage of cars 
being reduced from 263.000 to 37,105 tons, 
a difference of 225.000 tons alone in that 
respect. There would have been an even 
larger gain in production but for the fact 
tb,at the labor shortage loss jumped from 
791 tons to 10,467 tons and mine disability 
from 1945 tons to 10,382 tons. As It was, 
however, the total production loss was cut 
down from 265.000 tons to 58.215 tons, a 
gain of 207.000 tons. That Pocahontas 
coal, in addition to the extremely large ton- 
nage under contract for the coal year, is 
being sold as fast as mined Is shown by 
the fact that there was no loss whatsoever 
from "no market" The demand for ex- 
port coal from this field has become quite 
heavy and prices are showing further ten- 
dencies to advance. In most markets Poca- 
hontas prepared is selling from $4.50 a ton 
upward. Coke production Is still around 
7000 tons. 

A gain of 23.000 tons was made In 
the Kenova-Thacker district during the 
week ended June 28. production being 110,- 
897 tons as against 77.738 tons for the 
previous week ; there was a production of 
'40.624 tons for the same period of 1918. 
In short the mines of this district were 
producing up to about 62 per cent, of ca- 
pacity ; the loss In output was 68.497 tons, 
with a car shortage loss of 1 5 per cent, 
amounting to 28.897 tons, that being a re- 
duction, however, of 38.000 tons. There also a larger market for Kenova- 
Thacker coal as shown by the fact that the 
loss from no market was reduced to the 
extent of 13.000 tons. It Is believed that 
production for the first week of July will 
show a decrease owing to the fact that 
miners In many Instances spent most of 
the week on ah Independence Day vacation. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Columbus, Ohio 

On June 26 Jerome Watson, chief deputy 
and safety commissioner of mines, of ihe 
state of Ohio, sent the following communi- 
cation to the operators and miners of that 
commonwealth ; 

"The recent terrible disaster which oc- 
curred at Wilkes-Barre, Penn., in which the 
lives of approximately 100 men were 
snuffed out in an instant, as the result of 
an explosion of powder which was being 
conveyed into the mine in a car attached to 
a man-trip, and which was ignited either 
by a spark or by a short circuit from the 
electric wires which were carried along the 
entry, has prompted the Mining Depart- 
ment of Ohio to call your attention to the 
following section of the mining laws re- 
lating to the conveying of explosives into 
the mines of our state : 

"Section 962. • • » (Conveying of 
Explosives) 'Blasting powder or explosives 
must not be taken into or out of a mine, or 
moved from place to place in a mine along 
any entry or haulway where there are elec- 
tric wires, while the power is on such wires, 
except when such powder or explosive is 
conveyed in insulated cars or packages.' 

"In connection with the following the 
Minine: Department hereby issues the fol- 
lowing order, effective at once : That no 
powder or other explosives be conveyed, 
transported or taken into or out of any 
mine in this state, on any trip in which 
men are being hauled to and from their 
working places. and only those whose 
duties so require shall ride on, or in any 
car containing powder or other explosives. 

"The purpose of the above order is to 
eliminate the danger of an accident of a 
like nature occurring in any of the mines 
of our state. We all know that had such a 
rule been enforced at this ill-fated mine at 
Wilkes-Barre, all of the horrors and suffer- 
ing that attended this disaster would have 
been averted, and those men who sufCerea 
and died would have been alive today. The 
Mining Department will insist upon this 
order being comnlied with and expects your 
cooperation in the enforcement of same." 

A similar law is operative in Illinois as 
regards shutting off the electric power on 
wires when explosives are being moved in 
proximity to current conductors in the 

Ottawa, Ont. 

As the result of an investigation by a 
Committee of the Senate into the granting 
of certain valuable coal leases in the 
Smoky River district of the Alberta Peace 
River to Colonel A. T. Shillington and C. 
A. Barnard, the leases have been cancelled 
by the Canadian Government. The lessees 
had made application for the right to build 
a railway to be known as the Athabasca, 
Grand Prairie & Vermilion Ry. for the de- 
velopment of their property, and when the 
matter came up in the Senate, objection was 
raised on the ground of reports concern- 
ing the manner in which the leases had 
been secured. An investigation disclosed 
the fact that the lands were originally 
leased to Dr. Hoppe. a German-American, 
in 1912. at an annual rental of $1 per acre 
for IS.SOO acres. He made default in his 
payments in 1918, and on Aug. 3 of that 
year the lease was cancelled. Dr. Hoppe 
and associates had spent some $200,000 in 
exploration and mining work, proving the 
valuable nature of the deposit. Shillington 
and Barnard somehow obtained inside in- 
formation to this effect before the cancella- 
tion of the lease to Dr. Hoppe, and par- 
ties acting in their interests proceeded to 
stake the claims on the first opportunity. 
D. B. Dowling, of the Canadian Geological 
Survey, testified that the area is probably 
the most valuable of its kind in Canada 
and estimates the coal content at 400.- 
000.000 tons of s( mi-.inthracite coal, su- 
perior in grnil. I.I :mv other of that kind 
in the Domini.. n li is not charged that 
there was an\iliin!: .i 1... Mutely illegal in the 
second stakinu, ili. uicnnd on which the 
leases were cnn.-li..! t.<iiig that property 
known to be . n<.rni..iisl>' valuable should 
not be handi.fl r tn private individuals 
for exploitation. 

Victoria, B. C. 

the coal mines of the Crow's Xest Pass 
field for nearly 20 years, holding otticial 
positions for some 10 years. James Dixon 
is mine manager at the Reserve mine oper- 
ated by the Western Fuel Co. at Nanaimo, 
B. C. He has been appraiser for the Board 
of Examiners of British Columbia, exam- 
ining the papers of candidates for certifi- 
cates of competency. Messrs. Miard and 
Dixon will act in a dual capacity. First, 
they are members with the Chief Inspector 
of Mines as chairman of the Board of 
Examiners charged with the examination 
of candidates for certificates of compe- 
tency as coal mine officials. Secondly, they 
are members, with the inspectors of mines 
of the various districts as chairmen, of the 
board for the examination of candidates 
for certificates of competency as coal 
miners. Mr. Sloan explains that there is 
really only one board — a Central Board 
su))erseding the top-heavy machinery which 
has existed permitting the reduction of the 
personnel of the Examining Administration 
from 33 to 3, and enabling the Government 
to dispense with the services of 27 officials. 
At the same time it will result in much 
increased efficiency. 

It is pointed out that the formation of 
this Central Board will remove the diffi- 
culties encountered by the nine boards of 
examiners for the examination of coal 
miners and the one board for the exam- 
ination of coal mine ot^cials. The rep- 
resentatives of these boards often have 
been unable to attend board meetings. 
Moreover traveling expenses of those com- 
ing from a distance did not reimburse 
for loss of time which trips from various 
parts of the province to the coast entailed. 
The result was that the board often found 
it difficult to obtain a quorum. Further- 
more, high priced outside parties prejiared 
examination papers and examined the 
answers of candidates. The board then 
forwarded the results to the Minister of 
Mines. Wm. Sloan ; when considering re- 
organization much of this procedure was 
considered useless, besides having the ef- 
fect of leaving functions of vital import- 
ance in the hands of a few. Under the 
new arrangement the two examiners just 
nopointed, with the Chief Inspector of 
Mines as their chairman, will conduct ex- 
aminations of condidates for certificates 
of competency as officials in coal mines, 
wherever it may be most convenient to all 

If the old system of examination had 
been continued it would have been neces- 
sary to continue adding to the boards of 
examiners. Under the unamended Coal 
Mines Regulation Act most of the collieries 
had their own boards for the examination 
of men. This arrangement was satisfac- 
tory so long as there were only a few 
operating mines in the province. Condi- 
tions, how^ever, are changed ; there now are 
a considerable number of small collieries 
and, if each of these was given a board 
there might be almost as many members 
of examining boards as there are miners 
coming up for examination monthly. 

The problems noted will be completely 
met by the new Centra! Board. Instead 
of the men going to the board, the board 
will go to them. It will travel from one 
coal mining district to another at regu- 
lar intervals. The new method will have 
the effect of setting a standard of knowl- 
edge among all underground workers in 
coal mines throughout the province It 
will obviate the present difficulty of too 
much board representation at one point 
and too little at another. .\nother im- 
portant point is that no man will be 
recognized as a coal miner for a temporary 
period pending his examination. In this 
connection Mr. Sloan maintains that it is 
a manifest absurdity to allow an uncer- 
tificated man to assume the responsibilities 
of a miner for 30 days without his knowl- 
edge being tested, it being possible for an 
incompetent person in that period to en- 
danger not only his own life, but that of 
hundreds of others. 

Amendments to the Coal Mines Regula- 
tion Act introduced at the last session of 
the Provincial I.,egislature by the Hon. Wm. 
Sloan, minister of mines, came into effect 
on July 1. Henry Miard. of Coal Creek. B. 
C, and James Dixon, of Nanaimo. B. C., 
are the examiners appointed under this 
act. Since 1911 Mr. Miard has been the 
miners' representative on the retiring 
Board of Examiners. He has worked in 



Audenried — The C. M. Dodson Co., of this 
place, has installed an electric hoist and 
pump at its Beaver Brook colliery, thus 
doing away with the services of a number 
of men employed at a steam plant. 

FottsvUle — The Middle Creek colliery, 
one of the old operations of Schuylkill 
County, Is again to be placed in operation 
and seams of coal heretofore untouched 
will now be mined. There were large culm 
banks left at this colliery when its opera- 
tions were discontinued a number of years 
ago, and these banks proved exceedingly 
valuable. All this coal has now been mar- 
keted, the banks having been cleaned up. 
It is expected that more than 600 men and 
hoys will find employment in the reopen- 
ing of the colliery. 

Uazieton — A large group of mining engi- 
neering students from Lehigh University, at 
South Bethlehem, among them being three 
Chinamen, started to work in the Xo, 40 
shaft of the lL,ehigh Valley Coal Co. here to 
gain practical experience during vacation 
time. The J. S. Wentz Coal Co. will re- 
sume the first aid contests this summer, it 
was announced on July 1. These competi- 
tive events, among teams representing the 
various collieries of this company, were 
abandoned during the war owing to the 
great demand for fuel. The best teams 
from every mine will be brought together 
at a central point to compete for prizes, 
one of these being a free trip to Atlantic 


Clymer — The Estep brothers, of the Es- 
tep Brothers Coal Mining Co., Inc., and 
the Milbar Coal Co. have purchased sev- 
eral large tracts of coal near Diamond- 
ville. Diamond-drill test holes have been 
completed and work has already been 
started on the new opening. The siding 
will be connected with the joint Cherry 
Tree branch of the New York Central and 
the Pennsylvania railroads. 

Brownsville — The coke business in the 
Connellsville region continues to improve. 
The H. C. Frick Coke Co. is following out 
its program of firing 1.000 beehive ovens, 
distributed among its various plants. The 
Republic Iron and Steel Co. is firing 300 
ovens at Republic, making 350 in blast at 
that point. The Thompson -Connellsville 
Coke Co. is firing 50 ovens each at its No. 
1 and No. 2 plants. The W. J. Rainey com- 
pany is showing increased activity at its 
various operations. Also the Snowdon 
Coke Co. is firing 60 ovens at its plant near 
Brownsville, making 210 in blast at that 


Keystone — The large steel tipple recently 
completed by the Keystone Coal and Coke 
Co. at this place has been put in opera- 
tion. This company makes an annual ship- 
ment of over 400,000 tons of Pocahontas 

Charleston — Having .spent several months 
in sinking a shaft and in building an up- 
to-date plant on Campbell's Creek, t'-e 
Columbia Coal Co. began shipping from 
its new plant during the week ending June 
21 and is now getting out quite a fair ton- 

Cliarleston — On June 26 the newly 
created Department of Public Safety be- 
came a reality. Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson 
..^rnold of Weston having been appointed 
as the head of the department. He is now 
at work selecting the members of the force 
which may have a total maximum strength 
of 110 privates. 

Ward — Extensive improvements are un- 
der way at the mines of the Kelly's Creek 
Colliery Co.. on Kelly's Creek, in the Kana- 
wha region. The company has in mind 
the loading of coal from all its mines over 
one central tipple, and with that in view 
is arranging to expend about $250,000 in 
improvements. The general manager of 
the company is J. J. Smarr. 

Gassaway — Cloudbursts played havoc 
with mining operations on the south end 
of the Charleston division of the Balti- 
more & Ohio R. R., it being impossible to 
move any trains on a 75-mile stretch of 
road several days recently. Trestles, cul- 
verts and embankments were sweot away. 
Not only was the main line washed out but 
also many sidings and branches leading to 
coal operations. 


Zeieler — The Bell & Zoller Mining Co, 
is now installing in their mine here two 
new generators which together with other 
improvements also being made, will double 
the power capacity of their mine. A drill 
hole has been sunk a mile from the shaft, 
to be used as a conduit for the high tension 
wires, direct to the entries. The estimated 
cost of the improvements is $39,000. They 
are being rushed to completion. Organiza- 
tion is under headway in Zeigler. for a 
miners* rescue team ; helmets and other 
necessary equipment have been ordered. A 
new brick building is being built for the 
team, and it is expected that Zeigler will 
soon he able to boast of one of the best 
rescue teams in southern Illinois. 

Benton — A particularly bold robbery was 
staged at this place on June 27 when six 
men seized and escaped with $41,000 pay- 
roll money for the Middlefork mine of tlie 
I'nited States Steel Corporation. This 
money in pay envelopes in the mine office. 
was seized by the bandits, who escaped in 
an automobile. All but one of the office 
men were shot, but only one seriously — fuel 
inspector John Dolan, lie was at once 
taken in a special train to St. Louis to re- 
ceive the attention of specialists. One rob- 
ber was killed while attempting to escape. 

July 10, 1919 



The otliers were trailed by a posse lo a, 
iniekec wnich was fired upon and many 
MiOi^ exchanged. Finally the posse cap- 
tured four men and lodged them in jail at 
Marion ; the sixth man escaped. A search 
is still being made for the stolen money. 

L.incoln — The Lincoln-Latham Mining 
Co. took over tlie mine and plant of the 
Latham Coal and Mining Co. on July 1 and 
has announced that the mine would be run 
full time. The mine has been closed for 
some time. The new company is well or- 
"-anized with sufficient capital to rehabili- 

'>! the mine. Harold D. Wright is the 
'dent of the new company. 


= s — The Missouri State Retail 

.chants' Association reorganized re- 

^ on the first night of its second an- convention by obtaining a closer affili- 
ation with the National Retail Coal Deal- 
ers' Association. The convention is being 
held at the Planters Hotel. The officers 
elected were as follows : Walter Himecke, 
president ; H Hesse, first vice president ; 
H. E. Carr, second vice president ; W. D. 
Ryan, Jr.. treasurer. The new board of 
directors are : Edward Devoy. L. P. Coan, 
Wm. Reister. F. W. Autenrieth, P. B. Bryan. 
A. Cruikshank and H. F. Schrankler. More 
than 200 delegates attended the conven- 

Kansas City — The Southwestprn Coal 
Operators' Association elected F. W. Lukins. 
of Kansas City, president at its annual 
meeting held at this place July 1. Mr. 
Lukins previously held the office tor two 
terms. "W. P. Hawkins was named general 
vice president, with H. J. Kellogg of Kan- 
sas City, vice president for Missouri. 
Joseph Fletcher, of Pittsburg. Kansas, was 
appointed vice president for Kansas, in 
place of R. J. Laurance ; the latter has 
business of another nature which demands 
the greater part of his time. The associa- 
tion appointed M. M. Williams, of Clark- 
ville. Ark., vice president for Arkansas, and 
.Tames Cameron. Henrvetta. vice president 
for Oklahoma. C. N. Fish, of Leavenworth 
was electer secretary : Georere Manual, of 
Kansas City, treasurer, and W. L. A. John- 
son, general commissioner. 


Aldersoii — An explosion occurred on June 
30 in the No. u mine of the Rock Island 
Coal Mining Co. at this place with disas- 
trous consequences. The latest report 
notes that 2.5 men are believed to be dead, 
suffocated by gas or crushed by fallinK 
rock or coal as a result of the explosion. 
Eight bodies have been recovered and res- 
cue crews are continuing exploration work. 
It Is further stated that 167 men were in 
the mine. 


Trade Catalo<rs 



W. G. Whildln, formerly general superin- 
tendent of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation 
Co., has been appointed manager in charge 
of the company's coal mining operations, 
with offices at Lansford, Penn. The office 
of general superintendent has been abol- 

.\. W. Evans, a mining engineer of Pe- 
tros, Tenn., was appointed chief mine in- 
spector by Governor A. H. Roberts. Mr. 
Evans has been connected with the coal 
mines of Tennessee for some time and 
should be well fitted for the duties of the 
office both by training and education. His 
acquaintance with the operators and miners 
of the state should assist him in the per- 
formance of his new duties. 

i. Nnble Snider resigned his position as 
acting coal traffic manager of the New 
York Central R. R. to enter the coal 
business as New York state representative 
for Madeira, Hill & Co. He entered the 
service of the New York Central In 1904 
In the Coal Traffic Department and occu- 
pied pr.actically every position in the de- 
partment in the 14 years of his service. 
He held the commission of captain In the 
Sth Coast Artillery Corp.s, N. Y. Guard. 



.lolin Lobonate, slate- mine inspector for 
the Breese district, was killeti on June 27 
by a gas explosion while on a tour of in- 
spection In the Beckmeyer mine of the 
Breese-Trenton Mining Co. Mr. Lobenate 
entered the mine after the workmen had 
departed : upon their return they found his 
body badly burned lying at the bottom of 
the shaft At the Inquest It was dl.sclosed 
that gas explosions In the mine had been 
frequent. The Inspector lived at Colllns- 

Pedigreed Gtaro. R. D. Nuttall Co., Con- 
way Buildmg, Cliicago, 111 Bulletin. Pp. 
16 ; 6 X SJ in. ; illustrated. A description 
of Nuttall tractor gears. 

We Do the Wurk. Cement Gun Con- 
struction Co., Chicago. 111. Gunite book 
No. 6 — pamphlet. Pp. 24 ; 6x9 in. ; illus- 
trated. The illustrations show recent ce- 
ment-gun work in a variety of instances 
in different parts of the country. 

"Bulldog" Jaw Crushers. Traylor En- 
gineering and Manufacturing Co.. .-^lien- 
town, Penn. Bulletin J.X-1. Pp. 26; 63 
X 9J in. ; illustrated. Notes details of the 
crusher and incidentally some other spe- 
cialties manufactured by this company. 

Canton Automatic Mine Switch Throwir, 

.\merican Mine Door Co.. Canton, Ohio. 
Bulletin. Pp. 8 : 6 X 9 in. ; illustrated. 
Notes advantages and operation of this 
switch thrower which is adapted for all 
kinds of mines and large industrial plants. 

.lustrite Loose-L.eaf Catalog. Justrite 
Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111. Pp. 88 ; 
9J X 6J in. ; illustrated. Covers in a con- 
cise and handy way the miners' carbide 
lamps, acetylene lanterns, fire prevention 
devices and hardware specialties manufac- 
tured under the Justrite trademark. Prices 
are quoted. 

Jeffre.v Standard .'Vpron Conveyors for 
Every Service. The Jeffrey Manufactur- 
ing Co., Columbus, Ohio. Catalog No. 25S. 
Pp. 72 ; SI X 11 in. ; illustrated. Shows in- 
stallations of both steel and wood convey- 
ors in service in various industries, includ- 
ing coal plants, general dimensions and 
other important data of vital interest to 
the purchaser and engineer. 

.Stuart Syst-eni of Ground Storage and 
Reclaiming. International Conveyor Cor- 
poration, 50 East 42nd St, New York City. 
Bulletin No. 4. Pp. 16 ; SJ x 11 in.; illus- 
trated. This bulletin notes installations 
at various types of plants. The system is 
adapted to locomotive coaling, fuel distri- 
bution at yards, vessel loading and unload- 
ing and power, coke and steel plants. 

Industrial News 

St. Ijouis, Mo. — The Walter A. Zelnicker 
Supply Co., of this place, has added 2000 
sq.ft. to its present office space — an inr 
crease of 335 Per cent. 

Clendenin, W. Va. — The Kanaelk Coal 
<-'o. is having plans made for a new power 
plant tor increased operations at its coal 
properties. W. W. Whyte is president. 

Coma, Texas — The Lone Star Coal Min- 
ing Co. is opening up a new mine at this 
place which is planned to have a capacity 
of 1000 tons daily. S. A. Wartell is the 
president and general manager. 

BnATalo, N. Y. — Louis H. Eller. a major 
in the National Guard in Buffalo and in 
the regular army in France, has opened a 
coal office at 653 EUicott Square, under the 
name of the BUer Coal Co. Before going 
into service he handled the soft-coal de- 
partment of E. L. Hedstrom. 

Signal Monntain, Tenn. — The Suck Creek 
Coal Co., Chattanooga, which recently ac- 
quired the Montlake Coal Co.. is arranging 
plans for extensive improvements and addi- 
tions to increase the present capacity to 
about 500 tons. It is also proposed to 
construct a new 1500-ton cap.acity incline. 
The estimated cost of the proposed work is 


ColnmbuH, Ohio — John Rogers, of Colum- 
bus, and .lames Jones, of Athens, have pur- 
chased the mine of the Falk Coal Co . lo- 
cated near Buckingharti on the Hocking 
Valley Ry. The new owners will operate 
the property as a partnership with offices 
in Columbus. The Palk Coal Co. will se- 
cure other oper.ations and continue Its 
business as an operator and Jobber. 

Charleston, W. Va. — The K.anawha City 
Coal Co.. recently Incorporated wRh a 
capital of $50,000. Is planning for the de- 
velopment of aliout 600 acres of coal prop- 
erties located in the vicinity of Garnet, to 
have an Initial daily capacity of about 125 
tons. R. E. Wrltteker Is president ; F. D. 
Cunningham. vice president : W. W. 
Venable. secretary-treasurer ; J. R. Cun- 
ningham, manager. 

(Iiarleslun, «. Va. — Thirty or forty 
members of the Winding Gulf Operators' 
.\ssociation held a meeting at ^Vhite Sul- 
phur Springs on June 4 but no intimation 
was given as to what was done at the 
meeting. It is presumed, however, that the 
association gave its attention both to the 
railroad rate question and the matter of 
resuming the making of reports to the Fed- 
eral Trade Commission. 

Moran, Iowa — The Norwood WTiite Coal 
Co. will soon complete its big mine at this 
place. The Foundation Co.. of New York, 
was employed to sink the two shafts both 
of which are of concrete construction ; 
quicksand was encountered but little dif- 
ficulty was experienced in getting through 
it. 'The mine is to be equipped with an 
electric hoist and the steel tipple will have 
a capacity of 2500 tons daily. 

Remick, Ohio — Arrangements have been 
perfected between the Chesapeake & Ohio 
and the Baltimore & Ohio railroads for tak- 
ing care of any congestion of coal freight 
which may occur on the Cheapeake & 
Ohio so far as Lake-l>ound traffic is con- 
cerned by the establishment of a point of 
interchange between tlie two roads at this 
place where additional tracks w-ill be put 
in. Much coal loaded in 70-ton cars will 
be shipped. 

Hnbball. W. Va — The Russell Coal Min- 
ing Co.. of Russell. Ky.. recently organized, 
is arranging for the development of about 
146 acres of coal properties in the Hubball 
district at an early date. The plant is 
to have a daily capacity of about 500 tons. 
In connection with the installation of 
equipment, it is proposed to construct an 
aerial tramway. 1200-foot span, to have 
a capacity of 50 tons per hour. W. M 
Jones is president and manager. 

Washington, n. C. — Investigation was 
ordered recently by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission into the relationships 
between the rates on coal via tlie Lakes 
to Minnesota. North I^akota. .South Dakota 
and the northern portion of Wisconsin from 
mines in Ohio and West Virginia and the 
rates on coal by rail to the same destina- 
tions from mines in Illinois and Indiana. 

Many complaints have been received, al- 
leging that the increase in the rates from 
Ohio and West Virginia, amounting to 52 
cents a ton. disturbed the relation hitherto 
existing with the rates from Indiana and 
Illinois, which were advanced 55 cents a 

Huntington, W. Va. — Virginia oper- 
ators are protesting against the non-use of 
many hundreds of coal cars built upon 
orders of the government last year. Some 
such cars were built by the Huntington 
plant of the .American Car & Foundry Co. 
There are within a short radius of Hunt- 
ington about 2000 of the cars referred to 
not in commission but remaining idle on 
side tracks. The operators insist these 
ought to be used to relieve the shortage of 
equipment now in evidence and certain to 
become more acute as the demand for coal 
increases. Some of the railroads refused 
to accept the cars which the government 
had built but the C. & O. accepted such cars 
it is understood. 

Charleston, VV. Va. — That the West Vir- 
ginia, coke producers are upon the thresh- 
hold of a rsumption of coke operations 
after a long period of inactivity, is con- 
fidently believed by those in touch with 
general business conditions, particularly 
with the iron and steel business. The re- 
sumption of operations at iron and steel 
mills on both sides of the Ohio River in 
the Wheeling district of West Virginia on 
June 23 was regarded as an index to con- 
ditions elsewhere in the country and as 
forecasting a general resumption of iron 
and steel making. A further indication 
of an increa.w in shipments has been found 
in parts of West Virginia where during the 
latter part of June shipments were being 

Indianapolis, Inil. — Tlio Midwest Engine 
'•••. of this, announces the opening of 
four new offices to more fully meet the 
growing demand for Its prime movers, 
pumping equipment, etc. The new offices 
are at Jacksonville, Fla. ; Kl Paso, Texas : 
New Orleans, La., and New York City. 
D J. Garrison represents the company In 
the southeastern field : his offices are In thc- 
Florida Life Building. JackHonvllle, C. P., 
Loomis represents the Midwest company in 
the southwest: his offices are In the Caples 
Building. Kl Paso. J. R. Lowe represents 
this company In the south and has offices 
In the Malson Building. New Orleans. B. H. 
Downing Is eastern sales manager for the 
Midwest company: he Is located at 111 
Broadway, New York City. 



Vol. 16, No. 2 



Weekly Review 

Output of Soft Coal Increasing — High-Grade Coals Hard to Obtain — Poor Car Supply and 

Labor Shortage Affects Production — Domestic Hard Coals in Active Demand, 

with Small Steam Sizes Going at Reduced Prices 

PRODUCTION in the soft coal 
fields is picking up, the output 
for the week ended June 28 total- 
ing 9,147,000 net tons, the highest since 
the last week in January. The increase 
in production, though slight, is a sure 
sign that conditions in the soft coal 
trade are improving. High-grade coals 
are scarce, most of the tonnage being 
tied up by contract. There is there- 
fore little of the good grades of soft 
coal available for spot buyers. Oper- 
ators producing the medium grades of 
coal who have so far not contracted 
for their output show little willingness 
to do so now. They are optimistic of 
the future and look forward to a busy 
fall and winter, with coal going at high 

Complaints of poor car supply are 
heard from many fields, and this, 

coupled with an ever-growing scarcity 
of labor, will serve to handicap the 
mines in their endeavors to meet a 
belated demand for fuel this autumn. 

New River and Pocahontas opera- 
tions are extremely active, and the 
lack of cars in this region is already 
a disturbing factor. Both of these coals 
are sold up for months ahead, and the 
spot buyer has little chance of picking 
up any tonnage. The better grades of 
central Pennsylvania coals are also 
hard to obtain for the same reason. 

Anthracite production for the week 
ended June 28 was also the highest 
recorded since the last week in Janu- 
ary, the output being 1,841,500 net tons. 
Though the production has been grow- 
ing from week to week, the supply of 
domestic coals is still unequal to the 
demand. Based on the output of 1918, 

there is a shortage of more than 10,- 
000,000 tons of hard coal to be overcome 
this year. 

Coal produced by the so-called inde- 
pendent companies is in urgent request 
and premiums are being offered for 
prompt shipment. While the demand 
for all domestic sizes of anthracite is 
active, the stove and egg sizes are the 
favorites, and the supply of these two 
coals is short. More steam sizes of 
anthracite are being stored than was 
the case two weeks ago and are there- 
fore not causing much trouble. Buck- 
wheat No. 1 is moving readily at prices 
said to be 50 cents below the mine cir- 
cular. Rice coal is also being quoted 
at about the same amount below sched- 
ule prices, while good grades of barley 
can be obtained from some shippers on 
a basis of $1 at the mines. 


The production of bituminous coal in the 
•n-eek ended June 28 is estimated at 9,14 7,- 
000 net tons, the highest recorded this year 
since the last weeli in January. The gain 
over the weelcs preceding, in May and June, 
was slight and is attributed to buying to 
tide consumer over the holiday week fol- 
lowing. The total production in the cal- 
endar year to date is estimated at 212,581,- 
000 tons, compared with 284,585,000 tons 
in the corresponding period of last year. 

The production of anthracite in the week 
■ended June 28 was 1,841.500 net tons, the 
highest recorded since the last week in 
January. The production in the week 
ended June 21 was 1,748,000 tons. The 
total production in the calendar year to 
date is 38,796,000 tons, compared with 
49,077,000 tons in the same period last 

The most notable feature of the reports 
of operating conditions for the week ended 
June 21 is the reported loss of nearly four 
days' running time on account of car short- 
age in the Pocahontas region, and a general 
increase in the loss of time because of car 
shortage in other eastern districts. The 
Railroad Administration announced a short 
time ago that such a condition was impend- 
ing and would be largely beyond its con- 
trol because of the demands upon the trans- 
portation systems for the movement of 
other traffic. 

The production of beehive coke in the 
■week of June 28 is estimated at 286.858 
net tons, a slight gain over the previous 
week but only about 45 per cent of the 
output in the corresponding week of 1918. 
The slackness of demand for beehive coke, 
which is the factor limiting production, is 
largely due to the Increase in the past 
year In the capacity of byproduct ovens, 
which are, of course, operated in prefer- 
ence to buying beehive coke or operating 
beehive ovens. 

Bituminous coal dumped at Lake Erie 
ports for transshipment up the lakes in the 
week ended June 21 wa.s 1.058.273 net tons, 
an increase over the previous week in which 

dumpings were 959.265 tons. The total 
movement of lake coal this year to date 
has been 8.134.601 tons, compared with 
6.799.417 tons in the corresponding period 
of last year. 


Dry Goods Economist — The report issued 
on Tuesday, July 1, by the Department of 
.Agriculture placed the condition of the 
cotton crop as of June 25 at 70 per cent, 
of normal. This means, the report says, 
a probable crop of about 10,986,000 bales, 
or more than 1,000,000 bales less than last 
year's yield. Due in part to this estimate, 
prices of July cotton rose to 33.92 cents on 
the New York Cotton Exchange. 

The Iron .\Ee — June pig iron output 
shows definitely the turn in the industry. 
For the thirty days the total was 2,114,863 
gross tons, or 70,495 tons a day. against 
2.108.056 tons in May. or 68.002 tons a 
day. Seventeen furnaces blew in and 
twelve blew out last month, a gain of five. 
and estimated capacity active on July 1 
was 71.700 tons a day for 200 furnaces, 
as compared with 68.600 tons a day for 
19.T furnaces on June 1. 

Marshall Field & Co. — Current wholesale 
distribution of dry goods ran a little less 
than for the corresponding period a year 
ago. Wore merchants were in the market 
than during the same week a year ago. 
All report e.xcellent pre-holiday business. 
Orders from salesmen on the road for both 
immediate and future delivery were much 
larger in volume compared with the same 
week of 1918. Collections continue satis- 

Iron Trade Review — June definitely 
turned the tide in the iron and steel in- 
dustry toward better and more stabilized 
conditions and the evidence of this fact 
grows with each passing week. The cumu- 
lative effects of the recent period of freer 
buving are marked not only by the steadily 
mounting line of production, but, what is 
prnbablv more important, by the apparent 
adjustment of consumers to present price 

levels. The latter factor is resulting in a 
continuous and increasing movement in 
placing future wants under contracts and 
in ordering out tonnage for immediate use. 
.-Vmerican Wool and Cotton Reporter — 
With no surplus goods on the shelves of 
the clothiers or surplus raw material in the 
hands of the mills, it is expected that for 
some time to come the demand for wool will 
be much more than usual. In the cotton 
market the activity in demand, strength in 
prices and optimism as to the outlook 
stand out more clearly. The urgency oi 
needs in the dry goods line is demonstrated 
by the early appearance in the eastern 
markets of important buyers of the South 
and West. 


:Murket continues without change In 
price*. Quality grades offering less freely 
even for spot shipm.ent. Clearfield opera- 
tors still seeklnB orders. Thin vein pro- 
ducers have difficulty keeping men. Co»I 
at New York in better request. Pocahontas 
and New River shipments light to this mar- 
ket. Export demand shows improvement. 
Anthracite deliveries steadily falling be- 
hind. Domestic sizes in extremely short 

Bituminous — Besides a reduced output, 
both on account of holidays and prohibi- 
tion, there has been no price movement the 
past week, although the undertone con- 
tinues distinctly favorable to an upward 
swing hater, especially on the fancy grades. 
There is still an amount of current buying 
at the quotations that have prevailed the 
past month or more, and while here and 
there 10® 20c. is being asked f* deliv- 
eries bevond July or August, there is no 
bidding up of prices. Conservative buyers 
are getting in line for fall and winter ship- 
ments on the ground that nothing can now 

July 10, 1919 



be gained by waiting;, and then, too, they 
have noticed that desirable fuels that were 
easy to get 60 days ago are now practically 
out of the market. The trade is somewhat 
puzzled that higher price.s ;ire so long com- 
ing, but one reason doubtless is the volume 
of lower grades that shippers have tried 
to force on this market. Xo price move- 
ment is likely until less effort is made to 
depress the spot market by offering less 
desirable coal at ridiculously low prices. 

The higher priced Cambrias are fast dis- 
appearing from the market. Practically no 
contract business has been done in these 
grades for the pnst fortni.eht. and iirnv 
orders are being declined in many in- 
.-^tances, even for spot shipment. This has 
been particularly true of those coals which 
are being taken for the Navy on recent 
requisitions Most shippers are in doubt 
as to the volume they will have free in the 
fall and so long as the Navy r>ppnrtmenl is 
paying $3 or more per net ton it is likely 
that many operators will continue "marl'- 
ing time" rather than load themselves with 
orders for deferred delivery. One of the 
features of the present market is the 
widely different attitude of buyers as be- 
tween hieh grade low volatiles and the 
high ash higher volatiles. The former 
are not onlv In steady demand but they 
are increa.singly hard to get. 

The less favorably known coals, on the 
other hand, are able to get business enough 
for only a very limited output. In several 
sections of Clearfield County this has been 
particularly true, although within a few 
days it is noticeable that some of the bet- 
ter prepared coals in this region have had 
a spurt, accounted for by the fact that 
there is bep-^nnlng to be an actual dearth 
of Miller Vein and "C" prime coals ior 
prompt shipment. There are still .<ome 
heavy reserve storks in New Eiieland and 
that is a special reason why steam-users 
in this territory are anxious not to in- 
crease their supplies of only ordinarv "D" 
and "E" seam coals. The low figures 
quoted a month ago are still necessary ap- 
parently to induce any considerable move- 
ment of tlT-se grades. 

Receipts here from Hampton Roads aie 
still relatively light. Some of the agencies 
are doing very little business in the open 
market. Otiiers have undertaken to sup- 
ply staple customers directly on tidewater 
btit have practically abandoned to all-rail 
distributors their usual trade inland. Both 
Pocahontas and New River tonnages will 
show very heavy reductions in New Kng- 
land business the current year, even as 
compared with Ifll .1-1916. and it is not 
easy to see how this tonnage can he won 
hack. Marine freiehts are likely to be on 
a high level for an indefinite period cer- 
tainly as compared with rates all-rail, un- 
less under private management the rail- 
roads show a determination to restore old 
equilibrium as between r.-til and water de- 

The export demand is much improved, as 
was expected would be the with the 
formal signing of pence. An order fr^.-n 
the French Government is looked upon only 
as one of a number from Kuropean mar- 
kets which England will find it hard to 
supply. The South .American demand con- 
tinues strong and prices offshore generally 
are so much more remunerative it is not 
surprising that even New England inter- 
ests are giving mticb more attention to 
shipments overseas, T.ess has been heard 
of labor conditions in the so-called smoke- 
less districts in ^V.•st Virginia and current 
reports are favr.rable to a continued heavy 
movement to the Hampton Roads piers. 

Current quotations on (bitumiiious at 
wholesale range about ns follows: 

Carrihriaa nnd 
Clearfield^ Somersets 
?.o.b. mini-i, net tons . . . J2. ISWa.TS $2 90(S 3 40 
F.o.h. Philadelphia, ktoss 

tons 4 27(S'4.95 5 10(8 5.55 

F.o.b. New York, Kross 

ton* 4.6205.29 5,45(316.00 

Alonraid'* Boston (wate'r 

coal), tross tons 6.IO(a6.85 7.00(317.50 

Georges Creek is wtill quoted at $3,20 per net ton 
f.o.b. mines. 

Pocahontas and New River are b^ing quoted at 
$5. 14(^5 35 per i?roP8 ton f.o.b. Norfolk and Newport 
News, Va, Alongside Boston the same (trades are 
heinK offered at a ranse of from $7 32(S' 7 60, and on 
rara Boston and Providence at from $7, S0@7.90 per 
irosa ton. 

.\nthracite — Retail dealers are exceed- 
ingly anxious over the slowness with which 
domestic : iz-s are being shipper!. Predic- 
tions that .Tune and .July would show an 
easing up of egg and stove, the sizes in 
ercatfst demand, were not borne out by 
the tonnage shipped in June, and unless the 

of coal distributed at retail during April 
and May each week now sees all the sources 
falling farther behind on deliveries. In 
several cities in this territory retail prices 
have been advanced dOc, partly because of 
the increasing premium exacted by several 
of the independent operators. Circular 
prices fob mine are on the basis of $8.15 
for egg, but rules by "independent" ship- 
pers have been made at a full dollar above 
that figure. 

Egg. stove and chestnut are in very short 
supply both all-rail and by water. Buyers 
are being obliged to take a large proportion 
of less desirable sizes in order to get any 
tonnage forward. 


Demand for domestic reals rontinues, but 
retail dealers sa.v the pressure f<»r quick 
deliveries has lessened, owing to the vaca- 
tion season. Dumpings at the railroad 
docks show a decrease, .\nthracite steam 
coals eas.v. Bituminous operators and 
shippers hopeful, but fear transportation 
facilities in fall and winter. 

.Anthracite— All houses report a continua- 
tion of the heavy demand for the domestic 
coals, and although the retail dealers say 
there is not so much pressure being brout;ltt 
to bear upon them for quick deliveries, be- 
cause of the exodus of many houseowners 
to the country and seashore, they are 
anxious to put away all the winter fuel 
they can secure. There has been no reduc- 
tion in the accumulation of orders on the 
books of the wholesale houses, and so far 
there are no signs ahead that the country 
is to be saved frojp a near coal famine 
next winter, unless production increases 

There hp" been a healthy growth in pro- 
duction for the past few weeks, ijut there 
is a shortage of more than 10,000,000 tons 
to be overcome, when this year's produu 
tion is compared with that of the corre- 
sponding period of last year. Dealers claim 
there is a deficit in receipts in this market 
but expect larger shipments when those 
sections farther removed from the source 
of supply are cared for. 

Independent coals are in heavy dematid 
and premiums are being offered for shiiJ- 
ments. These, it is reported, range all the 
way to $1. the Canadian dealers offering 
the highest amount. 

'\\niile there is an active market for all 
domestic coals, stove and egg are shortest 
in supply. Chestnut in this market is 
easier, but is being easily absorbed when 
egg and stove form part of the shipment. 
Pea coal is being handled easily, local 
dealers taking it when they can secure 
either egg or stove with it. 

The steam coals are not causing so much 
trouble as they did a few weeks ago be- 
catise of the tendency to store them. Re- 
tail dealers, as they did some time ago, 
are taking considerable buckwheat No. 1 
at prices said to be .^Oc. below mine cur- 
cular. Rice is also being c-icted at about 
til.- same amount below regular company 
mine price, while good grades of barley 
are being quoted hy some shippers in the 
neie-hborhood of 51 at the mines. 

Current quotations, white ash, per gross 
ton at the mines and fob. at tidewater, 
at the lower ports, according to company 
schedule, are as follows: 




$5 95 

6 15 

6 40 

$7 80 
8 00 
8 25 




5 10 







2 25 

5 15 
4 50 

4 00 


isi..<i 1.: 

lb.- h. 

liituiiiinous — There is a brighter outlook 
in the bituminous situat'on. Reports that 
some of the foreign countries are to make 
heavv purchases of coal here led to a slight 
flurry and stiffening of quotations for coal 
stocks in the stock market. This feeling 
was reflected among the trade. 

Tonnage figures .show a sure indication 
of an uplift Production has steadily in- 
creased and there is a better feeling 
throughout. High-grade coals are bard to 
Iiii-k up. Most of these grades are tied 
ui) in contracts with very little to offer to 
spot buyers Otieratora having plenty of 
the medium grades not tied up are not now 
inclined to sign up any part of their free 
output. They are exceedingly optimistic 
of the fiiiiire and look forward to a busy 
fall and winter. 

Numerous complaints have been heard of 
pr>or car equipment, repairs not having been 
made. There is also some complaint of 
poor car sunnlv and this, it is pointed out. 
will become more general as the season ad- 
vances. Shippers say that consumers who 

have hesitated to buy will likely suffer 
from the lack of fuel this fall and winter 
more from the lack of cars than because 
of the scarcity of coal The cars, they 
say, will be necessary to move grain and 
to take care of the needs of the steel in- 
dustry and will be used for these purposes 
when needed, to the detriment of the coal 

From the New River and Pocahontas 
regions come reports of considerable activ- 
ity together with complaints of bad car 
supply. Both of these coals are heavily 
sold ahead and the spot buyer has little 
chance of picking up stray lots. The better 
!-'rades of central Pennsylvania coals are 
also hard to obtain, most of them being 
under contract. 

There is a better demand for all-rail 
deliveries than here at tidewater. Prices 
are also slightly better, although there is 
a tendency to some improvement for tide- 
water coals. 

Prices on the various pool coals fob. at 
this Tidewater range about as follows: 

Pools 1 and 71. $".40 to $.i.60 ; Pool 9. 
$5.30 to $5,.'in : Pool No. 10. $5 to $5.25 and 
Pool 11. $4.75 to $5. no. 

Quotations on th,- \'arious grades, per 
net ton at the mine, range about as follows: 

South Foricp (Besti $2. 95(i?)3 25 

Cambria (Best) 2.75(32.95 

Cambria (Ordinarv) 2.35^2.50 

Clearfield (Best) 2.75@2.95 

Clearfield (Ordinary) 2.35@2.50 

Reynoldsville 2.50(312.75 

Quemahoning 2.75(312.95 

Somerset (Best) 2.75(a2.95 

Somerset (Poor! 2. 15® 2 35 

Western Maryland 2.25@2.5D 

Fairmont !.75O»2.D0 

Latrobe 2. I0®2.25 

Greenaburg 2.35(^2.50 

Westmoreland fin 2. 60® 2. 75 

Westmoreland run-of-mine 2 . 35® 2 . 50 


.Anthracite demand remains strong. Ship- 
ments disappointing. Dealers have good 
business on books. Tall for stove increases. 
Ekb and nut demand heavy. Pea olentifiil 
and storks increase. .\dierttsing campaign 
influences ordering. Credits in fair shape. 
Retailers giving louKer time to certain 
class. Steam coal dragg.v except buck- 
wheat. Bituminous stationary. Prices well 
held. Holidays make good grades tighter. 

.Anthracite — There continues to be a 
strong retail demand for all sizes of coal, 
except possibly pea. and even good quanti- 
ties of this size are being moved. AMiile 
the month of July so far has been unu- 
sually warm, the dealers report they have 
received a fair addition of orders to those 
already filed. 

The unusual demand for e^^ shows no 
signs of diminution and the dealers are 
really surprised at the call for this size as 
compared with some years back, and still 
further surprised at their inabilitv to get 
the tonnage they need to fill the orders 
they have. Pea coal is the one size that 
.all dealers have in greater or less quantity 
and a fair proportion of the receipts are 
being placed in the cellars; but on the 
whole the stocks above ground are in- 

With the slackening up in the orders 
from consumers some dealers are urging 
their customers to take in at le.ast a fair 
proiiortion of pea. using the argument that 
it will not be any cheaiier and also when 
the demand does come in the fall and win- 
ter they will be unalile to meet it unless 
a greater quantity is stored in the cellars 
of the people. A great drawback to this 
is that while the peoiile are entirely willing 
in numerous instances, there is a lack of 
ready money among the class who are the 
largest users of this size. 

Hue to the holiday h,ai>pening on Friday 
most of the retail men closed up their yanls 
for the remainder of the week, as they 
reasoned that similar conditions would rule 
at the mines and their prospects of getting 
increased shipments at this time were 
slight. .\s a matter of fact no one feels 
that coal will come in really heav>' volume 
until well past the middle of the month, 
when they have hopes that the outside 
markets will be fairly well taken care of. 
However, from the shippers' standpoint 
this is hardly likely to happen, as a number 
consulted stated they had orders enough on 
their books for the Larger sizes to keei> 
them busy almost indefinitely 

As to prices, the company circular is 
being strictly maintained by the larger pro- 
ducers, while the indepedent prices still 
range from 15c. to 40c. above this figure. 
AVe have heard of .a sale In a rare instance 
of 70c. above circular, but this is sporadic 
and In no way Indicative of the m.irket 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

The steam trade changes hut very httle. 
although the good grades of buckwheat 
are in active demand. It is not believed. 
though, tliat the entire output of tliis size 
is being taken, and tlie big companies are 
placing a fair tonnage in storage. The call 
for rice ami barley has in no wise increased 
and the companies are adding to their ac- 
cumulations of this size very materially. 

Bituminous — The position of soft coal as 
regards demand has lately inclined to re- 
main stationary. In some instances we do 
hear of certain operations increasing their 
output, but on the whole the call for coal 
remains at about the same volume prevail- 
ing for the past six weeks. While prices 
have also remained stable, there was some 
tendency after the holidays to a strength- 
ening in the better grades. All along it has 
been somewhat difficult to get fine coals 
promptly and the shortening of the work- 
ing time due to the closing down in the 
latter part of the week made it more diffi- 
cult to get the fine coals. Certain it is. 
that while there is no immediate hope of 
a price increase on the part of producers, 
the market is in such a condition that they 
will certainly move forward if any change 
is made at all. 

The more progressive concerns here- 
abouts still display a tendency to take in 
coal in excess of their current requirements, 
while there are plenty of inquiries from 
consumers asking contract quotations but 
very little business of this kind closed, as 
the majority of the good shippers have 
obligated themselves for the full allotment 
of tonnage they expect to have available 
for this purpose. 

The prices prevailing here are as follows: 

Georges Creek Pig Vein 82. 95 (if. $3. 05 

South Fork Miller Vein 2. 95 @ 3,05 

Clearfield (ordinary) 2.60 @ 2.75 

Somerset (ordinary) 2.50(3' 2.65 

Fairmontlump 2 50 (gi 2.60 

Fairmont mine-run 2 35 (» 2 50 

Fairmont slack 1.90 @ 2.05 

Fairmont lump (ordinary) 2. 25 (gi 2. 35 

Fairmont mine-nm 2.00 (gi 2.15 

Fairmont slack 1.65 @ 1.75 


Fine export busines*; and better spot mar- 
ket in bituminous. Antliracite receipts low. 

With three months of the coal year 
passed and July getting a good start, there 
continues to be plenty of export business 
and a firmer spot market for the bituminous 
men, while the anthracite dealers have 
announced an increase in the schedule of 
from 25 to 50 cents per ton. The increase 
has been looked for, and it is expected 
that it will show a still further raise in 
Ausust or September. 

As the large stock of high-grade coals 
which has been around Baltimore for some 
time began to decrease during the past 
week the prices became firmer. This was 
due to several reasons. A great amount of 
the coal was used to fill some of the export 
orders and there was also a falling off in 
receipts, the falling off being due to short- 
age of cars and the demand of the lake 
region business. 

The receipts during this week are ex- 
pected to be very light, for the Fourth of 
July will provide a two-day layoff for the 
miners, and it is impossible to forecast 
what effect prohibition will have. With 
the light production and the supply of good 
coals here diminished, better prices are 
looked for, Puring the week 52.75 was the 
prevailing figure for the best grade of 
coals. There was no demand for the me- 
dium or cheap grade of fuels. 

The anthracite receipts continue to be low, 
and w^hile the increase is slight the forecast 
is that it will go higher with the possibility 
of many homes being without fuel if they 
do not get orders in promptly. A compari- 
son of the prices of July 1 with those of 
the Apr. 1 schedule follows: 

Lake Markets 

. July 1 . 

— Apri 

1 — . 



Hard White Ash 





No. r (broken) 



$11 50 


No. 2 (egg) 

II 75 

6 05 


5 90 

No. 3 (stove) 

12 00 

6 15 


6 00 

No. 4 (chestnut) . . . 

12 10 



6 10 


5 30 


5 15 








No. 3 (stove) 





No. 4 (chestnut) . . , 





Lykcns Valley 

No, 2 (egg) 





No. 3 (stove) 





No. 4 (chestnut) , . . 





A charge of 50 cents additional for bag- 
ging and a discount of 25 cents for cash 
is allowed on the present schedule. 


Coal market stiffer. Ci»ntracts not accept- 
able. Steam coal almost readies gas coal 
in price. Prospects of domestic consump- 

The Pittsburgh district coal market has 
stiffened perceptibly in the past week, 
spot prices being higher while operators 
have become entirely averse to making any 
additional contracts for the coal year. The 
situation as to contracts is that the ton- 
nage put under contract is the tonnage the 
operators feel reasonably certain they will 
be able to deliver, with only normal car 
shortages, and without labor disturbances. 
Consumers not covered by contracts will 
have to depend on the prompt market, and 
the question is whether the coal that will 
be released by the closing of lake naviga- 
tion will be sufficient to take care of de- 
mands late in the fall and during the 

On the basis of men on payrolls, coal 
production in the Pittsburgh district is at 
about 75 per cent., but the actual propor- 
tion, relative to theoretical full output, is 
less, as fewer men are on payrolls than 
the mines would accommodate. Labor sup- 
plies bids fair to rather than in- 
crease as many of the foreign born assert 
positively they are going back to the coun- 
tries of their birth when transportation is 

Steam and gas coal have now reached 
almost a market parity, steam coal having 
previously been much easier than gas. Lake 
shipments are now running chiefly to steam 
coal, the pressure early in the season for 
moving gas coal having subsided. The 
situation is shown by prices obtainable for 
slack, which at present is produced almost 
exclusively by the screening of coal for 
lake shipment, steam slack being available 
at as low as ?1.30, while gas slack brings 
$1,711 and higher. A number of operators 
have advanced their prices on mine-run to 
$2.5fi and they regard that price as ap- 
plicable to prompt shipments only as they 
will not book additional contracts. There 
is practically no demand for domestic coal, 
as natural gas takes care of nearly all 
domestic fuel requirements. Domestic con- 
sumers do not seem to be alive to the 
menace of the West Virginia law enacted 
some time ago. prohibiting the movement 
of natural gas out of the state if consumers 
in the state are not fully supplied, but 
the coal interests point out that there may 
be much demand for domestic coal next 
winter on account of this gas situation, and 
no provision is being made by way of ac- 
cumulating supplies. The best estimate, 
applicable to conditions of the past few 
years, is that taking the year as a whole 
12 per cent, of the Pittsburgh district coal 
production is used for domestic purposes. 
The proportion may be much higher next 

The market is now quotable as follows, 
for spot and prompt: Steam slack. $1.30 (§) 
1.40; gas slack, $1.70@1.80; steam mine- 
run, $2.25(5)2.50 ; gas mine-run, $2.35@2.50 ; 
3-in., $2.60(ffi2.75 per net ton at mine. 
Pittsburgh district. 


Supplies of anthracite much below de- 
mand though rail shipments well main- 
tained. Little arriving by water. Consumers 
of stove coal substituting other sizes. Nut 
coal becoming scarce. Bituminous advanc- 
ing in price. 

The demand for anthracite is still much 
greater than the supply, though shipments 
from the mines are coming forward in 
about the normal quantity by rail. Very 
little is being received by water, the great 
bulk of shipments by vessel going up the 
lakes. There is still a marked shortage of 
stove coal, though at the instance of the 
de,alers many consumers are taking nut 
and ess sizes as substitutes, resulting in 
an increasing scarcity of nut coal. The 
market for bituminous remains quiet with 
local prices unchanged but due to advance 
shortly, as the Youghiogheny operators 
have notified the dealers of an advance of 
15c, per ton for July shipments. 

Quotations for short tons are as follows: 


Anthracite, egg, stove, nut and grate $11.50 

Pea 10.00 

Bituminous steam 7.50 

Slack 6 50 

Domestic lump 1 0. 00 

Cannel 1 1 50 

Wholesale f.o,b. cars at destination: 

Three-quarter lump 5 75 

Slack 4.44 


Sonic advance in bituminous price. Im- 
provement reported by most shippers; may 
be large if car shortage increases. Gen- 
eral shortage of anthracite. Lake ship- 
ments fair. 

Bituminous — The firm feeling in Penn- 
sylvania coal circles has extended to this 
m.arket, and an advance of a few cents 
shows that the trade finds it can hold the 
situation and not depend on the consumer 
for prices any longer. The volume of 
movement has not increased much as yet, 
but if the improvement in the iron indus- 
try goes on the consumption will begin to 
mount up before long. 

The consumer is now ready to contract, 
in tact is eager to do so, but the shipper 
holds off. It js no advantage to him, even 
with stationary prices, to make contracts 
such as are offered ; besides nobody looks 
for anything but an advance, which will 
be large if the present predictions are 
made good. Consumers are not confident 
and view the situation uneasily. The feel- 
ing on both siJIes is that it is too late lo 
contract, and if prices continue to go up 
few will be made this season. 

Shippers now quote bituminous as fol- 
lows: .Allegheny Valley, all sizes, $4.45; 
Pittsburgh and No. 8 lump, $4.80 ; same, 
three-quarter, $4.65 ; mine run, $4.25 ; all 
slack. $3.25. Slack is plentiful and is not 
advancing to any great extent. All quo- 
tations are per net ton f.o.b. Buffalo. 
Pittsburgh is advancing again, and Buf- 
falo will soon have to follow. 

Anthracite — The demand is not so in- 
sistent as it was, as hot weather discour- 
ages it and many families are now sup- 
plied. Shippers still hold that a winter 
shortage is before us and advise laying 
in a supply when it can be had. The all- 
rail demand is heavy and as much as pos- 
sible is put into that trade, so tiiat out- 
]>'ini:: territory at least may be taken care 
of during open weather. 

The anthracite shipments by lake keep 
up well, being for the season to July 
1.24(5.999 net tons, as against 866,156 tons 
for the same time last season ; for June. 
453.797 tons and 483.550 tons for June, 
1918; for the past week. 104,150 tons, of 
wiiich 43,000 tons cleared for Chicago. 
29.000 tons for Milwaukee. 19.300 tons for 
Duluth and Superior. 6000 tons for Wau- 
kegan. 5500 tons for Hubbell and 1350 tons 
for Depere. 

Freight rates are quiet at 60 cents to 
Chicago. 47^ cents to Milwaukee and 
Waukegan. 421 cents to Duluth and Hub- 
bell, consignee's rate to Pepere. 

-\tithracite. except the extremes of do- 
mestic sizes, grate and buckwheat, ad- 
vanced 10 cents a ton for July and is 
quoted as follows: 

Fob Car-, At Curb 

Gross T...ns Net Tons 

Orate $8 55 $10 20 

Egg 8 75 10 50 

Stove 9 00 10 70 

Chestnut 9.10 10 80 

Pea 7 30 9 25 

Buckwheat 5 70 7 75 


Demand for bituminous coal continues 
to increase and prices are being strength- 
ened in proportion. Nevertheless, steam- 
coal users are not responding in coal pur- 
chasing to the extent business in general 
is picking up. Domestic demand for an- 
thracite and Pocahontas continues good. 

Bitnminons — Steam-coal users and the 
lake trade at present may be said to he 
taking every ton of coal eastern and south- 
ern Ohio operators are able to bring for- 
ward, ^'ith the mines being operated at 
not over 60 per cent, of capacity, it may 
be seen that in reality buyers are not tak- 
ing as much coal as surface indications 
would show. In every department of in- 
dustry northern Ohio .now is on better than 
a 75 per cent, basis; the iron and steel 
industry — the biggest single consumer of 
coal — is rapidly approximating 100 per 
cent . yet coal is not being taken in satis- 
factory tonnages. More and more desire 
to stock for the coming winter is being 
evidenced, yet the undertone of the mar- 
ket, in regard to movement, is not satis- 
factory. Compared with conditions a few 
month's ago and with what many operators 
predicted for the early summer, the coal 
trade may be said to be booming. But 
contrasted with the urgent need for stock- 
ing fuel and the condition the mines are 
approaching, steam-coal users are not re- 
sponding to a deerree hoped for. 

On slack the market appears quite de- 
ceptive. Some operators are talking of $2 
and $2.10 slack and say they 
take a cent less. On the 

July 10, 1919 


appears tliat some slack has been sold as 
low as $1.40 in northern Ohio recently. 
Mine-run may be said to be centering 
around ?2.25. Prices are gaining strength 
constantly, as talk of a shortage this win- 
ter increases. 

Conditions at the mines continue unsat- 
isfactory. Car shortages appear in streaks 
— a good run one day and next to no cars 
the next. The outflow of hiljor shows no 
signs of abating, but this has been offset 
in part by the return of a few skilled 
miners who left for otlier employment in 
the slack days following the armistice. 

Anthracite and Pocahontas — Some deal- 
ers are contemplating a o'J-cent advance 
in anthracite prices shortly. Demand 
continues good ; in fact, is better than the 
supply. Much the same condition obtains 
With Pocahontas. Dealers estimate their 
summer business so far has been about 20 
per cent, above normal. 

I^ake Trade — "Lake shipments of bitu- 
minous coal to July 1 will show a gain of 
about l.oilO.noO tons over shipments to 
July 1 last year, which were about 7,500,- 
000 tons, it is predicted. The 9,000,OiMi- 
ton mark will be attained by July 1, many 
believe. Lake Erie docks now are keep- 
ing the pace of better than 1,000.000 tons 
of cargo coal a week. From Duluth and 
Superior comes the word that receipts of 
bituminous coal there to July 1 totaled 
4,767,000 tons, compared with 1,992.200 
tons last year. Receipts of anthracite to 
-Tuly 1 this vear and last vear. respectively, 
are given as .562.000 and 1.37.5,600 tons. 
The supply of cargo space has exceeded 
the coal tonnage at the car dumpers the ten days. Lake shipments of slack, 
always small, have increased somewhat. 


Steam coal is not yet awakening tlie 
interest of Detroit consumers to the extent 
present conditions and future outlook would 
seem to justify. 

Bituminous — Consumers of steam coal in 
Detroit are continuing the more or less 
indifferent attitude that has characterized 
this division of the business since early in 
the year. There is a moderate demand 
for domestic stock, but sales of steam coal 
are disappointingly small and, according to 
wholesalers and jobbers, do not reflect a 
broad general buying movement such as 
the present market conditions and forecasts 
would suggest is advisable. 

Few of the large consumers show any 
interest in opening negotiations on a con- 
tract basis. The producers also are said 
to be showing indifference concerning con- 
tracts. This attitude is attributed to a dis- 
inclination to assume obligations at present 
prices that might prove unsatisfactory in 
case increasing costs necessitate an advance 
in prices later. 

The movement of bituminous into Detroit 
is not of very large volume and is said 
to be considerably below what was re- 
garded as normal before the war. Some 
coal is to be found on tracks. The amotmt 
is not great. Jobbers believe it w'ould be 
diflicult for consumers of steam coal to 
replenish stocks regtilarly from track coal. 

Net ton prices at the mines on West 
Virginia gas or splint lump are quoted at 
$?, to J3.25 and for two-inch lump $2.85, 
while run of mine ranges from about $2.10 
to $2.15 and sla-ck averages $1.75. On 
Hocking domestic lump the price is given 
at $2.75, with $2 for mine run and about 
$1.50 for slack. The product of other lead- 
ing Ohio districts is said to be selling at 
about the same price as Hocking. Smoke- 
less coal is limited in supply, with prac- 
tically no lump or egg to be had. lline 
run is quoted at $2.75 to $3. when available. 

In the yards of many of the industrial 
consumers there is still considerable of the 
low grade coal that went into reserve last 
year. This is exerting an influence un- 
favorable to renewal of buying. 

Antliracite — Household consumers are 
taking their time about stocking up for 
winter requirements. Higher temperatures 
during the week are a discouraging factor. 
Ketailers are still endeavoring to spread 
the early buying movement, but are ai)par- 
cntly not meeting with the .success that 
might be expected, considering the shortage 
of supply last winter. 

I,ake Trade — Shipments over lake routes 
are easing off, though vessel capacity is 
available In large amount 

The domestic trade is now attracting 
considerable attention as buying on the 
part of the retailers is better. House- 
holders are awakening to the fact that they 
.should put in their winter's supply, and 
wliile a few orders for delivery during the 
month of July have been booked, the one 
thing that is liolding up the domestic trade 
is the unsettled real estate condition. With 
housing conditions so stringent, renters 
are not sure that they will be permitted 
to retain their dwellings. 

All these factors have been holding up 
the retail trade to a large degree. There 
is a good demand for the fancy grades 
such as Pocahontas and West Virginia. 
Rescreened varieties are also selling better. 
An increased demand for Hocking lump is 
also reported, and generally speaking the 
domestic trade is in good shape. Retailers 
are now inclined to stocl-; up to a certain 
e.xtent. Retail prices are higher, witli Po- 
cahontas selling in the neighborhood of 

The steam trade is also showing signs of 
awakening. Steam users have been in the 
market and quite a few contracts have been 
closed witliin the past few weeks. Reserve 
stocks are pretty generally used up and 
purchasing agents are negotiating for a 
renewal of supply. Iron and steel plants 
are using a larger tonnage than formerly. 
General manufacturing is rather slow to 
resume, but fuel requirements are gradually 
increasing. Steam prices show distinct 
strength and there is every indication of 
still higher levels. Railroads are not tak- 
ing the tonnage that was expected and that 
is tlie worst feature of the trade. 

The lake trade is going along steadily 
with loadings at the docks fairly large. A 
good tonnage is moving to the Northwest 
from Ohio and West Virginia mines. There 
is no congestion on the upper lake docks 
as the movement to the interior is rather 
active. Practically all of the lake con- 
tracts have been made and there is little 
opportunity for tonnage to be sold later on. 

Production is rather good in all of the 
producing fields of Ohio. This is especially 
noticeable in the eastern Ohio field, where 
the output is estimated at 6ii to 75 per cent. 
Pomeroy Bend fleld also shows an increase, 
Cambridge and Crooksville are producing 
a fair tonnage and the same is true of the 
Hocking Valley field. 


Little change in condition, tliou^li out- 
look is brighter. Car and labor shortage. 

Coal dealers and operators in the Cin- 
cinnati market report little change over 
conditions last week, although they say a 
gradual improvement is noted which should 
gain in momentum from now on. They 
attriljute whatever change there is in the 
situation to the constant advertising of the 
national association and the local dealers. 

Domestic users have about resigned them- 
selves to the fact that there will be little 
smokeless coal for them this season and 
are beginning to take whatever little of this 
grade is available for their con.sumption. 
Orders placed the past week by household 
users of coal have shown a decided in- 
crease over the past few weeks. 

Dealers look for a rush of business dur- 
ing July and August. The warning has 
gone out that there will be a serious short- 
age of gas the coming winter, ajid those 
who experienced the discomforts of a short- 
age two years ago are taking no chances 
init are laying in their supply of coal so 
as to be prepared when the shortage does 

Reports of car and labor shortage in the 
smokeless coal fields continue to come in. 
There appears to be a good movement of 
coal from these fields, but much of it is 
going to the seaboard and lakes, with 
some reaching the storage piles of those 
dealers who saw far enough ahead to get 
in their orders for mine-run. 



is a derided improvement in the 
coal trade in Ohio territory. Steam buying 
is better and the same is true iif the do- 
mestic trade. The lake movement iB steady. 
<'«al men generally predict a much im- 
pritved market within tlic coming two 


Retailers advance prices on domestic 
coal. far shortage beginning to he felt. 
Good demand for domestic coal, with steam 
grades still dull. Market slightly stiffer. 

Louisville retailers have made general 
advances on domestic coal, this .advance 
being forced by advances on the part of 
operators, w'ho have adv.anced domestic to 
take care of shrunken values of spot 
Starting July 1, all eastern Kentucky coal 
jumped to $7 a ton retail, with West Vir- 
ginia river still selling at $6.50. Western 
Tsentuckv lump advanced 15c. a ton to 
%'/!'. Coke is selling at $10.25 and an- 
thracite at $12 75. Smokeless has ad- 
vanced to $S. Mine-run Is retailing at 50c. 
under lump, and screenings at $1 under 

There is a good retail demand for coal, 
with operators in the retail field operatlnu 

about 70 per cent, full equipment. Stocking 
demand on domestic is about 35 per cent, 
of deliveries, w'ith the balance of the de- 
mand coming from small steam plants. 

Eastern Kentucky mines are operating 
about six days a week, with western Ken- 
tucky about two days. Car shortages are 
becoming more general, and many reports 
are being received of cars being delivered 
in bad shape. 

Quotations show: Eastern Kentucky 
block. $3.50ffi'3.75 ; mine run, $2.50(ffi2.75 ; 
nut and slack, $1.85(5)2.25; western Ken- 
tucky lump. $2.25(5)2.50; mine run, $2(5' 
2.10; screenings, $1.50(5)1.75; fine screen- 
ings. $1.40(51.50. 

Eastern Kentucky coals are all stronger, 
although there is still a marked need for 
business on screenings. Many operators are 
refusing additional business for block coal, 
as they cannot dispose of the screenings. 

The labor situation is in fairly good 
shape, but there has been a good deal of 
.shifting, with labor leaving western Ken- 
tucky two-day mines for eastern Kentucky 
mines that are operating almost full time. 


Steam-coal market has strengthened dur- 
ing past week. Domestic remains stiff and 
premium prices are offered for spot ton- 
nage, but little is available. Production 
shows a decline over previous week. 

There has been a perceptible strengthen- 
ing in the demand for steam grades the 
past few days, some new contracts have 
been made and old ones, with few excep- 
tions, are being renewed as they expire. 
The general industrial demand is better 
and in the aggregate a considerable ton- 
nage is moving. A public utility company 
closed for approximately 50,00(1 tons for 
the next twelve months at Government 
price. The Louisville & Nashville R.R. is 
reported to have closed for a small portion 
of its requirements for the next year, the 
major portion of the coal taken from this 
district by that line net having been al- 
lotted as yet. The Southern Ry. is now 
receiving new bids from local producers, 
having rejected the bids received on its 
former inquiry. Bunker business is show- 
ing some gains with an increased demand 
from ships making the ports of Mobile and 
New Orleans, 

The domestic market is decidedly stiff, 
nil operators having tied up practically all 
their output in contracts, and spot coal 
brings a premium when available. Piper, 
Coleanor and Montevallo lump is readily 
taken at $5.50 per ton mines, but there is 
iittle to be had of this high grade fuel from 
the Cahaba and Montevallo fields. 

Production for the week ending June 21, 
as reported to the .Mabama Coal Operators' 
.\ssociation. shows an output of 224.513 net 
tons, a material reduction as compared 
with the previous week. Labor is getting 
restless under restricted operating sched- 
ules and is beginning to leave the district 
for other fields. However, the indications 
are that the next week or two will see the 
blowing in of at least three additional fur- 
naces, which will enable some idle mines 
to rpstime and others to go on fuller 


Little additional contract business in fur- 
nace coke h:is been closed in the past week, 
as nearly all the bl.ast furnaces in operation 
had already covered. Several furnaces now 
out of bl.ast have desired to contract, but 
operators are indisposed to take such 
chances and the furnaces will probably 
have to gu.arantee they will go into blast 
before they can make requirement con- 
tracts. The great bulk of the contracting 
was on a ratio basis, as explained in pre- 
vious reports, the proportion being 6.} to 1, 
coke per net ton at ovens against basic 
pig iron per gross ton at valley furnaces, 
with monthly adjustment of invoice price. 

While there have been reports of furnace 
coke contracts being made .at flat prices, 
only one such case is definitely known, the 
lirice in that instance being a speci.'tl one of 
$4 for July shipment, $4.40 being the figure 
for the remaining five months of the half- 

The spot coke market stiffened up sharply 
a week before Independence Day, $4.25 
being the minimum for furnace coke, with 
some operators demanding more. The mar- 
ket has been quiet the past few days but 
is still quotable at the advanced figure. 
Spot foundry coke at $4.50, on<' a common 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

lirice, has been growing scarcer, but as a 
rule some can still be picked up at that 
figure, choicer brands commanding up to $5. 

While some operators regard coke as es- 
tablished on the higher level recently at- 
tained by the spot market, there are others 
who are willing to sell furnace coke for the 
i-emainder of July at $4. which was the u.sual 
settling iirice for June on monthly adjust- 
ment contracts, a few having been settled 
at $:!.7.".. These monthly adjustment eon- 
tracts are now a thing of the past. They 
had developed on Fel), 1 from contracts 
that had been written at Government price. 
hut subject to negotiation sliould tlie Gov- 
ernment price lie withdrawn. The market 
is now quotable as follows : Spot furnace. 
$4.25; spot and promiit foundry. ?4..T0fg> 
:, : contract foundry. J", (fi .">.■"> 0. per net ton 
at ovens. 

The "Courier" reports production in the 
I 'onnellsville and Lower Connellsville region 
in the week ended June 28 at 138.633 tons. 
:in increase of 7433 tons. 

BuiTalo — The price of coke advances 
slowly, in sympathy with bituminous coal, 
and a firmer market is in prospect here- 
after, as the furnaces are running much 
more actively than they were a month ago. 
Quotations, per net ton f.o.b. Buffalo are 
$7.85 for 72-hour Connellsville foundry, 
S7.10 to $7.3r> for 48-hour furnace .and 
$6.20 for off grades. The sale of breeze 
and other fine stuff has not been resumed 
to any extent, on account of the very low 
price of slack coal. 

Middle Western 







ehanges, either for the better or the 
\v«rf*e. Steam sizes continue inaeti^e, while 
prepared domestic sizes are in very goiul 
demand. Operators are feelins better these 
da.vs, however, because they tliink they see 
better times ahead, and In the immediate 

The campaign recently undertaken by the 
Xational Coal .\ssociation to stimulate bny- 
ing is now well started, but the results 
obtained so far have been from the dom- 
estic trade, rather than the steam. The 
biff manufacturers, as yet. do not realize 
the seriousness of the present situation, and 
therefore do not show much interest either 
in contracts or current sales. A well 
organized drive for steam business has 
been started by a number of coal operators' 
associations in the Jliddle West, but the 
results obtained have been nothing to brag 
about. The present opinion of the oper;itors 
is that they have done their best to get 
the public to contract. The public v,-ill not 
contract, therefore the operators are re- 
lieved of responsibility and, with justice. 
can sell their coals to the highest bidder 
during the fall and winter months. It mtist 
be admitted that the producers are looking 
forward to this situation with consideraM,' 
anticii>ation. While we are on this .sub- 
ject it might be well to say that last week 
there develojied a. car shortage in the 
Harrisburg field that practically closed 90 
per cent, of the mines in that district. Tt 
is true that this condition developed onlv 
on the Big Four R.R., but it is extremely 
likely other roads will be affected a little 
later on. We understand there are plenty 
of cars, but most of them are in such poor 
repair that they are unfit for coal hauling 
The labor question is again coming to a 
position of prominence, and many opinions, 
pr.actically all different, are to be heard. 
It seems pretty generally conceded, how- 

ever, that the miners will demand more 

Tlie Franklin County field in Illinois ex- 
perienced another consolidation tlie other 
day, when the Old Ben Coal Corporation 
took over the T. C. Keller properties at 
Sesser. 111., on the C. B. & Q. R.R. This gives 
the Old Ben Coal Corporation eight mines 
in Franklin County, all of them producing 
very good coal, both from the standpoint 
of high natural quality and excellent prepa- 
ration. We i)redicted some time back that 
the Franklin mines would soon l)e in the 
liands of two or tliree very strong operating 
and sales companies, and our predictions 
aiipear to be developing. It will be inter- 
esting to note the next independent mines 
to be absorbed. The trade, in general, 
looks with favor upon these consolidations, 
as it puts important mines in strong hands 
and hence staliilizes tiie industry. 

A mine in the Belleville district of Illi- 
nois sold from ;')">(» to 120M tons per day of 
mine run and screenings to the Chicago 
Great Western R.R. on a basis of $1.70 
mines per ton for mine run and $1.40 per 
ton for screenings. Contrary to expecta- 
tions the trade looked upon this sale with 
favor as it removed a tonnage from the 
market that was Ijeing sold at pretty low 
prices, and consequently demoralizing the 
market, it is said. 


Poor market on screenings. Domestic 
coal situation improvini: daily. High grade 
eastern coals hard to get. 

The market on screenings is in bad 
shape. We hear from very good authority 
that southern Illinois screenings of good 
quality ha\'e been selling at $1..tO mines, 
with the steam coal public showing but 
little interest even at these prices. We 
gatlier. however, that certain manufiictur- 
ing interests whose plants have been closed 
for the last six months are now starting 
up again, and soon will be running full 
time. There is no use in camouflaging 
the steam-coal situation, as it couldn't be 
worse than it is today. Operators are look- 
ing for better business on Monday. Ijecause 
the mines being closed over the Fourth as 
well as Saturday and Sunday will auto- 
matically keep some of the surplus from 
the open market. 

The situation on domestic coals is im- 
proving daily, and operators ha\"ing a sur- 
plus of lump, egg, nut or even smaller 
prepared sizes are having no trouble in 
selling the product in Chicago. High-grade 
eastern coals are at a decided premium, 
and will he harder to get as the season 


Advance in antiiracite 
announced witli the openi 
also shoved up a notch. Demand increas- 
ing under t he agitation of threatened 

July 1 brought the customary monthly 
advance of lOc. iier ton on all grades of 
anthracite except buckwheat, wliich re- 
mains stationary in price. Screened Poca- 
hontas was also put up 50c. per ton. while 
mine run was advanced only 25c. Coke 
was given a lift of 25c. per ton. making 
the iirevailing price of that commodity 
$11.25. The demand for coal has increased 
both in the city and country as a result 
of a campaign of publicity in which the 
danger of a coal shortage next winter is 
u'lven credence. Milwaukee is faring well 
in the matter of receipts by lake, and unless 
there is -A sudden and continued cessation 
of this supply there -nill be ample fuel for 
the Wisconsin district when the season of 
navigation closes. Tt will be advantageous 

however, if the demand can be stimulated 
so as to relieve the docks and make way 
for additional supplies. Receipts by lake 
for the months of April, May and June 
aggregate 204,037 tons of anthracite and 
1.148.753 tons of soft coal, against 164,889 
tons of the former and 827,436 tons of the 
latter during the same period last year. 
Chestnut anthracite is $12.50; stove. 
$12.40; egg, $12.20; pea, $11, and buck- 
wheat $9.75. Coke is $11.25, Pocahontas 
screened $10.25 and mine-run $8. 


Considerable activity im domestic sizes of 
liigber grade fuels, wliile low grade coal 
finds no demand. Steam coal market hard 
to find and over-supply is keeping mines 
idle. Future domestic supply in doubt on 



The past week witnessed the opening up 
of the orders for liigh-grade storage coal. 
The retail price advance of 25c. a ton on 
.luly 1 set things going when it was backed 
up by national newspaper advertising. 

Tliis demand is almost entirely for Car- 
terville. but there is some call for hard coal, 
a little smokeless and considerable coke. 
Almost no demand at all for Mt. Olive and 
no Standard aside from a small tonnage 
for a tew apartments. 

P'rom now on the movement will reach 
out to the cheaper fuels, especially as soon 
as it dawns on the public that the failure 
to wash steam coal is going to curtail the 
production of domestic sizes. 

The country call for domestic is almost 
identical with the city needs, but i:ot so 

The steam situation shows no improve- 
ment. Screenings from all fields are piling 
up at the mines and this is the one cause 
for many mines being idle in the William- 
son-Franklin County field. It is not as bad 
in the Mt. Olive dis.rict but affects the 
Standard mines to almost the same extent 
as in Williamson and Franklin Counties. 

.\ survey of the steam trade for July in- 
dicates a decreased tonnage and unless 
something out of the ordinary takes place 
■11 the local industrial situation in the 
next two months the steam tonnage will 
Iiave to be dumped at the urines if any- 
where near the amount required for domes- 
tic use is to be produced in all of the 

The mines in the Standard field work 
one and two days a week, execpt when on 
railroad coal. This tonnage does not in- 
dicate that the roads are storing to any 
extent. Many mines are idle and those 
that do work for the most part fight for the 
little business offered by Selling below cost. 
An effort was made by some operators on 
July 1 to get more money, hut it was not 
general and so far has not been successful. 

The Mt. Olive field is fairly well taken 
care of in shipping north and northwest 
Some railroad fuel is moving, and steam 
coal from this field moves easier than from 
other fields if it can go north 

The situation in Williamson and Frank- 
lin Counties is a vexatious problem for 
the operator. Snowed under in the past 
two weeks with domestic orders and no 
place for steam sizes makes it hard to give 
the men work enough to keep them con- 
tented. Two days a week is not enough. 
especially for the foreign element who are 
ready to leave at the first chance. One or 
two mines are working steady out of the 
entire field and some are idle entirely. 

Cars are plentiful yet and the movement 
is good. Prices are well maintained on all 
sizes by the Association operators, while 
the independents are quoting as much as 
50c, less. 

No contracts reported except at prie 
it time of shipment. 

,\merican Coal Co, of AUceheny. 

Bums Brothers, Com 

Bums Brothers, Pfd 

Central Coal & Coke, Com. 
Central Coal & Coke, Pfd . 
Colorado Fuel & Iron, Com. 

Coal and Coke Securities 

rk >!tork Exchange Closing Quotations July 7. 1919 

. (ACI.i 
. (CF) 

Colorado Fuel & Iron, Pfd (CFJ 

Consolidation Coal of Maryland (CGM) 

Elk Horn Coal, Com (EH) 

F.Ik Horn Coal, Pfd (EH) 

Island Creek Coal. Com (ICR) 

Island Creek Coal. Pfd (ICR) 

Jefferson & Clearfield Coal & Iron, Pfd (JF) 

New Central Coal of West Va (N(5(3) 

I>ittsburEh Cnal, Com (PC) 

Pitt.sburEh Coal, Pfd (PCS 

Pond Creek Coal (PO) 

Virginia Iron. Coal & Coke, , (VK) 


Cahaba Coal, 1st Gtd, 6s, 1922 

Clearfield Bituminous Coal, Ist 4s. Ser. A, 1940 

Colorado Fuel & Iron, Gen, Ss, 1943 

Colorado Indus. Ist Mte, & Col, Tr, Ss, 1934 

Consolidation Coal of Maryland, Ist Ref, 5s, 1950 

Jefferson & Clearfield Coal & Iron. Sec, Mort. 5s, 1926, . 

LehiEh Valley Coal, Ist Gtd. 5s. 1933 

Lehigh Valley Coal, Gtd. Int. Red, to 4%, 1913 

Lehigh Val, Coal & Nav. Con, S, F , 45s, Ser. A, 1954 , , 

Pleasant Valley Coal, Ist S, F„ 53, 1928 

Pocahontas Coal & Coke, Joint 4s, 1 94 1 

Pocahontas Con. Collieries. Ist S F 5s, 1957 

Roch, & Pitts. Coal & Ir., Helvetia Pur, Money 5s, 1946. 

St. L,, Rocky Mnt, & Pac, Stamped 5s, 1955 

Tenn. Coal. Iron & R R , Gen, 53, 1951 

Utah Fuel, IstSinkiag Fiind5s, 1931 

Victor Fuel, Ist Mtg Sinking Fund 5s, 1953 

Virginia Iron, Coal A Cok. Ist 53. 1949 








Julv 10, 1919 


Current Prices— Materials & Supplies 


PIG IRCN — Quotations compiled by The Matthew Addy Conpany as per 
Department of Commerce Committee Schedule. 


No. 2 Southern 

Northern Ba.sic 

Southern Ohio No. 2 

NEW YORK, Tidewater delivery 

2X Virginia (silicon 2 25 fo 2. 75) 

Southern No. 2 (silicon 2 25 to 2. 75) 


No. 2 Foundry 


Eastern Pa 

Virjinia No. 2,-, 


Grey Forge 


No. 2 Foundry Local 

No. 2 Foundry Southern 

PITTSBURGH, including freight charge from the 

No. 2 Foundry Valley 



* F.o.b. furnace. t Delivered. 

$30 35 

30 55* 
30 85t 
30 90* 
29 90* 

28 15 
27 15 

29 35 

One Month Ago 

$'0 35 

27 55 

28 25 


28 15 
27 15 

29 35 

STRUCTURAL MATERIAL— The following are the base prices, fob. 
mill, Pittsburgh, tog* ther with the quotations per 100 lb. from warehouses at 
the places named: 

. New York 

One Year 
$3 47 


Beams, 3 to 1 5 in $2 45 

Channels, 3 to 15 in 2.45 J 47 

Angles. 3to6in., {in thick. 2.45 3 47 

Tees, 3 in. and larger ... 2.45 3 52 

l>lates 2 66 3 67 

$4 24i 
4 24', 

$3 54 
3 54 
3 54 
3 54 
3 54 

$3 47 
3 47 
3 47 

BAR IRON — Prices in cents per pound at cities named i 
Pittsburgh Cincinnati St. Louis 1 

2 75 3.25 3 44 

B follows: 

NAILS — Prices per keg from i 

Mill St. 

Pittsburgh Louis 

Wire $3 25 $3 90 

Cut 4 25 5 40 

warehouse in cities named: 


5 50 

$4 25 $5.00 

6 40 

$5 00 

TRACK SUPPLIZS— The following prices are base per 100 lb. f.o.b. Pitts, 
burgb tur carload lots, together with the warehouse prices at the places named: 

Standard railroad spikei 

and larger 

Track bolts 

Standard section angle ba 

$3 35 $4 27 $4 44 $5 65 $4.50 $5 05 
4.35 5 17 Prem. 6 65 6 00 6 05 
J. 00 4 22 Prcm. 4 60 .. 4.45 

COLD DRAWN STEEL SHAFTING— From warehouse to consumers re- 
• (.ii.uig fair-sized lots, the following discounts bold: 

Cincinnati Cleveland Chicago St. Louis Denver Birminghani 

t7i% List— 5% List— 2% -t-15% +20% -1-20% 


Mill Cin- 

Piltsburgh cinnati 

Straight $5 75 $7 50 

Assorted 640 

'ehouse prices per 100 lb. in cities named: 


Chicago St. Louis Denver inghani 

$6 50 $7.25 $8 15 $7 00 

50-7 00 6 40 8 40 7 25 

•innati — Horseshoe nails sell (or $4 50 to $5 p.r 25-lb. box. 

CAST-IRON PIPE— The follov 
. Ne 

* prices per net ton for carload lots: 


nth One St. San Fran- 

Current Ago Year Ago Chicago Louis cisco Dalla 

4in $53 00 $55 70 $64 35 $54.80 $48.00 $72.50 $59.00 

6»n.andover 50 00 52 70 61 35 51.80 45.00 69.55 56.00 

Gas pipe and 16-ft. lengths are $1 per ton ixtr:i. 

STEEL RAILS- The following quotations arc per ton f o.b. Pittsburgh ard 
('hicago lor carload or larger lots. For less than carload lots Sc. per 100 lb. is 

Standard K-ss.t 
Standard op'-n'M 
Light rails, 8 to 
Ligl, trails, I2to 
Li„htr..ilii. iJto 
« Per 100 lb. 

I II lb 
45 lb 


$45 00 


2 58 

Pittsburgh . 

Year Ago 
$55 00 

2 54* 
2 45' 

$45 00 

47 00 
? 6'i' 
2 79* 
2 70* 

-Chicago . 

Year Ago 
$65 00 
67 00 

OLD MATERIAL— Ihe prices following 
producers in New York. In Chicago - 

r delivery at the buye 

No. I railroad wrought 

Stove plate 

No. I machinery cast 
Machine shop turnings 

Cast borings 

Railroad malli-able cast 

, — ^...- gross ton paid to dealers and 

,„ ^d St. Louis the quotations are per net 

works, including freight transfer charges: 

$19 50 
15 50 
21 50 
9 00 

$17 00 
17 00 
21 50 
6 65 
9 50 
16 00 

St. Louis 
$18 50 
17 00 
25 50 
9 00 
9 00 
15 50 

COAL BIT STEEL — Warehouse price per pound i 
New York Cincinnati Birmingham 

$0 12 $0 16; $0 18 

IS follows: 

St. Louis 

$0 13 

$0 I8i 


• price per pound; 

New York 

St. Louis Birmi&gliK 

PIPE— The following discounts are foi 
card of Jan. I, 1919 for steel pipe and for i 

arload lots f.o.b. Pittsburgh; basing 
1 pipe: 

and «... 



Black Galvanized 

50!% 74% i to 1 

54i% 40% 

57J% 44% 

2 325% 

25 to 4 34i% 


to U 391% 

i, Jandi 46J% 

5 5IS% 

J to U 55'% 


2} to 4 51 

4i to 6 

37%. 2 



stocks disi 

— Ne 

d are a.s follows: 
■York — — Cleveland- 
Gal- Gal- 
Black vanized Black vanized 
; to 3 in. steel butt welded 47% 31%, 46'% 31% 
3Ho 5 in. steel lap welded 42% 27% 42J% 27,% 


. Chicago - — . 

Black \:inized 
57i% 44<^ 
S3}% 41% 

■ York stock sell at list + 1 2i°[ 

Galvanized iron rigging , 
Galvanized cast steel riggii 
Bright plain rigging. 
Bright cast steel 
Bright iron .ind iron tiller 

ular grades of bright 

New York 
and St. I.niii 




STEEL SHEETS— The following are the prices 
jotibers* warehouse at the cities named: 

ents per pound from 
Cleveland Chicago 


"No. 28 black 4 35 

»No. 2f black 4 25 

* 22 and 24 black. 4 20 

Nos. 18 and 20 black. 4 15 

No. 16 blue annealed 

No Ublucannculcd 

No. 10blue:iMno!ikd 
»No. 18 galvanized... 
•No. 26 galvanized 

\'o. 24 galvan' 

6 22 

3 75 
3 65 
i 55 

5 70 
5 40 

6 45 
6 35 
» 30 

6 25 
5 65 
5 55 
5 45 

7 70 
7 40 

• painted corrugat( d sheets add 3C3. per 100 lb. fo 
19to24gages; for galvanized corrugated she its add 15c 

5 27 
5 17 
5 12 

5 07 
4 67 
4 57 
4 47 

6 62 
6 32 
6 17 

25 to 28 gage 
all gages. 

5 37 
5 27 
5 22 

5 17 
4 77 
4 67 
4 57 

6 72 
6 42 
6 21 

; 25c 


Dili warehouse at the places nami 
deducted from list: 

New York ^Cleveland— 

'<!, on fair 

I orders, the follow 

Hot pressed S(]uare. . $1 . 28 
Hot presscil hexagon 1.08 
Cold punched square 3.25 
Cold punched hexagon 2 , 70 

- Chicago -^ 
Current One 

Year Ago 

$7 00 $1 05 

2 00 .85 

1 30 I 00 

1 30 1.00 



Vol. 16, No. 2 

Semi-finished nuts =i-il at the following discounts from list price: 

Current One Year Ago 

Mew York 50—10% 40% 

Chicago 50<^- 50% 

Cleveland 60-10-10% 60% 

St. Louis 45% 

MACHINE BOLTS —Warehouse discounts in the following cities: 

New York Cleveland Chicago St. Louis 

I by 4 in. and smaller 50-10% 50% 50-10% 50-10% 

Larser and longer up to I in. by 30 in. 40- I 0% 40% 40- 1 0% 40- 1 0%, 

WASHERS -From warehouses at the places named the following amount is 
dediiited from list price: 

For ^\Tought-iron washers: 
New York $1.25 Cleveland S3. 50 Chicago $2 25 

For cast-iron washers the base price per 100 I)v i.^ as follows: 
New York $6 00 Cleveland J3 75 Chicago $4 00 

RIVETS — The following quotations are allowed for fair sized or<icrB from 

New York Cleveland Chicago 

Steel A and smaller 65% 60—5% 45% 

Tinned 65% 60—5% 40% 

Boiler, i,i, 1 in. diameter bv 2in. to 5in. sell as follows per '001b.: 

New York.. S4. 72 base Cleveland. $4. 00 Chicago $4 87 Pittsburgh.. .$4 65 

Structural. >ame sizes: 

New York. 84.82 Cleveland S4. 10 Chicago $4 97 Pittsburgh. ..$4 75 



— \ew York — — Cleveland -- . Chicago 

Current One Current One Current One 

Year .\go Year Ago YearAg. 

Rawinbarrel $1 98 $1 61 $2 00 $1.70 $2.04 $1.66 

5 -gal. cans 2 II I 71 2.25 1.85 2.24 1.86 

WHITE AND RED LEAD -Base price. 


lOO-lh. keg 13 00 

25 and 50-lb. kegs... 13 25 

12t-lb. keg 13 50 

5-lb. cans 15.00 

16 00 

In Oil 

14 50 
1-. 75 

15 00 

16 50 

17 50 

12 25 
12 50 
12 75 
14 25 
14 25 

In Oil 
12 50 

12 75 

13 00 

14 00 
14 50 

500 lb, lots less 10% discount. 2OU0 lb. lots less 10-25% di: 

In Oil 
13 00 
13 25 
13 50 
15 00 

In Oil 
12 25 
12 50 
12 75 
14 50 

COMMON BRICK— The prices pei 

Chicago SI 2. 00 

St. Louis, salmon 10 0(1 

Cincinnati 16.00 

1000 in cargo or carload lots 


?ham $15.00 

(hard red) I 2 00 

. 2-Pl 

PREPARED ROOFINGS - -tandard grade rubbered surface, complete it 

n:iils and cement, insts per square as follows in New York, St. Louis, Chicag 

and San Francisco. 

1-PIy . 

C.l. CI 

Vo. 1 grade $1 45 $1 70 $1 80 

Xo. 2 grade I 30 I 55 i 60 

.\abestos asphalt saturated felt (14 lb. per square! costs $5.00 per 100 11- 
.^late-surfaced roofina 'red and greenl in rolls of 108 sq.ft. costs S2.00 pc 

roll in carload lots and $2.23 for smaller quantities. 

Shingles, red and green slate finish cost $5.00 per square in carloads. $5.25 ii 

sm-'Mer quantities, in Philadelphirv 


' 3-PIy . 


C.l. I.el. 


$2 15 $2.40 

1 85 

1 90 2 15 

ROOFING MATERIAL— Prices per ton f. o. b. New York and Chicago 

Carload Lots 
<. Y. Chicago 


Carload Lots 

Tarfelt(14Ib. per square of lOOsq.ft) $60 00 

Tar pitch (in 400-lb. bbl.) 21 00 

Asphalt pitch (in barrels'! 34 CO 

Asphnlt flit 63 00 

S61 00 
22 00 
37 50 
67 50 

$61 50 
19 OU 
37 50 
67 50 


$0 162 

HOLLOW TILE — Price per block in carload lots for hollow building tile: 

4x12x12 8x12x12 12x12x12 

St. Paul $0 056 

St. Louis 08 

Seattle .09 

Lob .Angeles* .082 

New Orleans . .165 

Pittsburgh .. .065 

Chicago ... .08 

Denver .125 

Cincinnati .07 

*F. o. b factory. 4. 8 and 10 inch. 

. I 3075 

LUMBER— Price of pine per M i 

rload lots: 

1-In. Rough 2-In.T. andG. 8 x 8 In. x 20 Ft. 

10 In X 16 Ft. 10 In. x 16 Ft. 

St.Louis $30(3 51 $35 00 $33 00 

Birmingham 39 00 33 00 3100 

Denver 43 25 35 00 43 00 

C incinnati 41.00 39.00 40.00 

EXPLOSIVES— Price per pound of dynamite in small lots and price per 25-lb. 
keg for black powder: 

' Freezing *— 

20% 40% 

New York $0. 271 

Boston JO 22$ .24; 

Kansas City 

New Orleans 



St. Paul 

St. Louis 


Dallas 189 

Los Angeles .196 

22J (50%) 






■ Gelatin - 

$0 30 


• 24J 



2 45 
2 25 
2 60 


GREASES— Prices are as follows in the following 
barrel lots: 

Cincio- St. 


Fiber or sponge . 
Transmission . . . 



BABBITT METAL —Warehouse prices in cents per pound: 

. — New Y'ork — . . — Cleveland — ■ . Chicago . 

Current One Current One Current One 

Y'ear .\go Yeir Ago Year Ago 

Bestgrade 87 00 125 00 79 00 100 00 75 00 113 00 

• 42 00 70 on 17 50 22 00 15 00 23 00 

HOSE — Following are prices of i 

Underwriters' 2f-in 

es of hos. 

50-Ft. Lengths 
70c per ft. 


;-in. per ft 
First grade . 


First Grade Second Grade Th 

$0 50 $0 35 

team — Discounts from list 
Second grade 40% Third grade 


LEATHER BELTING— Present discounts from list in cities named: 

Medium Grade Heavy Grade 

St. Louis 45% 50% 

Denver 35-5% 30% 

Birmingham 35% 35% 

Chicago 45% 35% 

Cincinnati 30-5-2!% 40-2}% 

RAWHIDE LACING-20%for cut; 45c. per sq.ft. for ordinary. 

PACKING— Prices per pound: 
Ruboer and duck for low-pressure 
Asbestos for high-pressure steam 

Duck and rubber for piston packing 

Flax, regular .... 

Flax. wat:erproofed 

Compressed asbestos sheet 

Wire insertion asbestos sheet 

Rubber sheet , 

Rubber sheet, wire insertion 

Rubber sheet, duck insertion 

Rubber sheet, cloth insertion 

Asbestos packing, twisted or braided, and graphited, for valve stems 

and stuffing boxes 

Asbestos wirk. ',- and 1-lb. balls 

I 00 
I 20 


MANILA ROPE — For rope smaller than s-in. the price is } to 2c. extra: 
while for quantities amounting to less than 600 ft. there is an extra charge of le. 
The number of feet per pound for the various sizes is as follows: f-in., 8 ft., 
i-in, 6: ;-in., 4>; I in., 3?,: I !-in . 2 ft. 10 in.: I J-in. 2 ft. 4 in. Following is 
price per pound for |-in. and larger, in 1200-ft. coils: 

Boston $0 26 

New York. 

St. Louis 


St. Paul 

San Francisco, 


Atlanta $0 29} 

Denver 29} 

Kansas City 28} 

New Orleans 27} 

Seattle .27} 

Los Angeles . 26 




Standard List 
Pipe Size Per Lin.Ft. 

1-in. $0 27 

2-in. . 36 

fr-in. . 80 

4-in. . 60 

3-in. . 45 

discounts and part of standard 

For I. 

magnesia high pressure , 
'-pressure heating and 

I lines. 

( 4-ply. 
j 3-ply. 
I 2-Dly. 

58% off 
60% off 
62% off 


Frictitin tape, X lb. rolls. 
Rubber tape, J-lb. rolls 
Wire solder, 50-lb. spools 
Soldering paste. 2-oz. can 

rk prices for tape and solder are as follows: 
48c. per lb. 

60c. per lb. 

46c. per lb. 

$ 1 . 20 per doz. 

COPPER WIRE— Prices per 1000 ft. for rubber-covered wire m followmg cities: 

Denver . . St. Louis . Birmingham ^— . 

Single Double Single Double Single Double 
No. Br.iid Br;iid Duplex Braid Braid Duplex Braid Braid Duplex 

14 S12.00 SI5.50 S33 00 $11 00 $20 00 $31 50 $9 92 $9 92 $41.66 

10 18.85 25.45 49 50 25 40 29 00 59 00 29 99 29 99 56 26 
" 68 00 35 45 

26 45 
56 35 
84 85 

33 70 

45 70 

64 30 

94 35 

Ill 00 123 35 

163 00 163 00 



. 289. 85 

i is using a 20-cent base. 

35 00 72 50 40 89 40 89 

61 00 120 00 82 13 82 13 

86 00 112 48 112 48 

, 130 00 158 76 158 76 

. 176 00 213 34 213 34 

222 00 251 50 251 50 

'.. 270 00 302 78 302 78 

. 330 00 366 00 366 00 

400 00 439 74 439 74 

•ith 55 to 58% discount^ 

FREIGHT RATES— On 6nished 

including plates, structural shapes, 
galvanized wire nails, rivets, spikes, bolt: 
etc., the following freight rates per I 000 lb 

Boston $0 30 






Kansas City 

Note — Add 3% transportation tax 

teel products in the Pittsburgh distri<t 
rchant steel, bars, pipe Bttings, plain and 
flat sheets (except planished), chains 
re effective: 

New Orleans $0.38! 

New York 27 

27 Philadelphia 24! 

23 St.Louis 24 

17 St. Paul 49» 

.99 Pacific Coast (all rait) 125* 


Minimum carload, 80.000 lb. 


I'l.llimr 16 Xumhrr ^ 

New York, July 17, 1919 


By Be/'ion Br' a ley 

WITHOUT sleek, smug self-righteousness 
Or any narrow bigot's zeal, 
I hold this constitutes success: 

To labor for the common weal, 
To do your work the best you can, 

To get your wage for what you do 
While striving that your fellowman 
May win his honest wages, too. 

I HOLD that in a world of men 
Where money buys the things we need, 
That he who toils with pick or pen 

Should hold in scorn not gold, but greed! 
That he should have his just return 

From work of hand or brain and nerves, 
But let his effort be to earn 

His recompense as one who serves. 

WE all must serve, it is the test 
Of high endeavor and of worth; 
And he who does his job the best 

Is one of any breed or birth 

Who, holding high or low estate, 

Visions the labor he can give 

As part of that long war with fate 

To make this life more fit to live. 

THIS is my creed, and though it brings 
No swollen wealth, I hope to find 
I shall be paid with richer things- 
Love and content and peace of mind. 
And if, in all the rough world's stress 

From this, my creed, I do not swerve, 
I hope to sum my life's success 

In this one simple phrase- 'I serve!" 


Vol. 16, No. 3 



Simple Scotch for T-Iron Road 

By Machine Runner 

Sullivan, Indiana 

A simple scotch to use on T-iron road where it is 
necessary to unload the mining machine may be made 
as follows: Take two fishplates and put one bolt 
through them in the second hole from the end. Tighten 


the bolt up to the desired size to fit the rail, then lay 
them clothes-pin fashion in front of the wheel which 
is to be scotched. There will now be no trouble in 
holding the machine while unloading. 

A Spring Latch 

By R. Bowen 

Pittston, renn. 

A spring latch for use where branch tracks are put 
in against the loaded cars is illustrated below. It is 
always the tendency of small 3-ft. latches to fly open 
when the car runs over the latch pin. This results in 
the derailing of the cars behind, and many a man bears 

si 11 1 1 1 1 \ 1 \ I H 1 1 r\ 1 NT I 1 1 \ 

evidence of the dangerous practice of pulling the latch 
back into its place with his hand, as the trip goes over 
the latch. 

The little kink shown, which is by no means new, 
is extremely simple and costs practically nothing to put 
in. An ordinary latch is taken to the blacksmith and a 

lug welded on its side 6 in. from the point and extend- 
ing 2 to 3 in. below the latch. A hole 1 to i in. in 
diameter is cut in the center of the lug, permitting the 
attachment of a piece of wire that runs under the latch 
and wing rail. The wire can be held in the hand a safe 
distance from the moving cars, or the limb of a tree, a 
pole or a sapling ma.v be nailed or stapled to the ties, 
the wire being then tied to this pole. 

A piece of 1-in. iron rod bent to the shape of an eye- 
bolt that is slipped over the pole, the other end passing 
under the rail and latch and through the lug into a nut, 
answers the purpose better. The dotted lines show the 
position of the pole when an empty car passes back 
through the latches. 

A Mine Door Protector 

A type of door protector adopted by one of the large 
coal companies of Pennsylvania, and used by it on 
many of its doors underground, is shown below. This 
protector is made as follows : A piece of 2-in. pipe of 
suitable length is bent in approximately parabolic curve, 
or one of changing radius. Each end of the pipe is 


flattened for a distance of about 10 in., and the flattened 
portion reflexed sufficiently so that when the concave 
side of the curved pipe is next the door the flattened 
ends will lie flat upon it near either edge. The maximum 
clearance from the door to the pipe protector should be 
at a point about two-thirds of the distance from the 
hinged to the free side of the door, and should amount 
to about 1 foot. 

This curved pipe protector is bolted securely to the 
door at each end, three bolts being employed ordinarily. 
It should be placed at such a height that the frame of 
the locomotive will strike it, thus pushing the door 
open. It also prevents the door from coming in contact 
with the sides of the cars in the trip, thus holding the 
door proper distance away. 

This device is cheap to build and install, and does its 
work efficiently. It will save its cost many times over 
in preventing damage to the door upon which it is 

July 17, 1919 



Block Signal Board 

By Ralph W. Mayer 

California, Penn. 

It is necessary at times for two or more locomotives 
pulling coal from butt entries to use the same entry be- 
tween the butt entries and the parting. Unless some 
method of signaling is adopted, the motormen do not 
know whether the track is clear, and confusion or lost 
time results. Makeshift or careless methods are some- 
times used, such as hanging a piece of canvas from 
the trolley or roof. 

A block signal board has been adopted by one large 
mining company as a more efficient method. This board 
is fastened to the rib, close to the track, at the junction 
of the butt and cross entry tracks. It is about 24 in. 
long and 18 in. wide. Four horizontal cleats are nailed 
to the back of the board. Each pair of these cleats are 
nailed far enough apart so that an arm 6 in. wide and 1 


in. thick will easily slide between them. Two perpendic- 
ular pieces are nailed over these horizontal ones next 
to the edge of the board. These prevent the signal arm 
from falling out while the arm slides between them 
and the face of the board. 

The arms have stop-blocks fastened to either end to 
prevent the arm from going too far. One end of the 
arm has OUT, the other IN printed upon it, with 
arrows showing the direction. On the face of the board 
is printed MOTOR NO.— IS— OUT— IN, the words 
OUT or IN being indicated by the signal arm, depend- 
ing on which end of the arm is exposed. When the 
motorman goes out to the parting he exposes the end of 
the arm showing OUT. When he returns he exposes the 
end showing IN. 

Turning a Room Without the Engineer 

By .]. A. .MoNico 

Bcsoco. W. Va. 

A simple method of laying off rooms and entrie.s is 
shown in the accompanying diagram. This method can 
he employed for rooms or entries turned at any angle. 
All the mine boss has to do is to learn from the engi- 
neer the distance between room centers on the angle 
turned. The mine boss can then turn the rooms and 
entries, and drive them at least 150 ft. before the engi- 
neer is needed. To illustrate: Suppose that ABC 
are spads for No. 1 room and the entry, and that 

No. 2 room is ready to be turned (in this case at a right 
angle to the entry) on a 50-ft. center. The first thing 
to do is to hang two plumb-bobs in spads A and C. 
Sight along the entry to D and measure 5 ft. on that 
line of sight. Mark the line of sight on the roof, and 
also the distance. Next measure the distance from 

Af? / h'oorr? 

-—r Jfe 

No. B Room 


A to B; in this case it is 4 ft. Then measure the dis- 
tance D E, making it the same as A B. Next measure 
50 ft. from B to E, keeping 4 ft. from E. The two 
points D and E are sights for No. 2 room. Several 
rooms can be turned in this manner and little error will 
be found. 

Clamp lor the Work Bench 

By Charles H. Willey 

Concord. N. H. 

The bench clamp illustrated herewith is simple to 
construct and of value to any mechanic who has much 
bench work to do. The contrivance is shown in both 
detailed and assembled views, but the dimensions have 
not been given as these can best be made to suit the 
size of work to be handled. The upright of the clamp 
is made of square stock, one end being bent over at 


right angles to make the foot on which the clamp screw 
operates. Two pieces of iron plate make the lugs that 
hold the hinge pin of the clamp finger; these are riveted 
or bolted to the upright by three bolts. 

The clamp finger is forged to a suitable curve and 
is made sufliciently large at the short end to take a 
■;-in. screw. A piece of 35 x 'i in. flat bar stock is 
machined with square holes and taper keyways in each 
hole and is set in with the bench top. This is 
bolted down. The tool is held firm by the taper wedges 
or keys, the leg of the tool being of sufficient length 
to raise and lower it to suit a wide range of work. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

Importance of the Proper Bonding 
of Mine Rails 

THE electric haulage circuit in a mine is like a chain, 
composed of many links or elements, each of which 
must do its work or the whole will be a failure. The 
most complicated portion of the electrical path is the 
return. Bonding, if properly done, greatly decreases 
the resistance of mine track; if improperly done, it is 
next to useless. The latest type of bond is that employ- 
ing terminals welded to the rail ends. 

By C. C. Beck 

.Mansfield, ( )lii.. 

AN ELECTRIC haulage system is made up of electri- 
i-\ cal paths in series, each of which is a link in the 
X A- electrical chain. If each does not properly per- 
form its function, serious losses result. Fig. 1 shows 
diagrammatically a complete system. The current is 
generated at the power house, flows out over the feeder 
and trolley wires, through the locomotives and cutting 
machine motors, and back to the power house, through 
the rails and joints. 

The importance of good rail bonds is often overlooked. 
The feeling appears to be prevalent that electricity will 
have no trouble in getting back to the power house over 
rails that are connected together with good splice 
plates that are tightly bolted in place. When it is re- 
membered, however, that the joints are in series so 
that the resistance of the return path is the total of the 
resistances of all the joints, it is seen that a compara- 
tively low average joint resistance may result in a high 
total resistance, and that the voltage drop may become 
a high percentage of the total potential. This result.- 
not only in considerable power loss but, still worse, in 

VUi. 1. DIAGRA.M OF A CO.MJ'mTE H.\f I..\i : 10 I'^STK.M 

low voltage to the motors. This means slow speed, ineffi- 
cient loading of locomotives, and correspondingly higher 
current values which burn out armatures. 

On one property it was necessary to keep an armatur° 
winder constantly busy rewinding burnt-out armatures. 
The concern furnishing the coils suddenly noticed an ab- 
sence of orders and checked up to see why this excellent 
coil business was not coming to them any more. The 
reason was that the manager had realized the poor bond- 
ing on his system and had rebonded the track, with the 
result that he had practically eliminated burning out of 
armatures and was furthermore hauling heavier loads at 
higher speeds than before. 

•Paper presented Viefore the Kentucky Mining lu.^titute. I.e.x- 
ington, Ky., Jtine 7, 1919. 

The loss on a single joint may be surprisingly large. 
One rail joint that used to be in front of the house in 
which I lived impressed me m.ore than any other with 
the excessive loss that might exist in a single joint. 
This particular joint would give off so much heat that 
snow was always melted away from its vicinity, and at 
night an arc would often be noticed which gave off con- 
siderable light. One of the boys of the neighborhood 





ran a pair of wires and tapped them across this joint, 
carrying the wires into his window. He borrowed 3 
voltmeter and found a 60-volt drop across the joint. 
He managed to get a small motor, which he connected to 
these wires. The neighborhood boys had considerable 
fun running all sorts of mechanical contrivances from 
this motor. 

Iron oxide, or rust, has a high resistance, and it only 
takes a few days' time, when exposed to the weather or 
to the corrosive conditions of most mines, for rust to 
form over the rails and splice bars, insulating the rails 
from each other. 

One of the first bonding methods employed to reduce 
the resistance between rails consisted of a piece of 
copper wire clamped under the bolt heads. Corrosion, 
however, soon proved this method no better than the 
splice bars alone. A later plan was to drill holes in the 
web.s of the rails and insert the ends of a wire, holding 
these ends in place by driving in channel pins which 
were a little larger than the hole in the rail. This made 
a tight fit, the pin being compressed around the wire 
as shown in Fig. 2. 

Channel pin bonding has also proved inefficient. In 
some cases failure has arisen from the old worn trolley 
wire used, which was so out of round and of such re^ 
duced size that it did not fit the channel pin closely and 
was not sufficiently compressed in installation. But even 
with good, new wire the moisture can enter the space 
between the pin and rail. It then spreads by capillary 

July 17, 1919 



attraction, soon corroding the surfaces and resulting in 
high resistance. Fig. 3 shows a channel pin removed 
from a rail in service. The crack and corrosion as 
well as the reduced diameter of the pin, which was 
originally the diameter of the circle drawn around 


it, should be noted. It is easily appreciated that such 
contacts cannot give a low resistance joint. 

Fig. 4 is made up of actual readings on joints bonded 
with channel pins, in which the resistance per joint aver- 
aged between 12 and 30 ft. of rail. The lower curve. 
Fig. 5, shows corresponding track resistance Nvhen 
bonded with compressed terminal bonds in which no 
joint showed a resistance in excess of 4 ft. of rail. 

Compressed terminal and pin expanded terminal bonds 
have now largely superseded those of the channel pin 
variety. Fig. 6 shows a compressed terminal bond in- 





















































1 1 

1 ^ 





















stalled under the splice plate, while Fig. 7 shows one 
placed around the splice plate. Fig. 8 shows this type 
of bond before being installed, the flexible cables being 
welded into the copper terminals which are expanded into 
the rail by moans of the compressor (Fig. 10). Good 
results are secured when care is used in installation 
to see that the holes in the rails are properly drilled 
to size and the bonds expanded before the surface has 
rusted. If this is not possible, the holes should be 
drilled -hi to /t-in. under size and reamed just before 
the bond is put in place. 

The bond terminal also should be cleaned with emery 
cloth just before being installed, and plenty of energy 
should be used on the compressor to insure a tight 
joint between the steel and the copper. With these 
precautions a low-resistance joint is secured which 
will withstand corrosion and vibration for many years 
without much deterioration. 

The pin expanded terminal is shown in Fig. 9 and 
has the advantage over the compressed terminal of 
greater ease of installation. If proper care is used the 
results are practically the same, but if the hole happens 
to be oversize, due perhaps to improper grinding of 
the drills, there may not be enough expansion to give 
a tight contact. 

Well applied compressed or pin-expanded terminal 
bonds are perhaps unexcelled under the sei-vice condi- 
tions to which they are suited, but no one type of bond 
is best for all conditions and the permanency of welded 


contacts together with the recent advancement in weld- 
ing practice has brought the welded type of bond into 

Of the welded bonds the gas- weld type (Fig. 11) is 
oldest, as gas welding came into general use before 
arc welding. However, the ditficulty in handling the gas 
tanks and getting renewals and the added hazard of 
using an explosive gas in the confined spaces of under- 
ground mines have prevented the gas-weld bonds from 
becoming popular in mining districts. 

In arc welding, the easiest method is to weld steel to 
steel with steel "filling-in" metal. In mine-track bond- 
ing it is desirable to keep to the simplest form because 
of the difficulty of securing trained welders. Most com- 
panies train one or more employees for this work, the 
concern furnishing the bonds or the welding machine, 
sending a demonstrator for a day or two to assist the 
bonding crew in getting started. Everyone will not 
develop into a good welder, and care must be used in 
selecting the proper man. The Government started a 
training school for welders in connection with ship- 
building, in which 90 days were spent in training and 
developing welders. Even then only a comparatively 
small number of men qualified as capable of handling 
all classes of work. In bonding, it has therefore been 
the custom to utilize the simplest of standard practice; 
and as the procedure is of a routine nature, only one 
form of weld is required, so that the time spent in 
learning is reduced to a minimum. 

Fig. 12 shows a simple weld between two flat plates in 
which metal is built into a 90 deg. cut or groove The 
figure shows the arc welding at the bottom of the groove, 
the metal being built up in successive layers until the 
groove is entirely filled. Fig. 13 shows a similar weld 
in which the groove is less than 90 deg. It is almost 
impossible with such an acute-angle groove to get a 
solid weld at the bottom because of the tendency of the 
arc to jump to the side of the groove. The 90-deg. 
angle V)etween the work is considered the best practice, 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

Fig. 11 


Fig. IE 

Fig. 15 

Fig. 14. 

F,g. le 


as an acute angle makes it difficult or impossible to 
secure a good weld, while one greater than 90 deg. re- 
quires an excessive amount of time and filling-in metal. 
Fig. 14 shows a simple weld between two flat plates. 

Here again the 90-deg. angle between work is main- 
tained. This fundamental principle is employed in rail 

Fig. 15 shows an arc-weld bond for installation on the 
ball of the rail, and Fig. 16 shows it in place. The 90- 
deg. angle between work should be noted. The copper 
cable is fitted with copper terminals which are inclosed 
in steel casings, the steel being brazed or welded to the 
copper at the factory, thus insuring a good mechanical 
and electrical contact. The size of the terminal is such 
that it carries off the heat of the welding without danger 
of burning away the terminal under the arc, while the 
size of the welding surface insures a strong mechani- 
cal and electrical contact to the rail. 

Fig. 17 shows an ai-c-weld bond for use around the 
splice plates, and Fig. 18 shows this bond installed. 
This is a method of installation that is recommended 
for light rails and for mining work generally. Figs. 
19 and 20 show special applications which may be used 


Fig. 17 


Fig. 20 

, II , 1 


O 3 


, J 



Fig. 18 

II . .. ^- . I 




o © o 

" @ 


Fig. 19 

1 , lb»n.>. ,m..m ». ) 



O 13) o 

^ , 1 


July 17, 1919 



to advantage under certain conditions. It should be 
noted that with all these bonds the 90-deg'. angle be- 
tween the bond and the rail is employed, thus following 
standard welding practice. 

Some bonds have been tried in which the upper sur- 
face of the terminal is beveled away from the rail, 
giving an angle between the working surfaces that 
is less than 90 deg., as shown in Fig. 21. This form, 
of bond however, is open to the criticism that it is diffi- 
cult to get a good weld in the bottom of the groove. 

For arc-weld bonding a simple resistance machine 
using trolley current is most convenient. It should be 
light enough to be carried readily by two men and should 
be sufficiently rugged to withstand the rough usage to 
which such apparatus is subjected in track work. The 
temperature rise should be low enough so that a fairly 
long life is secured. Fig. 22 shows one form of ma- 
chine for this work. 

In maintaining efficient bonding, periodic testing 
of the joints is recommended. There are several good 
bond testers on the market. One of the most accurate 
consists of a duplex millivoltmeter. Fig. 23, connected 
so that one instrument spans the joint and the other 
spans unbroken rail. By varying the length of un- 
broken rail spanned, a balance or equal reading is 
secured between the two instruments. It is only nec- 
essary to measure the unbroken rail spanned to secure 
the joint resistance in terms of feet of rail. 

One of the commonest difficulties encountered in keep- 
ing up rail bonding arises from the bond installation 
and maintenance being put in charge of the track de- 
partment, the members of which do not understand or 
appreciate the importance of careful bonding. They 
accordingly treat the whole bonding subject as a sec- 
ondary matter and of little importance. This often re- 
sults in good bonds being practically thro\vn away be- 
cause of poor installation or to excessive loss arising 
from a few rail joints needing attention. It is espe- 


cially recommended that each property using electric 
haulage arrange a bond department directly under the 
chief electrician. The business of this organization will 
be to install all bonds, test the track joints at regular 
intervals and, in general, make a .study of the few 
fundamental considerations, which, if understood and 
followed, mean good results; but, if not understood 
or ignored lead to big losses which are entirely 

In many mines are telephone stations with connec- 
tions to the surface, and many mines have also tele- 
phone communication with adjoining, near-by and dis- 
tant mines. Such telephones should not be overlooked 
after a fire or an explosion. The alarm for a mine fire 
can probably be given by telephoning to different part* 
of the mine, and even after an explosion the telephone 
system may not be destroyed in all parts of the mine; 
hence effort should be made to call up the inside sta- 
tions and to ascertain whether any men are alive and 
able to respond to call. The telephone should be used 
promptly for summoning assistance from the nearest 
mines as well as for informing the state mine inspector 
and any near rescue station or trained rescue men that 
can be reached by it. 




Vol. 16, No. 3 

Tests and Comparisons of Various Types of 
Permissible Explosives 

By .Joseph C. Thompson 

of .Mines and Mint-rals. State of Illinois 

SYNOPSIS — Con.<tiderable attention has been 
given to explosives during recent years by the 
Bureau of Mines. The principal field ivork in 
this connection has been carried on at the Pitts- 
burgh station, especially the new explosives ex- 
periment branch near Bruceton,Penn. The foU 
loioing article notes the tests used by the Bureau 
of Mines to establish permissible explosives. A 
comparison is rnade of black pmvder and some 
permissible explosives; the different classes of 
permissibles are noted and discussed. 

IF AN explosive passes the three following tests, es- 
tablished by the Bureau of Mines for trial in its 
explosion gallery, then the explosive may be placed 
on the permissible list: 1. Ten shots ea ;h with the 
charge of a specified deflective power, in its original 
wrapper, shall be fired (each tamped with 1 lb. of clay 
stemming at a gallery temperature of 77 deg. F.) into 
a mixture of gas and air containing 8 per cent, of gas 
(methane and ethane") in the explosion gallery. An ex- 
plosive is considered to have passed the test if no 
one of the ten shots explode? this mixture. 

2. Ten shots each with the charge of a specified 
deflective power, in its original wrapper, shall be fired 
(each tamped with 1 lb. of clay stemming at a gallery 
temperature of 77 deg. F.) into 40 lb. of bituminous coal 
dust, 20 lb. of which is to be placed uniformly on a 
wooden bench placed in front of the cannon and 20 lb. 
placed on side shelves in the sections of the explosion 
gallery. An explosive is considered to have passed the 
test if no one of the ten shots ignites this mixture. 

3. Five shots to be fired (each with IJ lb. of the ex- 
plosive without stemming at a gallery temperature of 
77 deg. F.) into a mixture of gas and air containing 4 
per cent, of gas and 20 lb. of bituminous coal dust, 18 
lb. of which is to be placed on shelves on the sides of the 
first 20 ft. of the explosion gallery and 2 lb. so placed 
that it will be stirred by an air current in such a man- 
ner that all or part of it will be suspended in the first 
division of the gallery. An explosive is considered to 
have passed the test if no one of the five shots ignites 
this mixture. 

An explosive is a substance, the decomposition of 
which results in the sudden expansion of its components 
into a volume of heated gases many times exceeding its 
original bulk. The strength of an explosive depends 
upon the volume of gases liberated, the rate at which 
decomposition proceeds, and the temperature of igni- 
tion. The gases liberated by the ignition of gunpowder, 
for instance, amount to about 2000 times the original 
volume of the powder used, and the force exerted by 
ordinary blasting powder has been ascertained to be 
about 22,000 ft.-lb. per square inch. 

Black powder has been largely used in mining oper- 
ations for the following reasons: It is cheap, and it is 

comparatively slow in action and therefore suitable foi 
coal and soft rock and less dangerous than some of the 
nitro compounds. On the other hand, it is quite danger- 
ous in the presence of firedamp and coal dust; its use is 
now being objected to by many experienced mining men 
for the reason that, if exploded in large quantities, it 
is dangerous to health, life and property. This is ow- 
ing to the large percentage of carbon monoxide it gives 
off: no explosive which gives rise to this gas ought to 
be used for extensive blasting in mines because of this 
risk. Furthermore, because of the fact that it has been 
proved that even small traces of carbon monoxide render 
mixtures of coal dust and air highly explosive. This is 
a point frequently overlooked in experiments with ex- 
plosives. For instance, on firing IJ lb. of black powder, 
over 3 cu ft. of combustible gas (consisting chiefly of 
carbon monoxide) would be produced, and this when 
mixed with pure air (apart from any consideration of 
coal dust) would give over 10 cu.ft. of an explosive, or 
at least a rapidly burning mixture. 

Chemical Changes When Using BLACir Powder 

It would perhaps be well at this point to note the 
chemical change that takes place and also the gases pro- 
duced when exploding ordinary black powder. Then we 
can make a comparison with the chemical change at- 
tending the explosion of some of the permissible ex- 
plosives. In that way we may have a standard of com- 
parison that will enable the intelligent observer to note 
the advantages or disadvantages of various explosives. 

The approximate percentage composition of ordinary 
black powder is nitrate of potassium 75. carbon 15 and 
sulphur 10; when it is exploded 56 per cent, of solid 
and 44 per cent, of gaseous matter are formed. Ordi- 
nary black powder explodes at 600 deg. F. and by the 
explosion the following gases are produced: 

Car di, 
Carbon i 
Xitrogen, . - 
Sulphuretted hydroefn 

M.irsh gas 



by Volume 

32 15 

33 75 
19 03 

2 73 
5 24 

100 00 

From this it will be seen that black powder gives 
off a large percentage of carbon monoxide which, as al- 
ready stated, is extremely objectionable. The sulphur- 
etted hydrogen also is highly dangerous and therefore 

A sample of mine air was taken 12 minutes after a 
blast of 22 lb. of a permissible explosive of the nitro- 
compound class. An analysis showed that the follow- 
ing gases were produced: 

•Pajxi- read at a meeting of the Illinois Mining Institute. 

Carbon dioxi<le. 


Cart)on nionoxidu 


Sulphuretted hydrogen . 


Marsh gas 



by Volume 




July 17, 1919 



The difference in the air after an explosion of black 
powder and then after a permissible explosive, as shown 
by analysis, is quite striking. It was a consideration 
of these highly dangerous properties of explosives more 
than anything else, perhaps, that induced mining men 
and chemists to begin to look for sometljing else that 
might be used in preference to powder. 

Most of the permissible explosives produced may be 
said to belong to one or other of the following classes: 
(11 Chlorate mixtures, or explosives containing chlo- 
rate of potash; (2) nitrate m.ixtures other than gun- 
powder; (3) nitro compounds containing nitroglycer- 
ine; (4) nitro compounds not containing nitroglycerine. 

The term chlorate mixture means any explosive con- 
taining a chlorate. This has been divided into two di- 
visions — one consisting of those chlorate preparations 
which contain nitroglycerins or other liquid explosives 
and the other those containing chlorate of potash. 

Explosives of the second class have not been a suc- 
cess on account of the fact that chlorate of potash de- 
velops considerable heat on decomposition; the result 
being that not only is an explosive containing chlorate 
more sensitive as a rule to percussion and friction than 
a compound in vv'hich the oxygen carrier is a nitrate, 
but it is also more violent in its action. It may be said, 
however, that mere sensitiveness is no great defect since 
there are many methods by which this may be over- 
come; if this were the only failing possessed by these 
explosives, it is more than probable that a large num- 
ber would have been on the permissible list. Unfor- 
tunately, however, especially after exposure to wide dif- 
ferences of temperature in the presence of moisture, the 
chlorate is liable to crystallize on the surface of the 
explosive, a condition which gives rise to a considerable 
increase of sensitiveness to which there is practically 
no limit. 

A moment's reflection makes it clear that it is safer 
to deal with a highly sensitive explosive of which the 
degree of sensitiveness is known than with another 
which (although originally vastly less sensitive) may in 
the course of time develop dangers, the full measure of 
which we are quite ignorant. 

Some Explosives Unsuitable for Mine Use 

In the second class of explosives (or nitrate mix- 
tures) nitrate of sodium is substituted for potassium 
nitrate, such mixtures being cheaper; but they are so 
absorbent or deliquescent — that is. they take up moist- 
ure from the atmosphere so readily — that it renders 
them unsuitable for mining purposes. 

In considering the third class, or nitro compounds con- 
taining nitroglycerine, we find they have special risks. 
Although many manufacturers will guarantee these com- 
pounds to be non-hydroscopic, yet such e.xplosives con- 
tain notroglycerine in which the liquid is held merely 
by the absorbent qualities of the othe>- constituents; 
they possess the quite serious defect, that in contact 
with the moisture of the atmosphere the nitroglycerine 
exudes owing to its easy displacement by water. This 
exudation is at all times undesirable and extremely 
dangerous as it may be precipitated in what is practi- 
cally a pure state to one point and it is extremely sensi- 
tive to shock. 

Again, all explosives containing even a small per- 
centage of nitroglycerine possess the common defect 
that they freeze at a relatively high temperature (at 
about 45 deg. F.) and when once frozen do not com- 

pletely thaw until the temperature rises above 50 deg. F. 
It is quite easy to find these explosives in sheltered 
magazines frozen at times when the temperature out- 
side is fairly warm. The effect of this is twofold: First, 
when in this condition, they are more liable to be ex- 
ploded by rough treatment; secondly, they are less easy 
to explode by means of a detonator with the result that 
there is more likelihood of unexploded cartridges be- 
ing left at the back of the hole or among the coal 
thrown down from a shot. Moreover, they are, un- 
fortunately, even more sensitive to friction when in a 
half-frozen state; the reason being, no doubt, that 
small portions of the semi-liquid nitroglycerine on the 
softened outside layers of a cartridge are liable to be 
crushed between two crystalline surfaces of the still 
frozen core or to be unduly heated by the breaking of 
the crystals. 

Risks with Certain Kinds of Explosives 

To illustrate the risks of the third class of explosives 
compared with black powder, heat up a single grain of 
a mass of gunpowder to the ignition temperature of sul- 
phur and the whole will explode; but until that tempera- 
ture is reached, there is practically no danger, except 
that as the temperature rises so much the less addi- 
tional heat is required to ignition; and the 
powder, therefore, becomes more sensitive to shock. But 
in the case of a nitro compound it is by no means nec- 
essary that the temperature should reach the ignition 
point for an explosion to take place. Even when thor- 
oughly well made an explosive of this class cannot be 
e.xposed for any length of time to an elevated tempera- 
ture, even though far below its ignition point, without 
decomposition setting in. This chemical action develops 
more heat, which in its turn increases the chemical ac- 
tion and so on, and thus suflScient heat is provided to 
cause an explosion. 

Lastly, we have the fourth class, or nitro compounds 
not containing nitroglycerine. To this class belong the 
ammonium nitrate explosives. The good points of this 
group of e.xplosives are as follows: (1) Simplicity and 
safety in manufacture. (2^ So far as past experience 
goes they seem to be considerably less dangerous to 
handle and store than most other explosives. (3) They 
do not freeze. (4) They are not as a rule easily ignited 
by the direct application of fire, and when ignited there 
is no record of any explosion having resulted unless a 
detonator was present. (5) If they are kept too long or 
the cartridges are subjected to rough handling, the af- 
finity of the nitrate for moisture .soon renders the ex- 
plosive harmless. (6) Thev are as a class relatively 
safe to in mines. One objection is that to get the 
best results they require a large detonator, which to a 
certain extent is a source of danger. 

In connection with the subject of explosives, I wish 
to state that neither the Department of Mines and Min- 
erals of the State of Illinois nor the inspectors have any 
desire or intention of lending their moral or active sup- 
port to any system or principle, other than the highest 
degree of safety consistent with the best economic and 
practical results. 

Carbon ignites at about 900 to 1000 deg. F. Therefore, 
in burning pulverized coke or anthracite in furnaces it is 
necessary to use special expedients to raise the tempera- 
ture of the burning fuel above the ignition point. Low- 
volatile fuels have been burned satisfactorily by thia 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

Preparation of Bituminous Coal — ^VII 

By Ernst Prochaska 

Benton, Illinois 

SYNOPSIS — The problem of poiver transmis- 
sion is one that requires careful attention. In 
most cases it is advantageous to drive the ma- 
chines of a ivashery in gro-ups ivith the larger 
units driven individually. Buildings should pref- 
erably be of steel, although xvood and reiyiforced 
concrete are often employed. The costs of coal 
washing vary considerably vnth conditions of 
coal, quality of machinery, layout, thoroughness 
of process and supervision. 

IN THE earlier washeries frequently only one main- 
drive unit (usually a steam engine) was employed 
for the whole plant, or one engine drove the washery 
and another the screening plant. The power had to be 
transmitted from one point to all the different pieces of 
apparatus. This resulted in complicated systems of 
transmission machinery distributed over the entire 
plant. The disadvantages of this arrangement were well 
known, even at that time, but as long as only steam was 
available as the sole source of power, a decentralization 
of the power supply was out of the question on account 
of the great weight and large size of the steam engines. 
The disadvantages of such a centralized power station 
are as follows: The great number of shafts, pulleys, 
belts, sprocket wheels, chains, sheaves, ropes and clutches 
makes the installation expensive in first cost as well 
as in cost of operation. The supervision of such a plant 
is difficult, costly and dangerous. It requires a large 
crew to attend to the lubrication and upkeep of all this 
complicated machinery. The loss of power caused by 
friction and inefficient transmission machinery is enor- 
mous. The swiftly moving belts, chains, ropes and 
shafting are a constant source of danger to the op- 
erator. The necessary safeguards are expensive and at 
best only a cumbersome makeshift. 

It is consequently only quite natural that the direct 
electric-motor drive has been quickly adopted for coal 
washeries. This permits the installation of small inde- 
pendent drives, avoiding all cumbersone, expensive and 
dangerous transmission machinery. The small motors 
can easily be placed in almost any position without 
heavy or expensive foundations. 

For centrifugal pumps and crushers the electric motor 
drive is especially well adapted. Electric drives permit 
the different units to be operated independently one 
from the other. They can be stopped easily and quickly 
by throwing a switch, which enhances the safety of the 
operation. The control of all motors can be consolidated 
on a central switchboard, so that by using a remote- 
control system any unit can be started or stopped from 
a central point. Furthermore, cutout switches can be 
placed at convenient points throughout the plant, so that 
in case of danger it is not necessary to go to the motor 
or the central control board. Disastrous and costly 
wrecks can thereby be avoided. 

The starting apparatus of the different machines 
forming one unit can be connected in such a way that 
it will be impossible to start one machine before the fol- 
lowing one has been put in operation or, vice versa, to 

stop a machine before the preceding one has been shut 
down. This, in case of crushers, elevators and con- 
veyors will avoid choking up any piece of apparatus and 
spilling coal. It is easy to make the operation of an 
electrically driven plant foolproof by taking the suc- 
cessive starting of the separate pieces of machinery out 
of the hands of the machine operator. 

The starting apparatus should be provided with an 
overload circuit breaker so that in case of a jam in the 
machinery, wrecks or burnouts of the motors will be 
avoided. No-voltage releases ought to be installed also, 


NO. I „\ NO.S 




so that in case of a sudden failure of the power supply 
the motors will not start when the power comes on 
again. It should be possible to lock the starting ap- 
paratus, to provide a safeguard for the men repairing 
the machinery. 

Slow-speed motors are in most cases advisable on ac- 
count of the extra expense and increased loss of power 
caused by speed-reducing gears. Constant-speed motors 
with a good starting torque should be employed, except 
for elevator and jig drives where a variation of speed 
is sometimes required. Washed coal and refuse elevator 
drives should be designed to permit the reducing of the 
elevator speed for short periods. 

The only disadvantage of electric-motor drive en- 
countered in actual operation arises from the inability 
to change the speed within the limits sometimes re- 

July 17, 1919 



quired in the operation of a washery. It is necessary 
to slow down the greater part of the machinery at cer- 
tain intervals to permit a careful and thorough inspec- 
tion. For this purpose the speed of the machinerj' 
should be reduced at least to 25 per cent, of the normal 
working speed. With steam engines as main-drive 
units the speed of the machinery can be reduced to 
almost any degree and the starting and stopping can be 
accomplished without e.xposing the machinery to sudden 
stresses and shocks. 

The question remains, How far should decentraliza- 
tion be carried? To install a separate motor for each 
piece of apparatus would require an undesirable number 
of small motors, which would increase the cost of in- 
stallation out of all proportion to the advantages gained 
thereby. The whole electrical equipment would become 
complicated and the control unwieldy. 

It will be far more advisable to combine the drives 
for a group of machinery, making thus one drive unit, 
if one motor can actuate it by means of simple, con- 
veniently arranged transmission apparatus. This is 
especially the case with jig drives. Therefore, we must 
consider in the selection of a proper drive the follow- 
ing: The degree of decentralization depends upon the 
space at disposal. This sometimes requires a fixed ar- 
rangement of the machinery, regardless of the con- 
venient arrangement of the drives. In some cases, how- 
ever, it will be possible to consider the most convenient 
and economic drives, regardless of other requirements. 
Therefore, generally speaking, no special method of 
driving can be pronounced as the best. Each separate 
case demands its particular solution and the number of 
motors to be installed will vary from 6 to 35. In the 
simplest case the motors can be arranged into groups 
as follows: (1) Raw-coal elevator and preliminary 
screening; (2) all the jigs, the washed coal and refuse 
elevators; (3) sizing screens; (4) washed coal con- 
veyors to the bins; (5) circulating pump; (6) sludge- 
handling and water clarification. 

In the most complicated case, where the decentraliza- 
tion has been carried to extremes, we find the following: 
(1) Docking table; (2) coal conveyors to crusher; (3) 
feeders under unloading hopper; (4) cross conveyor 
from unloading hopper; (5) conveyor for foreign coal 
to crusher; (6 and 7) crushers; (8) conveyor to raw- 
coal storage bin; (9) reclaiming conveyor under stor- 
age bin; (10) conveyor to screen house; (11 and 12) 
sizing screens; (13, 14 and 15) conveyor for sized coal 
to equalizing bins; (16 and 17) jigs; (18 and 19) 
washed-coal elevator (20) refuse elevator; (21, 22, 23 
and 24) dryers; (25) washed-coal conveyor; (26 and 
27) circulating pumps; (28, 29 and 30) sludge pumps; 
(31, 32, 33, 34 and 35) thickeners; (36) concentrating 
tables; (37) laboratory crusher. 

The horsepower of the foregoing 37 motors varies 
from 7i to 250, and two voltages are used — that is, 
440 and 2300 — besides the lighting circuit of 110 volts. 

Buildings and Structures 

Timber construction is rather antiquated and un- 
desirable on account of the fire risk. Only in certain 
cases, where the acreage of the mine will not promise a 
long life, it will be excusable to timber in the con- 
struction of a washery. But even then the danger of 
fires must be considered. Such fires, even when the 
washery is fully insured, entail a lengthy interruption 

to operation and a consequent loss of profit, or even the 
loss of a desirable customer. 

In addition to this, timber construction, on account 
of the larger size of timbers necessary, narrows down 
the space at disposal and the great number of joists, 
beams and braces interferes with the passageways and 



Xmaonftic sep/jrji tvr\ \rock 1 



SCREEN W/TH 3y^"HOlj5\ 


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the convenient supervision of the plant. Reinforced 
concrete for the building proper is expensive and has 
the further disadvantage that changes and additions 
cannot be made except at great cost and under diffi- 

For tanks, sluiceways and bins, reinforced concrete 
is supreme. In connection with this it may be stated 
that concrete sluiceways ought always to be lined with 
glazed terra-cotta tile to resist abrasion. For the con- 
struction of the housing over the machinery, steel is the 
only feasible material. A steel structure makes a light, 
rigid and durable building, permitting the location of 
plenty of windows and ventilators. Daylight is the 
cheapest item we have at our disposal, and it should be 
used freely. Machinery supports can be arranged 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

easily, and floor beams, stairways and walks conveni- 
ently placed to provide accessibility to all parts without 
obstructing the view. 

For the covering of the buildings we have a great 
variety of materials, so that the proper selection will 
depend upon the climate, the money available and the 
personal preference of the designer. Under ordinary 
conditions galvanized corrugated steel sheets are quite 
suitable for the sides of the buildings. If painted and 
kept in good repair, they will last a reasonable time; 
but even under the most favorable conditions the cost 
of upkeep is considerable, and they do not give suf- 
ficient protection in colder climates. The increased cost 
for heating may easily overbalance the cheapness of 
corrugated steel siding. 

In a warm climate the sides can be arranged in slid- 
ing panels so as to give plenty of fresh air in the sum- 
mertime. In colder climates, and for durability, con- 
crete stucco work on an expanded metal base is ad- 
visable. This offers good protection against the weather 
and does not require painting or frequent repairs. It 
ought to last as long as the steel framework. 

A guarantee for a certain amount of ash in the 
washed coal is only to be considered if at the same 
time a certain yield is also guaranteed. The cost of 
operation is an important factor. An indisputable 
guarantee should read: With x cents cost of operation 
per ton of such and such a coal handled we guarantee 
an output of y per cent, with z per cent, of ash in the 
washed product. 

To check these figures it is necessary to take average 
samples of the different products and analyze them. 
Therefore, a laboratory is a necessary appendage to a 
washery. Daily samples ought to be taken, the ash and 
sulphur, contents determined, also the percentage of 
"sink" in the washed coal and the percentage of "float" 
in the refuse. These results ought to be posted on the 
jig floor so that the jig runner can see what he is 

The cost of operation depends upon the character of 
the raw ooal, just as the yield and the percentage of ash 
and sulphur in the washed coal depend upon it. But 
the cost of operation is furthermore influenced by the 
arrangement of the washery and the supply and appli- 

■Fiie Refuse Bin 
Bof kr^huse Coaf Bin 
Coal to 

Railroad Cars--' 

Roofs can also be covered with galvanized corrugated 
steel sheets, but asbestos cement in the shape of shingles 
or corrugated sheets is far more advisable. Floors 
should be made of reinforced concrete with a non- 
dusting top dressing and arranged in such a way that 
they can be easily and thoroughly washed off. Stair 
treads should either be filled in with concrete or made 
of some non-slip material. The inside of the building, 
especially the under side of the roofs, should be painted 
in, say, a light gray color. 

The idea that a washery must be a dark, sloppy place 
has long ago been exploded. A coal washery can be 
made just as clean and light as any other industrial 
building. Plenty of light not only means convenience 
but also safety. Dark corners are tabooed in modern 
construction. The ideal design should permit the un- 
obstructed supervision of all machinery from one point. 
The main requirements to be considered in the design 
of a washery building may be condensed as follows: 
The building must give sufficient protection against the 
inclemencies of the weather; all vibration must be taken 
care of; all the machinery must be in full and unob- 
structed view from preferably one but in any case as 
few points as possible; all machinery must be safely, 
fully and easily accessible; artificial lighting should only 
be required during the nighttime; no dark corners 
should be permitted ; changes in the arrangement of the 
machinery must be easily accomplished. 

cation of power and water. General conditions only can 
here be considered, as each separate case must be 
handled in a different way and individually. Weekly or 
at least monthly cost sheets on a per unit (ton of input) 
basis are of great value, especially as the comparatively 
simple operation of a washery permits an easy and cor- 
rect subdivision of the cost for all separate operations. 
By carefully studying and comparing the figures ob- 
tained valuable information can be gained which will 
be a guide in making changes in the method of opera- 
tion. It is therefore judicious to arrange the cost sheets 
according to the different units of operation, so that 
we get the cost of each step of the process separately. 


The cost of operation must be divided into fixed 
charges, operating expenses and the cost of special work. 
It is only natural to keep the cost of installation as low 
as possible. This effort in economy is limited, how- 
ever, by the necessity of keeping the cost of operation 
and that of repairs as low as possible. If one operator 
can be saved by a certain increase in the cost of in- 
stallation, this increase will be justified if it is lower 
than the capitalized wages of the operator. This is be- 
cause it is desirable to become as far as possible inde- 
pendent of the imperfection of human labor. 

The regular cost of operation includes wages, cost 
of power, water, light and lubricants. In regard to the 

July 17, 1919 



cost of power and water we must consider that they 
depend in many cases on the more or less perfect opera- 
tion and efficiency of the machinery. An increase in 
the cost of power and water, if it brings about a cleaner 
washed coal, is commendable if this increase remains 
below the possible better price obtained for the cleaner 

The cost of special work includes wages and cost of 
material for repairs and re- 
newals. While the above- 
named cost can at least partly 
be predetermined, that of re- 
pairs appears only in the 
course of time, after the 
washers have been in opera- 
tion. To arrive at the exact 
cost of repairs is difficult. 
Depending upon the time 
used for repairs, the absolute 
expense is much higher than 
the cost of labor and material 
expended, because we must 
take into account the loss in- 
curred through the interrup- 
tion of operation of the wash- 
er}', which may in some cases 
reflect even upon the opera- 
tion of the mine. 

The breaking down of an 
elevator, with the bins full 
and no spare parts on hand, 
may be given as an example. 
Therefore, all important ma- 
chinery ought to be fully guar- 
anteed by responsible manu- 
facturers as a safeguard 
against interruption of opera- 
tion. This may, however, 
bring about an increase in 
the cost of installation, influ- 
enced by the heavier and bet- 
ter constructed machinery. 

The cost of washing coal 
shows just as many varia- 
tions as everything else con- 
nected with a washery. The 
following figures, however, 
can be given as an approxi- ""'^^'^ 
mate guide: 

Cost per Ton of Raw Coal 

Minimum, Maximum, 

Cents Cents 

Amortization and interest of capital invested 3 5 

Cost of operation (wages, power, water, light, stores). 8 20 

Cost of repairs 2 5 

discussed which requirements should be considered and 
which should be given preference. Drawings for a 
washery can be made in different ways, depending upon 
the purpose for which they are intended. 

If it is only necessary to get an idea of the methods 
used and the succession of the operations, plain flow 
sheets will suffice. Flow sheets are of great help for 
preliminary estimates. They are indispensable when 
RUN OF nmr &nut coal rscfffm.ves 



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To the foregoing figures, however, must be added the 
cost of shrinkage, which will depend upon the amount 
of impurities in J;he raw coal and the degree of cleaning 
— that is, upon the yield. I have operated different 
washers making from 10 per cent, to 33 per cent, refuse. 

General Arrangement of Washeries and Graphical 
Illustration of the Process 

The design of a coal washery is a complicated prob- 
lem on account of the extremely numerous factors in- 
fluencing the arrangement. This becomes still more 
complicated when the separate requirements become 
contradictory. We have in the foregoing chapters fully 


the operations become complicated, in order to com- 
prehend quickly the correlation of the different proc- 
esses. In Figs. 25 and 26 two flow sheets are shown. 
One for a fuel-coal washery taking 3-in. screenings 
from a distant mine and the other for a coking-coal 
washery directly connected with the mine. The flow 
sheet for the fuel-coal washery illustrates the operation 
of the washery shown in Fig. 29. 

In Fig. 27 a different kind and more elaborate tj^pe 
of flow sheet is shown for a washery making five sizes 
of fuel coal and a coking coal at the same time. In this 
flow sheet the different pieces of machinery are shown 
in outline and the separate units are shown in nearly 
the same juxtaposition as they are placed in the washery. 

In studying this flow sheet we find: That the dry 
screened-off dust can be mixed directly with the washed 
fine coal. The middle products from the coarse coal jigs 
can be carried, according to their composition. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

July 17, 1919 






Vol. 16, No. 3 

either back to the coarse coal jigs or to the rewash jigs. 
In the latter case only boiler-house coal can be made. 
If the amount of fine coal, screened out, is not sufficient 
for the supply of the coke ovens, some of the nut coal 
can be crushed and delivered in connection with some 
foreign fine coal to the coking coal bins. 

In the sludge cistern the following materials are col- 
lected: (a) The drained-off water from the fine coal; 
(b) the sludge from the clearing tanks after being fil- 
tered through the screens; (c) the overflow water from 
the fine coal bin; (d) the water drained off from the 
crushed nut coal; (e) the overfiow water from the 
boiler house coal storage bin. 

from the screen is crushed and the crushed and screened 
coal is put into a storage bin, which also receives the 
screenings from other mines. From the storage bin 
the coal is conveyed to the equalizing bin, located in the 
rear of the jigs. From here feeders carry the coal to 
the jigs. At the feeders the dust collected at the screen 
house is mixed in with the coal. The jigs are three- 
compartment machines, making three products, which, 
depending on their composition, can be treated in dif- 
ferent ways. 

From the washed-coal settling tank the coal is con- 
veyed to a series of draining, bins to be dewatered, and 
from these bins it is conveyed to the coke-oven larry 

Recot^er y Co al &>n 

lOO-lbn Capacity 


The screw conveyors over the coking coal bins are 
used to mix the fine coal, the dry dust and the crushea 
nut coal with the foreign fine coal. The first clearing 
tank produces sludge, which can be used, but the second 
tank only during continuous operation, as after a shut- 
down the fireclay settles out on the bottom and must be 
removed to the clearing basins. 

The flow sheet, Fig. 28, shows the progress of opera- 
tion for a coking-coal washery arranged according to 
Figs. 29, 30 and 31. This washery is arranged to take 
coal from several mines. Run-of-mine is received in 
railroad cars and dumped in a track hopper. From this 
hopper the coal is passed over a screen. The oversize 

bins and thence to the coke ovens. The refuse is de- 
posited in a refuse bin and carried away in railroad 
cars to a dump. The recovery coal, after passing over 
a draining or dewatering conveyor, is stored in a bin. 
The dirty water from the recovery-coal draining con- 
veyer, the ovei"flow water from the washed-coal settling 
tank, the wash-out water from the jig tanks and the 
washed-coal settling tank, and the drip water from the 
draining bins is collected in a recovery spitzkasten. The 
settlings from this spitzkasten are further treated on a 
recovery screen and the resulting recovery coal mixed 
in with that coming from the jigs. The cleared water 
is collected in a cistern for reuse. The drip water from 

July 17, 1919 



the draining bins can also be conveyed back to the 
washed-coal settling tank. 

The dirty water from the refuse draining conveyor 
and the recovery screen is treated in a clearing spitz- 
kasten. The settlings pass over a mud screen. The re- 
sulting mud is mixed with the outgoing refuse and the 
dirty water from the screens carried back to the clear- 
ing spitzkasten. The cleared water from the spitzkasten 
flows to the clear-water cistern. The circulating pump 
takes the water from the washed-coal settling tank and 
puts it back under the jigs. Fresh water is supplied 
to the dust collector, the jigs, the recovery and the mud 

Care of Scales and Correct Weights 

Proper Care of Scales Is the Chief Consideration in 

Securing Correct Weight — Importance of Keeping 

Platform Interstices Free of Coal 

By E. C. Dodge 

Denver, Colo. 

THE first requisite for the correct operation of a 
track scale is cleanliness. Platforms should be kept 
clean and free from bind in all interstices next to the 
coping. A great help in this respect is to have all 
the interstices covered with 6-in. iron, or with belting 
fastened to the coping in such manner as to enable 
one to raise the covering on the scale side when this 
becomes necessary. These coverings, if properly placed, 
make it possible to sweep the scale platform without 
the dirt falling into the pit at the side. 

As nearly as possible, rails should be kept 1 in. apart 
at each end; they should never touch. On a scale 
with an inclined deck, it is quite a problem to keep 
the rails in position. Many devices have been in- 
vented to accomplish this, but the best one, in my ex- 
perience, has been the use, on each side of the rails, 
of straps about 4 or 5 ft. long, bolted to the rail at 
one end and provided with several holes in which lag 
screws long enough to rench into the bearing timber 
are used. Lags 3 x 6 in. are the best size. 

The approach rails at the upper end of the scale 
should not be higher than those on the scale platform. 
The absence of this condition is probably the cause of 
more trouble with scales than any single irregularity to 
which a scale is subject. 

If the approach rails are too high, they cause the 
car to drop onto the scale; and while this not only 
stresses the pivots in the bearings immediately below, 
the jar is transmitted through the entire length of the 
scale and disturbs the whole adjustment. 

The rails on the scale should be at least i in. higher 
than the approach rails, for when the wheels strike the 
scale rails these rails naturally settle from i to 1 in., 
regardless of how rigid the construction may be. 

The height of the rails at the lower end of the scale, 
while not so important as at the upper end, should be 
kept as nearly that of the adjacent track rails as possible. 

The pit of a track scale should be kept clean of coal, 
snow and water. Moisture is highly detrimental to the 
keen edges of pivots at points of contacts, since it soon 
causes these pivots to rust and they thus lose their sen- 
sitiveness. Rust and any accumulation of dirt in and 
around the articulated points of bearings should be 
removed at least once a month. To do this properly it 
is necessary to employ a jack screw in order to raise 
the levers so that the bearings are free to move. The 

dirt can then be cleared away by means of a pointed 
hook; also, a small hand bellows may often be used to 
advantage. The presence of rust in the bearings is 
often the main cause of irregularities in weights, as a 
knife-edge pivot is subject to change of position on a 
concave surface; and if impeded in its movement by an 
accumulation of rust, this will relatively change the ful- 
crum of the lever sufficiently to cause a variation in in- 
dicated weight. 

Because of its delicate construction, the beam of the 
scale needs careful attention. The sliding poise on a 
tipple beam should not be bumped or thrown back to zero, 
so as to strike against the block at this point, as it only 
takes a few blows against the bumper to make a dent 
in the soft brass poise, allowing it to remain back of 
zero when balancing the scale and changing all weights 
in a like proportion. 

The scale beam should (and can) be kept clean by 
rubbing it every day with soft tissue paper so as not 
to scratch the brass. The notches on a track scale beam 
should be kept free from dust and dirt with the aid of 
a small brush. The rollers on the poise should be oiled 
once a month, as this will preserve the easy manipu- 
lation of this weight. 

Much more care must be exercised in weighing on a 
beam connected with knee lever extensions, as the extra 
vibration in the rods will not allow the beam to act 
as quickly as will a direct connection to the scale. 

The fact that a beam will balance properly is not 
always indicative of the accuracy of the scale. All 
articulations must be in proper position, and loops 
and bearings plumb and level. 

The load weighed must not be equal to, or greater 
than, the capacity of the scale; if it is, it will have 
a tendency to shorten the life of the scale by straining 
the levers and stretching the loops and connections, 
which are guaranteed to resist only a certain, weight. 

Legal Department 

Scope of Timber Rights — A coal-mining lease confer- 
ring the "right to use the timber standing on said land" 
will be construed to grant the lessee the right to use timber 
only for mining purposes, unless broader powers are con- 
ferred on him in unmistakable terms. (West Virginia 
Supreme Court of Appeals, Paxton Lumber Co. vs. Panther 
Coal Co., 98 Southeastern Reporter, 563.) 

Injuries to Minor Miners in Alabama — Under the 
laws of Alabama an owner or operator of a coal mine is lia- 
ble for injuries to a child under sixteen years of age while 
employed in connection with a mine, coal breaker or coke 
oven. But where a mine is operated by one other than 
the owner, the latter is not liable for such injuries where 
he has not retained control over operations to such an 
extent that he could have pi'evented employment of the 
child. (Alabama Court of Appeals, Sparks vs. Brilliant 
Coal Co., 81 Southern Reporter, 185.) 

Wrongi'UL Mining op Coal — One who innocently mines 
coal under the land of another is liable only for the fair 
value of the coal in place, and not for its value at the 
tipple less the expense of mining and conveying it there. 
To justify assessment of treble damages under the Penn- 
sylvania statutes as for wrongful removal, it must appear 
that the trespass was conscious. Individual owners who 
had no knowledge that a trespass was being committed 
cannot be held liable for treble damages because their 
coal in place. (Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Matthews 
vs. Rush, 105 Atlantic Reporter, 817.) 



Vol. 16. No. 3 

Resume of Theories of the Origin of Coal 

By C. W. Hippard 

Urbana, Illinois 

SYNOPSIS — Many theories have been ad- 
vanced concerning the origin of coal, some people 
especially holding that the various beds now rest 
where the vegetable matter from which they 
were formed originally grew. Others believe tliat 
the coal beds are the result of drift. It is quite 
probable that all coals were not formed in the 
same manner or by identical processes. 

IN THE early days it was believed that coal had an 
inorganic origin. According to this theory mineral 
bitumen, petroleums and asphalts were erupted from 
deep-seated sources and flowed over the surface of the 
ground or upon the floors of lakes and estuaries. Later 
these layers were covered with sediment. The presence 
of plant impressions was explained by the hypothesis 
that as the bitumen was deposited it incrusted these 
fragments that were present at the time of the flow. 

The ash in the coal was accounted for by the mineral 
matter that would be picked up by the bitumen as it 
came through sandstones or as it rolled over the surface 
of the ground. This is possible, for we have a similar 
condition at the asphalt deposits of Trinidad. 

The arguments against this idea are overwhelming. 
No dykes or pipes of bitumen penetrating the rocks as- 
sociated with the coal beds have been found. Coal is 
quite unlike bitumen in both its chemical and physical 
properties. Also, if plant remains were preserved in 
bitumen, we would expect to find bitumen which had pen- 
etrated into the cells and interstices which have been 
preserved. This, however, is not the case. 

Combination Vegetable-Volcanic Theory 

Daddow and Bannon, in their "Coal, Iron and Oil," 
published in 1866, give a very interesting account of 
the vegetable-volcanic theory. They believed that the 
vegetation of the carboniferous age was of "the most 
vast and magnificent description, in comparison with 
which the most luxuriant of the present day would be 
as a 'drop in the bucket.' This was brought about by a 
soft and fertile soil, made rich with the decaying mat- 
ter of ancient marine life and the resulting bitumen of 
the carburetted hydrogen gases, the atmosphere, warm 
and moist with heat and steam, and loaded with life- 
giving carbon dioxide so necessary to vegetable life." 

Their greatest proof lies in the fact that they give na- 
ture the credit of being "a rapid worker and a wonder- 
ful chemist, instead of being slothful, mutable, complex, 
and time-serving." Other proof advanced is that the 
carboniferous rocks contain no fossils of animals or 
birds because the atmosphere would not sustain life. 
Tyndall made the statement that an atmosphere high in 
CO, would readily pass solar heat rays, but would not 
allow heat to radiate. 

Early writers say that this luxuriant vegetation did 
not appear to form coal in a direct manner, but that 
the carbon it contained was distilled or expelled by pres- 

sure and heat, probably from volcanic origin, in the 
shape of oil, which must have been a carburetted hydro- 
gen; and this would form coal. 

This idea has at the present time been so thoroughly 
discarded that it is unnecessary to go into discussion of 
it. It might be well, however, to give a few of the 
points used to di-sprove the luxuriant vegetation idea. 
At the present time we have peat bogs in the course of 
formation, so it is not necessary to the vegetable origin 
of coal to assume that only in tropical climates could 
so much vegetation flourish. It can hardly be imagined 
that similar conditions of climate prevailed over vast 
areas, ranging from Greenland to India, occupied by 
carboniferous strata. In some cases thick, coal beds 
are found scattered in different parts vertically of the 
earth's crust, and it is difficult to maintain that for 
coal formation a tropical climate was necessary. 

Coal Is of Vegetable Origin 

At present the theory that coal is of vegetable origin 
is almost universally accepted. This view is based on the 
fact that there is an intimate gradation existing between 
vegetable accumulation now in the process of formation 
and coal. Uusually by a series of slow changes the veg- 
etable remains are transformed to coal, although it is 
possible that this action may be quickened by extreme 
heat and pressure. The following names are given to 
the products of successive stages of the process: peat, 
lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, semi-bituminous, 
semi-anthracite and anthracite. It is to be noted that 
these divisions are not sharp, but each grades into the 
one following. 

The characteristics of each grade are as follows: 

Peat. — This material, which represents the first stage 
in coal formation, is formed by the growth of plant life 
in moist places. A vertical section in a present-day peat 
bog would show on the top a layer of living plants, and 
below this a layer of dead plant remains which grades 
into a layer of dense, browTiish black peat more or less 
jelly-like in character. Here the vegetable structure is 
often indistinct, and the carbon content is much higher 
than in the top layer of living plants. 

Lignite, also called brown coal, represents the second 
stage in the coal formation. It is usually woody in tex- 
ture, brown in color, and has a brown streak. The heat- 
ing value is rather low, and the substance burns with a 
long smoky flame. 

Sub-bituminous coal, or black lignite, represents an 
intermediate stage between lignite and bituminous coal. 
It is usually glossy black, rather free from joints, and 
has a heat value of from 7500 to 10500 B.t.u. 

Bituminous coal represents the fourth stage in the 
series. It is more dense than the lignites, has a deep 
black color and is comparatively brittle. Sometimes it 
shows traces of vegetable remains, and under the micro- 
scope traces of woody fiber are seen. Cannel coal is a 
compact variety of non-coking bituminous coal. It con- 
tains a high percentage of volatile hydrocarbons, and 
because of this ignites readily. 

July 17, 1919 



Semi-bituminous and semi-anthracite are terms ap- 
plied to those coals the volatile matter of which has been 
reduced to from 12 to 22 per cent, and to less than 10 
per cent, respectively. 

Anthracite represents the last stage in the production 
of coal. It is higher in fixed carbon and lower in vola- 
tile hydrocarbons than the preceding types. 

While it is true that the foregoing classification may 
not be as complete as some think it should be, it is be- 
lieved that for the purpose of tracing the formation of 
coal through successive stages it is sufficient. 

Accumulation op Veget.\ble Matter 

As previously stated, most geologists and others agree 
that coal was formed from vegetable matter; but they 
differ on the way in which the formation was brought 
about. These differences with respect to the accumula- 
tion gave rise to two prominent theories, the in szte 
and the drift theory. 

By the in situ, growth-in-place, or antochthonous the- 
ory, is meant that the coal was formed at that place 
where the plant life grew. The following points have 
been advanced in support of this idea: 

1. Upright carbonized tree trunks found in the coal 
seams of some localities, the roots of which extend into 
the lower clay, are believed by some to favor this theory. 

2. Present day peat bogs and swamps, for example 
the Dismal Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina. 

3. Perfect preservation of many plant remains, a 
condition unlikely to exist if plants were transported. 

4. The purity of many coal beds that extend over 
large areas ; for if the vegetable matter was transported 
it would have been mixed with earthy sediments, and the 
interstices of large trees partially decayed would have 
been filled with pebbles, sand, etc. 

5. Uniform thickness of beds of coal over vast areas. 

6. Clay bed under coal is often found with roots in 
position of growth. 

7. The layer of rock overlying the coal bed often 
contains abundant remains of vegetable matter. This 
tends to prove that sediment was deposited first 
amongst, then on top of the vegetation. 

8. The vegetable matter of coal beds is made up of 
trunks, small stems, leaves and fruit intermingled in 
such a manner as to make it seem as though the vegeta- 
tion grew in place. 

By the drift, transportation or allochthonous theory, 
is meant that the remains of plant lift were transported 
by water to a place where it accumulated in the form of 
a drift. The arguments advanced in favor of this idea 
are as follows: 

1. Distinct line between coal as found and the under- 
lying bed, which is often clay. 

2. Plant life remains usually found lying horizontal. 

3. Present day river drifts and delta accumulations. 

4. Some known deposits of coal occur as thin wedges 
or lenses. 

5. Fayol clearly established the validity of this the- 
ory in deposition of coal in deltas in some of the fresh- 
water basins, like that of Commentary in Central 

6. Macerated and ground-up plant material are not 
rare in carboniferous rocks, and current bedded shales 
have been noted. 

7. The splitting of coal seams by shale or other ma- 
terial is said to favor this theory. 

(a.) It is believed by the adherents of the in situ 
theory that the fireclay beneath the coal bed was origi- 
nally the soil on which the vegetal matter grew. Oppo- 
nents of this theory have pointed out that all coal beds 
do not rest on fireclay. This clay seam, with the inclos- 
ing stigmariae may be in the coal, above it, entirely out 
of contact with the coal, or missing altogether. The 
thickest coal beds often rest upon the thinnest clays, 
and meager coal beds may lie on thick beds. There is 
usually a sharp dividing line between the clay and the 
coal, for the clay does not grade into coal. 

The in situ school say that the amount of clay has no 
relation to the thickness of the coal bed, for other con- 
ditions influenced this, and it has been pointed out that 
a soil is not absolutely necessary for the growth of some 
plant life in peat bogs, for at the present day some bogs 
are resting on a sand base without a layer of soil. 

(b.) Upright carbonized tree trunks have been found, 
although they are exceedingly rare. The in situ school 
regard this as good evidence in their favor; but it is, 
however, a much disputed point whether this is always 
a safe conclusion or not. It is quite possible that the 
stumps observed may be in situ, but it must be remem- 
bered that a drifted trunk will often remain upright, 
for its center of gravity is sometimes so low that it is 
situated at the thickened base of the trunk. 

Then, too, even though it is granted that the very few 
upright tree trunks that have been found grew in place, 
there is no valid reason why the remaining material 
could not have drifted to a place where a few trees 
grew. The exceedingly rare occurrence (where they 
ought to be common) of coal made of forest trees with 
their roots the stigmariae is advanced to prove that the 
trees did not grow there, and it strengthens the argu- 
ment against the in situ formation at all events from 

(c.) The lamination of coal beds in horizontal layers 
is thought by some not to afford any proof of growth in 
situ. For they argue that if trees grew there they 
should interfere with this horizontal banding. However, 
certain peat mosses in Scotland show successive layers 
of material due to a change in the dominant form of 
plant life. 

(d.) The presence of occasional boulders and pebbles 
of quartzite and quartz in some of the underclays in 
Leicester and South Derbyshire, and the occasional 
quartzite boulders found in coal beds tend to support the 
drift theory. 

Fresh-Water and Marine Conditions 

Geologists are further divided on the question of 
whether this deposition took place in fresh-water areas 
or under marine conditions. A few of the ideas ad- 
vanced on each side are (No. 1, fresh water; Nos. 2, 3 
and 4, marine) : 

1. Coal-forming plants of fresh-water character. 

2. Strata of rocks known to be formed by marine 
deposition as shown by fossils are often between the coal 
beds and overlie the coal. 

3. Brackish water molluscs are found in some rocks 
of the coal basins. 

4. The coal strata show a marked parallelism and a 
frequency of salt-water invasion. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

Some geologists admit of both of the preceding ideas 
and classify the coal as formed into two classes: lim- 
netic, accumulated in fresh water; and paralic, accumu- 
lated in salt water. 

Dowling advances a theory to explain the actions 
which take place in the formation of coal from peat 
which is worthy of consideration. When the plants die 
they lose the power to form oxidized hydrocarbons, 
therefore chemical action sets in with the formation of 
other compounds of oxygen and carbon. The escape 
of some hydrocarbons leaves the material in a rather un- 
stable condition and loss of marsh gas follows. If fer- 
mentation accompanies decay, new hydrocarbon com- 
pounds are formed and the reduction of oxygen is ac- 
complished without great loss of hydrogen. When the 
mass is solidified by superposed load, as it is when the 
whole sinks below the water and layers of rocks are 
formed from deposition of sediment, the fermentation 
is arrested and pressure with resultant heat causes the 
subsequent alteration. Pressure favors the combina- 
tion of oxygen with carbon or hydrogen. Heat causes 
the combination of carbon with oxygen and hydrogen. 
Pressure effects the alteration without loss of carbon, 
while heat wastes it. 

Theories to Account for Difference in Coals 

Some of the theories urged by chemists, geologists 
and paleontologists to account for the difference in coals 

1. Difference in the kinds of vegetation from which 
coal is formed. There are many plants from which coal 
has been formed — trees, ferns, grasses, sedges, mosses, 
etc. Sometimes one type predominates and some- 
times there is no predominating variety. At the present 
time the mosses predominate in Europe, aquatic 
plants, especially lilies, in America, and wild rice in 
Asia. Lignites and bituminous coals are said by some 
to be derived predominantly from the tissues of vascular 
plants ; that is, plants containing vessels as part of their 
structure. Bogshead coal, a pure algal coal, was formed 
largely of gelatinous seaweeds. Paleozoic cannel and 
splint coals are characterized by great numbers of spores 
and pollen grains, and very little woody matter. Can- 
nel coal is high in nitrogen, and Newberry pointed out 
that fish remains are abundant; from which he argues 
that the beds of cannel coal formed under water and 
that vegetable matter formed a carbonaceous paste in 
which the fish remains became embedded and which 
consolidated to form cannel coal. It has been noted in 
some of the Scotch peat deposits that the successive 
layers of peat are made up of the remains of plant life 
of widely different types, and one of the most striking 
features is the alternation of forest beds, which are now 
imperfect lignites, with beds of peat proper. This may 
account for the several bands of different kinds of coal 
which make up some of the Illinois coal beds and in 
other places where this feature is prominent. 

2. Climatic differences in the various periods or re- 
gions. Naturally, if the type of plant life influenced the 
resultant coal, it is easily seen how the climatic differ- 
ences have a part in influencing the type and rate of 
growth of the plants. 

3. The relative length of time since deposition. As 
the actions involved require the element of time, this 
may have had something to do with the kinds of coal. 

Time alone in geology does not mean much, but it must 
be remembered that the evolution of gases due to heat 
and pressure require time ; also it requires time for the 
deposition of thick beds of overlying strata. 

4. Differences in the kinds, in the limits of activity, 
and in the products of bacterial action in past ages. 
Eenault believed that the conversion of the dead plants 
to the compact brown pulp was brought about by bac- 
terial action. Recent authorities believe, however, that 
the action of micro-organisms is doubtful. They abound 
in stagnant waters of swamps, and certainly have much 
to do with the earlier stages of vegetable decay. They 
start the process, but at the same time they generate an- 
tiseptic compounds which limit their activity. Peat, not 
far below the surface, is distinctly antiseptic and inim- 
ical to microbian life. Nevertheless a number of author- 
ities have argued strongly in favor of these organisms 
as principal agents in the early forming of coal. Their 
remains have been found in lignite and coal in insignifi- 
cant abundance and variety. 

5. Enrichment by bitumen from other sources, espe- 
cially from deep-seated rocks. This is one of the earlier 
beliefs and has little support at the present time, for 
no avenues through which this material could have 
come have been found; and a chemical analysis of coal 
does not support the theory of an addition of bitumen. 

6. Great differences in depth of burial beneath other 
formations. As the pressure and heat are probably 
proportional in some degree to the depth, it seems en- 
tirely plausible that this may have been one of the fac- 
tors, but by no means the only factor. 

7. Changes due to chemical reagents in underground 
circulation. It is quite possible that this had a consid- 
erable bearing on the impurities found in coal. The 
slow filtration of mineral-laden solutions through the 
tiny pores of coal may have given rise to the deposition 
of minute quantities of salts of magnesium, calcium, etc., 
and the filtration of solutions through cracks and crev- 
ices in the coal undoubtedly deposited some of the py- 
rite of marcasite found in coal as well as the thin plates 
of calcite and gypsum so often found in the upper layer 
of the coal beds. It is hard to see, on the other hand, 
how underground circulation could have had any fur- 
ther action than this except perhaps to work in the op- 
posite direction of dissolving instead of precipitating. 

8. Heat effects of intrusive rocks. The result of 
heat from instrusive rocks can readily be seen in some 
coal beds where this action has occui'red. In places coal 
grades into graphite or natural coke at the contact of the 
coal and the intrusive. In a lesser degree this action 
may have had its results from a greater distance and 
over large areas. 

9. The porosity of the beds overlying the coal. This 
would allow for the escape of gases to a degree depend- 
ing on the porosity, therefore to a certain extent it is 
believed to have some bearing on the subject. 

10. Escape of volatile matter through joints in the 
coal and other rocks. In Rhode Island, where this 
cracking of the formations is highly developed, we find 
graphite. In Pennsylvania we find anthracite where 
there is less cracking than in Rhode Island, and west- 
ward we find bituminous where open cracks are prac- 
tically unknown, although joints are common. 

11. The dip of the strata should be taken into ac- 
count according to some, for an inclined bed would al- 

July 17, 1919 



low of a better escape of gases. This point is open to 

12. Differences in time exposed to the kind of de- 
cay which takes place in vegetable matter when im- 
mersed in water. 

13. Crustal Movements — Many persons have appealed 
to movement in the earth's crust to account for the 
known variations in coal. M. R. Campbell says that a 
study of coals does not justify this. Folding of rocks 
info great synclines and anticlines has changed coal 
into anthracite in eastern Pennsylvania, but why has 
not the same movement in some of the isolated synclines 
of Pocono rocks in Maryland and Virginia produced 
similar coal? It has not done so; therefore the change 
to anthracite does not seem to be due alone to earth 

14. Spontaneous Combustion — J. F. Hofman has used 
the analogy offered by the spontaneous combustion of 
grain, flax and hay, and suggested that something of 
the same sort may have happened to some of the buried 
materials from which coal was formed. The idea is 
rather interesting, but so far as the formation of coal 
is concerned, the evidence to favor it is incomplete. 

The theory of origin of slate, bone, etc., is that occa- 
sional currents brought in sediments during the accu- 
mulation of vegetable matter, so that the bed was di- 
vided into two or more parts. This sediment later be- 
came carbonaceous shale, often called "slate" and 
"bone." When this "slate" bed in the coal is narrow, it 
is called "parting." 

Discussing the theory of natural charcoal, or "mother 
of coal," some paleo-botanists and chemists hold that 
"mother of coal" is the remains of cinders, such as the 
work of forest fires, which were washed into a bog 
or partially burned on the surface. David White dis- 
agrees with this, and believes it is the result of a 
partial dry rot of woody matter before immersion, or 
arises from a temporary exposure of the coal-forming 
accumulation to the air. 

The following may be offered in disproof of the 
cinder theory: (1) Great amount of charcoal often 
in repeated layers. (2) Large size of some fragments. 
<^3) Mutual relation of some fragments in the same 
layer. (4) Action of the fundamental jelly on the frag- 
ments. (5) Remains of fossils of delicate ferns. (6) 
"Mother coal" is high in carbon. 

Graphite has been formed artificially in various 
metallurgical operations as a direct product of coal 
when subjected to great heat. In the retorts of gas 
furnaces large quantities of graphite are deposited on 
the inner sides of retorts from the gases driven off 
from coals. Moissan found that a small crucible of 
pure coke fitted with a lid was entirely converted into 
graphite by heating ten minutes in an electric arc. 
No fusion took place, as the lid of the crucible, which 
was also converted into graphite, was perfectly free 
in its place. A similar result was obtained with char- 
coal from sugar. Moissan also proved that when carbon 
IF, vaporized and afterward condensed graphite results. 

From the foregoing information two origins of 
graphite are possible: Volcanic, where the graphite is 
deposited from volcanic action, as shown by its occur- 
rence in igneous rocks; and vegetable origin, whore 
coal is transformed into graphite by heat and pressure. 

as shown by the occurrence of graphite in beds that 
grade into coal. 

Some believe that the diamond was formed from 
carbon which crystallized as the molten magma cooled, 
while others say that it is by no means unlikely that 
the diamond owes its origin to a metamorphism of 
carbonaceous matter by the heat of intruded igneous 

Various attempts have been made to prepare artificial 
coals in the hope of gaining some information on the 
genesis of the natural product. Two lines of research 
have been followed, but no final conclusions have been 
reached. In the first case pressure alone was tried. 
It is reported that peat subjected to a pressure of 
6000 atmospheres transformed it into a hard, black, 
brilliant solid which could not be distinguished from 
coal except by chemical means. Other experimenters 
found that there was no chemical change due to apply- 
ing pressure to peat. In the second case heat both with 
and without pressure was used. Although coal has hot 
been formed, it is possible to trace, the breaking down 
of the original fiber of the peat. 

At the present time there is a wide difference of 
opinion in regard to the manner of the vegetable ac- 
cumulation and also in the mode of transformation. 
From the ideas advanced and data collected, it no longer 
should be held that all coal was formed in the same 
way. The idea is now being accepted by many that 
different coal measures may have had different forma- 
tions, and it is no longer necessary to admit of any 
one theory to the exclusion of all others. Many theories 
are accepted for the formation of ore deposits; in the 
same manner it should be realized that all coal was 
probably not formed by identical processes. 


. Source of Coal Wt. per 

Mine or Name Cu.Ft. 

State County Place of Coal Size Lb. 

Alabama Jeflferaon Pratt City and Tennessee Coal 

Enslcy and Iron group R-o-ni.... 54.0 

Arkansas Franklin Denning Denning No. 2.. Lump.... 53.0 

Colorado Las Animas. . Aguilar Royal Lump.... 50.5 

Illinois Williamson... Carterville Burr C R-o-m... 55.5 

Illinois La Salle Cedar Point. 

illinoJs Sangamon... Andrew 

Indiana Knox Bicknell. . . . 

Cora. . . . 

1 and 2 


Nos. I and 2 


Bear Creek . 

Iowa AppanooBC. . . Ccnterville.. . 

Kansas Leavenworth. Leavenworth, 

Kentucky. . . . Webster Clay 

Montana Carbon Bear Creek... 

New Mexico. . McKinley.... Gibson Navajo.... 

Ohio Jefferson Piney Fork . . . Piney Fork 

Oklahoma.... Okmulgee.... Henryetta. . . . Hcnryetta. 

Pennsylvania Delaware, Lack- 
awanna and 
Western .... 
and Reading, Anthracite 

10-l5-75a 47.5 

60-25-l5a 46.5 

80-l5-5a. 50.0 

90-5~5a... 46.5 

90-5-5a.. 52 

80-15- 5a.. 46.5 

70-l5-l5a 47.5 

35-45-20a 48.5 



.\nthracite Egg. 





Tennessee. . . . 


Wilkes-Barre. , Anthracite 

Luzerne Beaver Brook. Hazleton Dis- 
trict anth 

Cambria Portage Plymouth 

Clearfield. . . . Curwensville. . Caldwell 

Jefferson ReynoldeviUc | TVolit'llun" 

Somerset Somerset Quemahoning 

Creek No. I... 

Campbell.... Jellico Indian 


Kittitas Roslyn Nos. I and 2. . . 

McDowell Pocahontas Nos, 

J and 4 beds. . 

Canada. . 

China... . 


New South 

Wali-8. . . . 



Region. . . 
Rock .Springs. . Blairtown. 

Abcrmain Abermain. 

No. I Buck- 
wheat. . . 50. 

Egg 56.5 

Egg 57.5 

Egg 56. 

20- 10 -70a 51.0 

0-IO-90a. 51.5 

65-20- 1 5a 50.0 


20-20-60a 53.0 

3-5-92a.. 57.5 

Michel Michel 

Tsuchuan Tsuchimn, 


aper No. 184, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D 
of lump, nut and slack. 







Vol. 16, No. 3 





Arbitration Board to Look After Interests 

of Public in Labor Disputes 

The Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
has been requested to form an arbitration board through 
which differences between capital and labor may be 
settled and before which the remainder of the public 
may put forward its views. This is pointed to as one 
of the evidences that the public, other than the parties 
to the controversy, is reaching the point where a de- 
mand will be made that its interests be taken into con- 
sideration during strike periods. It is believed by 
students of the situation here that it is inevitable that 
the public eventually will take organized steps to protect 
its interests during periods of suspended production 
caused by strikes. 

Car Shortage Inevitable This Fall and Winter 
Because of Poor Equipment 

Traffic officials are unanimous in their belief that a 
serious car shortage is impending. This is due prin- 
cipally to the need for moving an unusually large wheat 
crop in one-third the usual time, and to the unpre- 
cedented number of bad-order freight cars. With the 
price of wheat guaranteed by the Government, every 
effort is being made to market it at the earliest possible 

The last two years have seen exceedingly hard service 
for all kinds of railroad equipment. Before the 
Government took over the railroads, each line repaired 
any damage to equipment which took place while on its 
rails. Under Government control, however, all cars were 
pooled and no accounts were taken of the line on which 
the damage occurred. The railroad administration 
wants the cost of repairing rolling stock charged to 
deferred maintainance. The individual roads object to 
this plan. As a result of this controversy, repairs 
have been held up. There are said to be 150,000 
Pennsylvania railroad cars out of service awaiting re- 
pairs. The proportion of coal-carrying equipment in bad 
order is unusually large, since these cars have been sub- 
jected to particularly hard usage. The prediction that 
there is a good chance for the coal situation during the 
coming winter to approximate that of the winter of 
1917-18 is not confined to coal operators. 

Reports to the Railroad Administration indicate a 
very decided increase in the amount of coal loaded in 
the Pocahontas region, in the amount of coal dumped at 
tidewater and in the volume of coal handled on the lakes. 
It is believed that this marks the turning point and 
that there will be a brisk movement of coal from this 
time forward. The total dumpings at tidewater in June 
increased 14,000 cars over June of 1918. 

Fuel Administration Announces That It 
Has Ceased to Function 

The Fuel Administration is calling attention to the fact 
that it has necessarily ceased to function since June 30 
for lack of appropriations, by pinning a slip to corre- 
spondence and other documents which are leaving its 
headquarters couched in the following language: 

"The U. S. Fuel Administration, being without funds 
available for expenses after June thirtieth, has neces- 
sarily ceased to function. 

"Matters pertaining to accounts can be taken up with 
the auditor of state and other departments for direct 
settlement; and legal matters should be taken up with 
the Department of Justice." 

Miscellaneous Notes 

H. N. Taylor, president of the National Coal Asso- 
ciation, and J. D. A. Morrow, the vice president, are 
making a tour of the West and the Southwest, visiting 
the operators and associations in those sections. 

Recent movement of coal through the Panama Canal, 
as reported by the Panama Canal office in Washington, 
is as follows: Steamship "Guanacaste," Baltimore to 
Punta Arenas; steamship "Goodspeed," Baltimore to 

Senator Cummins and the members of the Interstate 
Commerce Committee have been urged to make pro- 
vision in turning the railroads back to their owners for 
the divorcement of the carriers from coal-mining op- 
erations. It is understood that Senator Cummins, who 
is the chairman of the committee, is heartily in favor 
of such a plan. 

Tests of Matanuska coal show that it possesses the 
necessary steaming qualities for Navy use. This is the 
opinion of Captain Sumner E. W. Kittelle, chairman of | 

the Naval Commission, who recently visited the Mat- 
anuska coal fields. Moreover, Captain Kittelle believes 
that the Matanuska field can produce adequate quan- 
tities of coal for Navy use in the Pacific. 

In the matter of advances on coal within the Chicago 
switching district, the Interstate Commerce Commission 
has handed down an opinion that the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul R.R. should receive 20 cents per ton 
as its division of the through rates on coal and coke 
within the Chicago switching district. Increased di- 
visions were authorized for deliveries at other points 
within that district. The ruling is to apply from July 
1, 1917. 

"Waste neither time nor money," said Benjamin 
Franklin. Money put in War Savings Stamps is not 
wasted; it's working for you. 

July 17, 1919 



Published et McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Ave. at 36th St., New York 

Address all communications to Coal Age 

Volume 16 

July 17, 1919 

High Prices Win 

LET not those who, with Coal Age, recognized the 
^probability of higher prices, have excessive pride of 
opinion. The logic of high prices was too clear for 
any one of judgment to question. It could not fail, with 
labor determined on shorter hours, more privileges and 
larger pay, and with capitalists increasing by scores and 
the sizes of individual fortunes steadily growing larger. 

Large price increases are ever to be deplored. A 
fixity in price would always be far preferable, but the 
downward price advocated by many as the basis for re- 
newed prosperity could not have done otherwise than 
wrecked our large national enterprises and caused a 
great loss to the wage earners of the country as the out- 
come of slow work. 

Falling prices were not, however, misread in the signs 
though they were by the augurs. The psychology of 
the masses was all in favor of the prophetic utterances 
of the seers. There was almost doubt and hesitation 
enough to wreck the national prosperity, but the facts 
were lacking, and without a financial basis for disaster 
doubt and hesitation could not win. 

Now, with the psychologj' turned or turning and 
the facts unchanged, one may fear that prices will go 
too high. They may well run fairly beyond control. 
The world buys either too charily or too lavishly. It 
is always in torpor or in panic. Ifi we can only speed 
the buying early, we can so stimulate production that 
no buying panic will occur. If, however, it is left to 
the last minute, the market will be stocked and buyers 
clamorous, and prices will soar to outrageous heights. 
The parsimony of the buyer always leads eventually to 
inflated values. 

"Entente Cordiale" in Mining 

AN INTERESTING article was presented at a meet- 
ing of the West Virginia Coal Mining Institute, 
in the palmy days of its inception, on "The American 
Language." In it the writer emphasized the differences 
in the languages spoken by the American and British 
people. It is true that the citizens of the United States 
and Great Britain, especially the technologists, speak 
tongues alien to one another. Most people would, how- 
ever, not agree with the author of the paper in his con- 
clusion that the United States should stand by its pe- 
culiarities for the sole (and to him satisfactory) rea- 
son that they were peculiar and different, and because 
they emphasized those differences and peculiarities. 

The sentiment today, it may be hoped, is changed. 
In this year 1919, we may be justified in hoping — as we 
ever were in wishing — that any differences that have 
crept in may be wiped out and that a common Anglo- 
Saxon tongue might be spoken by these allied and 
friendly countries, and that a language combining the 

good points of both might take the place of two lan- 
guages each holding hard and fast to its own technical 
lingo, regardless of quality. 

To stop generalizing and get down to the particular: 
The British miner is quite prone to use the word "thill" 
to express what we in the United States invariably call 
the "floor" or "bottom" of the mine. The words we 
have chosen to use are uttered quite generally in ordi- 
nary speech, and when applied to the mine are quite 
easily understood and their meaning memorized. The 
word "thill," on the other hand, has in all probability 
little use in Great Britain except as applied to the ma- 
terial under the coal. It is needless to say that it is not 
used here either as a technical or a nontechnical word. 

It is not a word that is felicitously chosen. Originally 
it meant a plank, but the plank appeared to narrow up 
and eventually the word, as far as it came into anything 
like general use, meant a shaft on a wagon or a cart. 
Thus shriveled it was quite generally used adjectively in 
compounds, but it did not have much hold in the lan- 
guage as a substantive. At one time the word may have 
been locally applied to the planking of a floor; and the 
suggestion of the mine floor, for a short time, and 
over a small area of Great Britain, may have been 
natural and not forced. 

But a word like "thill," which only in a certain sec- 
tion and only for a limited time had a small degree of 
applicability to the mine floor, should not indefinitely, 
it would seem, be used in that sense. If the word had 
been naturalized in the United States, it might have 
been well to have continued its use; as it has not been 
so naturalized, its discontinuance should certainly be 

Lucid writers on coal mines, such as Sir R. A. S. 
Redmayne in his "Modern Practice of Mining," use in- 
deed simple and expressive words. To Redmayne's great 
credit much of his writing is intelligible alike to Brit- 
ish and American writers. It is to the credit of the 
mining language of the United States that much of its 
technology, being couched in the common language, is 
quite readily understood on the other side of the At- 
lantic, to judge by its ready use without glossarial 
comment in the British technical journals. 

The British have the unfortunate habit, by no means 
their own peculiarity, of sticking stolidly to certain 
words as "a mean thing, but mine own." As lawyers, 
physicians, electricians and other self-conscious persons 
hold fast to words and modes of expression solely be- 
cause they are ancient and mystifying, so too many min- 
ing men here and in Great Britain hold with ob- 
stinacy to certain words of their craft or of their 
own coining, which are not nearly as plain as other 
words that might be used, and which they well know 
could be used, in their stead. 

It is time for the mining men on both sides of the 
water to go through their prodigious glossaries and rid 
them of their redundancies, or at least go over them 
for the purpose of indicating preferences and marking 
mere localisms, so that writers on technical subjects 
may avoid the less favored words except on such oc- 
casions as demand the use, for purposes of good writ- 
ing, of secondary words expressive of the same idea. 

Sometimes it would be well to enrich the language of 
American mining with words. The miners of 
the United States always term the pillar left to protect 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

the heading a "stump." Perhaps the British would call 
it a "stork." Of that many Americans are not clear, 
though a reference of Mr. Redmayne would seem to 
suggest that the word "stork" is used to express such a 
heading pillar. 

It might, conceivably, be well to call a pillar heading 
created in the formation of a "double room," driven with 
two roads from the entry, a "stork." We might also 
retain the word "stump" for such pillars as are left 
when the room pillar is drawn back its required dis- 
tance, for surely what remains is properly a "stump"; 
for a "stump" is truly the coal that is left when the 
main body of the pillar is removed. It is the part left 
like the "stump" of a tree, a leg, an arm, a tooth or a 
cigar. The "stork" (or should it rather be "stalk"?) a 
mysterious but perhaps an expressive word in some local 
dialect, would then describe a small pillar left, in the 
driving of a room, to protect the entry. The word 
"stump" would mean the small pillar left in the com- 
pletion of the work of pillar drawing, to fill the same 
essential function. 

As we strive as one nation to promote the common 
ends of our civilization, let us not be bored and ham- 
pered by a needless confusion of tongues. 

Why Not the Union 

AMID all the suggestions regarding the possibilities 
of welfare work, perhaps that made by Josiah Keely 
at the West Virginia Coal Mining Institute, is the most 
constructive. Why, said he. should not the union un- 
dertake to promote the welfare of the members by 
institutional welfare work? The union is a confedera- 
tion of men to promote the interests of tlie mine 
workers, yet, though this is true, the union unfor- 
tunately does not have welfare work among its recorded 
instrumentalities. Thus, the principle and object "of 
the Union in District No. 2 (Central Pennsylvania)" 
is to unite all mine employees ... to ameliorate 
their condition by using al! lawful means to bring about 
a better understanding between employer and employee, 
to increase the wage and improve the conditions of em- 
ployment of our members by legislation, conciliation, 
joint agreements or strikes. 

A cold nonmoral statement is this, like the articles 
of incorporation of our business concerns. There is no 
soul in either, but much soul in those whom the instru- 
ment incorporates. Mark it well, the soul that the 
instrument excludes will find its way despite all for- 
bidding. Already the coal companies have their welfare 
work proceeding industriously, and the union is begin- 
ning to take quite an interest in the safety, education 
and medical care of its members. 

There never was a pure commercial organization so 
soulless and soulproof that it could keep out the moral 
consciousness of the men who compose it. The union 
will eventually do its welfare work. It is sometimes 
unduly jealous of the work being done by the corpora- 
tions, but it will have no fear of its own. A clipping 
informs us that at Hanna City, 111., the union has 
started a first-aid school and enrolled 52 men. Other 
similar schools are to be started. The Iowa and Illinois 
Bureau of Mines and the mine inspection service is 
back of the development. It may be added that this 
is by no means the first time that the union has ag- 
gressively backed the mine-rescue work of its members. 

One great moral need of men everj'where — the prac- 
tice of temperance — is now about to be supplied. The 
temptations toward inebriety will shortly be things of 
the past. The unions did not have the honor of doing 
anything toward this great revolution, with its bearings 
on poverty and accident, though the opportunities must 
have repeatedly forced themselves upon the attention of 
the union leaders. Charles Steizle, a man with a dis- 
position very favorable to the working man, is quoted 
as saying in effect that, "as a result of a study of 
more than 1000 working men in several different cities 
I find that of their spare cash — money not spent for 
the necessities of life — they paid 34 per cent, for beer, 
wine and whisky. 

There is room for an organized welfare movement in 
the ranks of the working people and we look forward 
to the day when the union will tackle it. 

The Insatiable Coal Baron Again 

A CERTAIN metropolitan daily evidently believes that 
coal and all they that produce it are black — at least 
inside if not out. In a recent editorial it stated that 
so long as the United States possessed over half the 
known coal reserves of the world, there is no logical 
reason why this country should not have all the coal 
needed and to spare. Readers are told that there is no 
reason whatever for any prospective coal famine except 
the rapacity of the "coal barons." It states that mines 
were shut down "for weeks at a time" this spring, al- 
though the needs of the country could have been fore- 
seen quite as readily this year as in previous seasons. 

This daily contends that there is no exodus of mine 
workers in progress from the mining regions and that 
returned soldiers are deliberately refused employment 
through the "cussedness" of the operators. Shortage 
of labor and transportation, it asserts, "can always be 
played up to ten times their actual significance." 

It should be remarked in passing that this is the 
same daily that a few months ago could not understand 
why the old culm banks of tlie anthracite region were 
not loaded out and shipped to market regardless of the 
ash, draft, transportation and other problems that the 
attempt at utilization of this low-grade fuel would in- 
evitably involve. 

It sometimes seems a pity that would-be reformers 
confine their efforts to "hot air." It is perhaps sig- 
nificant that the critics and carpers at the nefarious 
','coal barons" have never made a constructive prac- 
tical suggestion. If the metropolitan daily referred to 
can solve some of the real problems of the coal industry 
— if it can show how the mine operators can safely store 
and reclaim a few million tons of bituminous coal each 
year without danger of either spontaneous combustion 
or bankruptcy or both — it will confer a boon upon both 
producer and consumer. One such constructive im- 
provement upon existing customs or natural laws would 
accomplish more toward public weal than all the malign- 
ing its editors can pen and publish in unnumbered 
years of diligent effort. 

A saving people make a safe government, for the 
habit -of thrift is a shield against the insidious gospel 
preached by those xcho tvoiild spread discord and disrupt 
existing institutions. If a man has saved a little money 
nobody can bully him. The habit of saving is a good one 
to cultivate. 

July 17, 1919 





General Labor Review 

Members of the Anthracite Conciliation Board took 
prompt and effective measures on July 1 to adjust the 
difficulties between the employees of the West End Coal Co. 
at Mocanaqua and the company officials which resulted 
in a tie-up at the colliery for more than a month, the men 
demanding the removal of a mine foreman. The Concili- 
ation Board adopted a resolution directing the men to 
return to work and, after adjournment, went to Mocanaqua, 
where they addressed a meeting of the workmen and ex- 
plained the points at issue. The men on July 2 voted to 
return to work at once. 

Several weeks ago the board members had drawn up a 
paper summoning the committee of the striking miners to 
come to the meeting, but the message failed to reach the 
strikers and their committee did not appear. Rather than 
wait for another call to go out, the board members adopted 
the resolution and then went to the mine and gathered the 
men together. 

The men at this colliery went on strike contending that 
one of the mine foremen had failed to give them full yard- 
age and had cut down their earnings. Mr. Mitchell, the 
foreman, offered to resign if the men would file one specific 
charge against him and would prove it. The men have 
not been able to do this as yet. 

Apropos of the meeting on July 1 to inquire into the West 
End trouble is the statement of several union men of 
District No. 1 that the Conciliation Board has been tardy in 
handing down opinions and adjusting difficulties. The 
statement has been made by a number of union men in- 
terested in controversies that have been placed before the 
board that the present agreement, good until next April, 
will have expired before decisions are given in some cases 
unless members of the board speed up their work. 

Because a number of their companions failed to produce 
their union buttons all the breaker boys employed at the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co.'s Number 10 colliery went 
on strike on July 8, throwing 700 employees idle and tying 
up the plant. 

A strike at the mines of the Buckhannon Coal and Coke 
Co. at Adrian, Upshur County, West Virginia, on the Coal 
& Coke Ry., lasted from Saturday, June 28, until the 
middle of the first week of July, the miners only returning 
to work then, pending a conference set for July 15. The 
strike involved 450 miners, members of Local No. 4443. 
The grievance of the men was that they were being paid 
for loading, not on a tonnage basis, as their agreement 
provided, according to their claim, but on a car basis. This 
the miners contended involved a failure to recognize their 
union. The plant of the Buckhannon River company is one 
of the larger operations in the Buckhannon field, the 
mine loading about 20 railroad cars a day. It is believed 
the matter will be amicably adjusted. 

Striking miners caused a suspension of operations at the 
mines of the Loup Crijck Colliery Co., at Page, W. Va., on 
July 1, for a period of two days. The trouble was the out- 
come of a grievance of the company's motormen who de- 
murred at having to work 15 min. overtime each day in 
taking men into the mines at four o'clock. The strike 
declared was for the purpose of forcing action on the 
demands of the motormen for compensation for the extra 
15 minutes. 

A statement made by Laurence Dwyer a few days ago 
indicates that United Mine Worker officials in District 29 

are determined if possible to force a closed shop in the New 
River and Winding Gulf regions. Dwyer in his statement 
said: "As the Charleston papers stated relative to the 
adjournment of the conference of the miners and operators 
that it was adjourned at the request of the miners, and 
that we would reconvene the conference to complete the 
contract at a future date, I wish to say that the conference, 
after holding sessions in Charleston and Atlantic City, 
adjourned sine die. The reason we couldn't agree was 
because we will not be a party to an open shop contract, 
and as that was all the operators would offer us we de- 
cided to continue under the pi'esent wage agreement until 
it expires, when we will make a new contract which will 
be one that does not compel us to work with non-union men." 

Officials of District 17, United Mine Woi-kers, have signi- 
fied their intention of making an active campaign after 
July 15 to induce operators in certain parts of northern 
West Virginia to enter into contracts with miners. The 
drive will be made by officials in the Tygarts Valley, Scotts 
Run, M. & K., Elkins and Kingwood fields where, although 
most of the miners are organized, no contracts have ever 
been signed up. A period of 18 days will be devoted by 
mine workers' officials to the campaign for the thorough 
organization of all northern West Virginia fields. 

Three mines at Willow Grove, Ohio, operated by the Purs- 
glove-Maher Coal Co., are idle as a result of 800 men 
striking because of the importation of negro miners. A 
walkout took place when 20 negroes arrived from the 
South. They belonged to the union, but nevertheless the 
men went out. 

Indiana Miners Want New Wage Contract 

Leaders of the miners' union in southern Indiana are 
working on a new wage agreement for presentation to mine 
operators in the near future. The present wage agreement 
expired with the signing of the peace treaty. While the 
operators have been content to permit the wartime program 
to continue temporarily, the miners insist on a six-hour day 
and an increase in wages. Operators protest this, however. 

Difficulties have been adjusted at the Mission Field Mine 
No. 6 after a shutdown of several weeks. The men have 
been ordered to return to work. The mine has been cleaned 
up and placed in good shape for resumed operation. The 
miners' train from Danville to Hillery is now running. 

An exodus, growing in volume, of foreigners from the 
Illinois coal fields, is giving increasing concern to the 
operators, who foresee labor scarcity when the approach 
of winter brings an increase in the demand for coal. Steam- 
ship agents in St. Louis say that hundreds are leaving the 
country adjacent to that city every week for the eastern 
seaports. Most of these, outside of the city, are miners. 
By far the larger proportion of the mining in the Belleville 
and the southern Illinois fields is done by foreigners. These 
men, unlike the natives, are thrifty and when miners were 
receiving unprecedented wages during the war they saved 
their money and were able to pay their passage back to 
Europe and have a goodly sum left. 

The only thing that sets a limit on the rate of egress 
is the difficulty of obtaining passage. It is reported that 
600 foreigners are waiting at Staunton, 111., for an oppor- 
tunity to get started on the journey back to their home 
lands. In many places coal operators report that forces of 
300 and 400 men and upward have dwindled 50 per cent. 
Without an adequate number of foreigners, there will be 
a lack of man power when the mines get going at normal 
rate again, and production will be correspondingly affected. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

Carnegie Institute Recasts Course 
in Mining Engineering 

Establishes New Four- Year and Two- Year Courses in 

Coal Mining — Will Promote Greater EfiBciency 

by Co-operation ^vith Mining Interests 

ON MAY 27, 1919, twenty-five of the leading repre- 
sentatives of the coal-mining industry of western 
Pennsylvania met in conference with President A. A. 
Hamerschlag, of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, 
with a view to bringing about closer relations between 
the Institute and the mining interests. It was felt 
that the advice of the men in the field was necessary 
in the proper training of young men for mining work. 
A resolution was adopted at this conference which, 
among other things, called for a board of mine opera- 
tors and engineers to serve in an advisory capacity with 
the Carnegie Institute of Technology. As a result of 
the counsel and recommendations of this Advisory 
Board, the Carnegie Institute of Technology, in 
cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has recast 
its four-year course in mining engineering and has 
also established a two-year course in coal mining. To 
carry out this new program, there has been organized 
the "Cooperative Department of Mining Engineering" 
in the Division of Science and Engineering of the 
Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

A large percentage of young men who are brought 
up in mining communities do not follow the line of 
work of their fathers. The question of keeping up the 
supply of trained men for the mines is therefore a 
difficult one. Few college men are attracted to the coal 
industry or realize that the possibilities of making a 
good income from coal mining and the coal business 
are probably greater than in any other branch of the 
industries. The desire of the Cooperative Department 
of Mining Engineering is to counteract these tendencies 
and to interest young men in the coal-mining industry. 

Reqihrements for Admission 

The four-year course is open to boys with a high- 
school education or its equivalent. Special endeavor will 
be made to attract boys who have been brought up in 
mining communities — sons of mine officials or mine 
workers. The course furnishes a fundamental training 
for the mining engineering profession. 

The two-year course, planned for the man in the 
mine, is open to men who have had a common school 
education and two years of experience in or about mines, 
or in their management. The two-year course includes 
not only the fundamental and elementary subjects of 
engineering, but also their practical application in 
shops, laboratories and field work. The object is to 
give to worthy men, who have been compelled to enter 
the mines to earn a livelihood at an early age and who 
have made good as coal miners, an opportunity to 
prepare themselves to follow coal mining on a new and 
higher basis. 

Both courses will begin Oct. 1, 1919. Nine months 
of college work and three months of practical work in 
or about mines will be required each year. 

General inspection trips will be made monthly by 
students in both courses to different mines in the 
Pittsburgh district, as well as to the Experimental Mine, 
for the purpose of demonstration work. Lectures will 
be given by operators and engineers in the field, and by 

members of the staff of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
Mine rescue teams will be organized from the men who 
have had mining experience to act, in case of emer- 
gency, as a reserve to the rescue teams of the Bureau 
of Mines. 

The Faculty 

Professor Fred Crabtree, who is in charge of the 
Department, is a consulting metallurgist with the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines. 

Captain Edward Steidle has been engaged to take 
charge of the Cooperative Department of Mining Engi- 
neering. He is peculiarly fitted for this position. He 
has been a mining engineer with the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, and has worked in various mining districts in 
North America. During 1913-14, he was engineer in 
charge of the Mine Rescue Car No. 6, Pittsburgh-West 
Virginia district. He retains the status of consulting 
mining engineer with the Bureau of Mines. 

Edward 7ern, editor of Mining Catalog and Coal 
Catalog, and president of the Coal Mining Institute of 
America, will give a series of lectures on coal-mining 
methods and engineering. Mr. Zern was previously in 
the employment of the H. C. Frick Coke Co., the 
Jamison Coal and Coke Co., the West Kentucky Coal 
Co., as engineer and superintendent, and was professor 
of mining engineering at the University of West 

E. G. Hill, instructor of mining engineering, will give 
attention to metal mining methods and engineering, and 
the mechanical preparation of ore and coal. 

Dr. C. R. Fettke is assistant professor of geology and 
mineralogy and will have supervision of the work in 
this department. 


The approximate total cost, including board and lodg- 
ing, of pursuing the courses in mining engineering and 
coal mining during the nine months of the college year 
is $50 per month. Any man who is interested and 
eligible for either course is invited to communicate with 
the Registrar, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pitts- 
burgh, Penn. A personal interview is required of all 
students, both of the four-year and of the two-year 
courses. A certain amount of financial assistance will 
be made available by the mining industry for men who 
take the two-year course. About fifteen men will be 
accepted each year in the four-year course and twenty 
men in the two-year course. Classes will be limited 
in size, in order to insure close relations between 
faculty and students and the best results from inspec- 
tion trips. 

Advisory Board 

The Advisory Board will advise on all matters per- 
taining to the Cooperative Department of Mining Engi- 
neering. Its advice will aid in giving to the courses 
of instruction the practical and business features which 
are necessary to develop the type of mining men 
especially demanded at this time in the coal industry. 

The members of the Advisory Board are as follows: 
W. A. Luce, general manager (chairman), Ellsworth 
Collieries Co.; W. L. Affelder, general superintendent, 
Hecla Coal and Coke Co.; J. M. Armstrong, general 
manager, Pittsburgh Coal Co. ; W. R. Calverley, general 
manager. Union Collieries Co.; C. E. Cowan, chief engi- 
neer, Jamison Coal and Coke Co.; W. H. Glasgow, 
assistant general superintendent, Frick Coal and Coke 
Co.; E. A. Holbrook, mining engineer, U. S. Bureau 

July 17, 1919 



of Mines; Phillip Murray, district president, United 
Mine Workers of America r John I. Pratt, mine in- 
spector. Department of Mines, State of Pennsylvania; 
Capt. Edward Steidle, mining engineer (secretary), 
Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

The Carnegie Institute of Technology and the Ex- 
perimental Station of the Federal Bureau of Mines are 
in close proximity, and the students in the Cooperative 
Department of Mining Engineering will have the ad- 
vantages of the Bureau's laboratories and equipment 
and library, as well as the advice and instruction of 
its technical staff. 

The object of the cooperation of the Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Technology, the mining industry, and the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, is to bring about better mining con- 
ditions and greater efficiency in mining operations. 
Decreasing coal deposits and increasing costs of pro- 
duction make it urgently necessary for the coal oper- 
ators to take advantage of everything which modern 
science, machinery and methods can contribute. The 
interests concerned believe that one of the best ways 
to provide for the future is to offer to selected groups 
of promising young men in the Pittsburgh district, who 
may have had a certain amount of mining experience, an 
opportunity to fit themselves to study the broader phases 
of coal mining. At the recent meeting of mine oper- 
ators and engineers mentioned above, the following ac- 
tion was taken: "Resolved, that this group give its 
approval and moral and material support to the form 
of education proposed for the Carnegie Institute of 
Technology, by which students may receive a combined 
technical, practical and business training necessary to 
fit them for service in the coal-mining and allied in- 

President Hamerschlag says: "We are located in the 
very center of the greatest bituminous coal-mining 
district in the world. This new project, with all in- 
terests concerned behind it — labor, capital, the govern- 
ment, and a teaching staff of engineering experts, should 
do much in the course of a very few years in producing 
improvements in coal mining that should bring great 
returns both in harmonious and successful mining 
operations and in the satisfaction which all the in- 
terest involved will have in working out together the 
necessary solutions of their common problems." 

American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers 

From a technical point of view, the Chicago meeting 
of the Institute, Sept. 22 to 26 inclusive, promises to 
be one of the most interesting in its history. The wealth 
of material in the shape of technical papers for discus- 
sion is greater than has been offered for any previous 
meeting; upward of 150 papers have been submitted to 
the committee, who found it no small task to arrange 
a program to present this number with a minimum of 
conflicts among papers on allied subjects. 

One of the excursions to be made by the Institute as 
a body during this meeting is to the LaSalle district. 
A special train leaving Chicago early Thursday morn- 
ing will take the members and guests to LaSalle, 111., 
where automobiles will convey the different parties to 
the coal mines, cement works and zinc smelters. For 
the ladies and others of the party not particularly 
interested in these industrial operations, the LaSalle 
hosts plan an automobile trip to Starved Rock. 

Reinforced Concrete in and About the Coal 
Mines of Great Britain &, >. 

By M. Meredith 

Liverpool, England 

Use of reinforced concrete as a building material 
has made rapid strides in Great Britain since its intro- 
duction about 25 years ago. It is now recognized as 
one of the standard and best materials for various 
classes of construction. The Government departments 
have adopted it for important works and encouraged 
others to use it, especially during the war, when the 
shortage of steel was felt. 

Plant at coal shafts can be economically and satis- 
factorily constructed by this method. The advantages 
over timber construction are seen in its fireproof qual- 
ities. In fact, the Board of Trade of Great Britain 
does not permit timber construction at new shafts at 
the present time. 

With steel work, the constant painting and scraping 
is an important item on structures of large size; this 
has been entirely dispensed with by the employment 
of reinforced concrete. Concrete should be construct- 
ed more economically than structural steel; concrete 
construction is heavier and therefore steadier than build- 
ings of steel or timber. This, under certain circum- 
stances, is an important consideration. 

Reinforced-concrete mine props have been used as 
supports on main entries of colliery workings for some 
time, and they have proved to be so satisfactory that 
it is doubtful whether the operators would return to 
the use of timber, even if it should become cheaper. 
Reinforced concrete cannot be recommended for use at 
the coal face because in that case it is desirable at times 
to change the length of props, and it is not practicable 
to do this with concrete. On the main entries concrete 
props are ideal ; a great advantage being their long life. 

The aim has been to make the concrete prop the 
same strength, or as near as possible, as the timber 
prop required for the place in question. It was found 
by test that in the case of a 5-in. timber prop the 
breaking load was in the neighborhood of 25 tons. A 
4i-in. concrete prop reinforced by 4?-in. bars and hoops 
had a breaking load in the neighborhood of 25 tons. 
The coal miners are beginning to appreciate the ad- 
vantage of these props, which can be so designed that 
the top is the weakest portion ; when thej' give way the 
prop can be taken out, the concrete chipped away, the 
reinforcing iron can be sawn off and the prop (although 
reduced in size), can be used again. One prop was 
used three times over in this way. When it was first 
tested it carried 25 tons or thereabouts. The top was 
cut off, and the second time the prop carried a little 
more. The third time it carried 25 tons or thereabouts. 
Sometimes a squeeze came on, and whatever was put in 
could not resist that weight — something must give way. 
In that case the top of the prop would go and the prop 
would then be taken out and used somewhere else, after 
the top had been cut off. 

The following concise and pithy expressions appeared 
in Power recently and are well worth being passed along: 
Adaptability means doing the next Dest tnmg in the handiest 
way. Efficiency is knowing just how and fitting it to just 
when. Loyalty consists in being decently considerate of 
the boss. Responsibility lies in having grit enough to risk 
a call down. Opportunity is the same thing as being bom 
lucky. Reliability shows the capacity for staying put 
longest. Integrity is the Sunday name for plain weekday 



Vol. 16, No. 3 


He Who Rides with a Powder Keg 
Joy-Rid es with Death 

Many cars are, to all intents and purposes, powder 
magazines on wheels; in these cars are men with 
open torches, and the risk is always present that 
at any time the powder will become ignited and 
kill every man on the trip. Can you take that 
chance ? 

July 17, 1919 






Living Conditions at Mines 

Letter No. 6 — I have followed with deep interest the 
letters published in Coal Age regarding the improve- 
ment of living conditions in our mines, and beg to state 
that this is a very important subject and one that needs 
prompt attention and concerted action on the part of 
coal operators in this country. 

Particularly is this true in these days of reconstruc- 
tion when the atmosphere is diluted with dangerous 
propaganda and Bolshevism is crying in a false tone 
for better living conditions that they are determined 
to gain by force. The poor and ignorant classes in- 
fluenced by this propaganda do not realize that the 
carrying out of their program would only mean hardship 
and suffering to themselves. 

The successful promotion of better living conditions 
in our industrial centers requii'es the cooperation and 
support of every American, in this enterprise. A 
country-wide campaign should be undertaken, advertis- 
ing in the daily papers that better living conditions can 
only come through the friendly cooperation of better 
citizens, who, by kindness, will be able to overcome those 
of their fellow workers who are bent on tying up indus- 
trial enterprises, which can only make life miserable 
for the workers. 

The Census Bureau statistics recently published show 
that there are over 14,000,000 foreign-born residents 
in America, less than 10 per cent, of whom are 
naturalized American citizens, who make up the thrifty 
class of our foreign-born workers. 

Exodus of Foreign-Born Mine Workers 

It is rumored that millions of our foreign population 
are preparing to return to Europe, as a result of 
the well-organized propaganda now being circulated 
throughout the country. The keynote of this propa- 
ganda is "Cash in your Liberty bonds; bring your bank 
accounts to us and come back to your own country 
where you will be enabled to enjoy the freedom and 
unrestricted personal liberty for which you have long 
been striving." 

One cannot help but wonder whether the broad- 
minded American employers are going to stand idly by 
a..d allow this propaganda to result in a calamitous 
withdrawal of bank and savings accounts and a shortage 
of labor that must bring about increase of wages, 
strikes and industrial unrest, with all the attendant 
evils that prevail in Europe today. 

The question will be asked, "What can be done to 
prevent this condition in our own country?" The 
an.swer is. Make life worth while for the working 
classes, by giving them the pleasures to which they 
are entitled and improving their home life and health 
to an extent that they must recognize that the treat- 
ment they receive in America is better than what they 
could hope to gain elsewhere. 

No one doubts that, today, we are entering upon the 
most important period affecting the future of this and 
other countries. It is a time when regard for one 
another's welfare must take the place of that selfish 
ambition developed by the "get-rich-quick" idea, by im- 
posing on our workers conditions they cannot endure. 

In closing, let me say that employers here in our 
country should be proud to prove to the world that 
they consider the profits of their industries of less 
importance than the welfare of their workers. The 
question is, however, how can this idea be impressed 
on the minds of workmen, that the interests of each 
one ai-e bound up in the interests of all. 

Success means cooperation in establishing a com- 
munity of interest, to the end that employers and 
workers in every industry shall strive for the common 
good. Let me add that not until capital and labor stand, 
foot-and-foot, on the same elevation, in respect to life's 
privileges, will the working classes recognize and enjoy 
the ideals for which America stands— Freedom, Justice 
and Equality. Joseph R. Thomas. 

Plymouth, Penn. 

Robbing Pillars, Anthracite Mines 

Letter No. 2 — I was deeply interested in the letter 
regarding the robbing of pillars in anthracite mines, by 
Joseph R. Thomas, Coal Age, May 22, p. 938. The work 
of robbing pillars is always dangerous and requires 
much skill and good judgment. Especially in the an- 
thracite region where conditions are so variable, no 
special rules can be given to guide those engaged in the 
work. Practically, the only general rule to be followed 
is that, in order to secure a fair percentage of recovery 
under these varying conditions, rapid and well directed 
effort is necessary. 

As Mr. Thomas has remarked, the cost of timber 
required for this work is high, and it is true that much 
timber is being wa.sted where a considerable amount of 
robbing is being done. When the pillars are small, 
more timber is required than where ample pillar sup- 
port has been left in the first workings. However, it 
is too late now to overcome this difficulty. The problem 
that confronts us is how to recover as much of these 
small pillars as possible with the least expense and the 
greatest amount of safety to the men. 

One of the chief factors in the work of robbing is 
the character of the roof strata directly above the coal. 
A strong sandstone roof requires little timber. Indeed, 
timber supports are of no avail to resist the roof pres- 
sure in this case; but posts are stood merely to serve 
as a warning of impending danger. Under a strong 
roof, it is important to make every effort to induce a 
fall back in the waste, as a large standing area greatly 
increases the weight resting on the pillars and makes 
the work of robbing more difficult and dangerous. 



Vol. 16, Xo. S 

With a weak roof under a considerable cover, more 
timber is required for the protection of the men. 
Strange as it may seem more accidents occur when 
working under a good roof than where the character 
of the roof requires the miner to be always alert to the 
danger that surrounds him. The work of extracting 
pillars is much more hazardous in anthracite than in 
bituminous mining. In the anthracite region, the coal 
measures are much disturbed and the coal must be 
mined often on heavy pitches where the falling roof 
slides down the pitch and endangers the miner. 

Much extra work is required on steep pitches to 
avoid loose material falling into and choking the 
chutes and manways, which would then have to be 
cleared or a passage opened to take the coal to the 
gangway below. Much extra labor is also necessary in 
order to get the timber up these steep pitches, especially 
in a thick seam where the length of the props required 
may varj' from 10 to 16 ft. It is nothing unusual to 
find one or more of these props discharged by a blast 
and carried some distance down the chute, from which 
they must be recovered, taken up the pitch and again 
set in place to support the roof. 

Factors That Determine the Direction, Size and 
Strength of Pillars 

Another important factor and one that controls both 
the laying out of the chambers and the robbing of the 
pillars is the pitch or inclination of the seam. Natur- 
ally, owing to the difficulty of handling water and coal 
on the dip, the chamber must be driven either on the 
strike of the seam or to the rise, the former being gen- 
erally preferred. However, pillars running with the dip 
present the maximum resistance, and there is not the 
tendency to overturn as when the pillars run parallel 
with the strike of the seam. For this reason a greater 
width of pillar is required where the chambers are 
driven on the strike. 

The strength of pillars varies inversely as the thick- 
ness of the seam and directly as the cosine of the angle 
of inclination. A greater width of pillar is therefore 
required in mining thick seams on steep pitches than 
is required in working thinner coal having a less in- 
clination. The character of the coal is also an im- 
portant factor, a greater width of pillar being required 
where the coal is soft and friable than where it is hard 
and tenacious. As a general rule, also, the roof pressure 
is greater in the basin than in other portions of the 
mine, and a greater width of pillar is required as the 
workings advance to the dip. 

In anthracite workings, it is seldom that the dip of 
a seam remains constant; changes are frequent and 
these will require, at times, some change in the develop- 
ment of the work. Such changes are apt to lead to 
much confusion and require a careful study to deter- 
mine the effect produced in the roof pressure. 

Importance of Drawing All Post Timber 

Regarding the question of drawing timber, asked by 
Mr. Thomas, let me say that the Pennsylvania Coal Co., 
operating in this locality, has followed the invariable 
practice of drawing all standing props as quickly as 
the pillars are removed. This work is performed by 
special prop pullers and much timber is thus saved. 
The Cooper vein will average about 12 ft. in thickness. 
The props seldom split through the center, but bend 

or break off about 3 or 4 ft. from the floor. These 
broken timbers are taken out and sawed off for use in 
the smaller veins. It is evident that the use of prop 
pullers effects a much needed saving, as timber is be- 
coming more and more scarce each year. 

While the use of steel and cement supports has been a 
saving, it does not seem that this has greatly decreased 
the consumption of mine timber, which appears to be 
steadily on the increase. The tendency of most miners, 
today, is to set too little rather than to use too many 
props, but the one thing that needs careful watching is 
to see that miners do not allow props to become buried 
and lost in the waste. Some willful miners allow good 
props to be covered up rather than make any effort to 
recover such timbers. The entire work of drawing 
back pillars and recovering timbers should be in charge 
of experienced and competent men capable of exercising 
the best skill and judgment and detecting the presence 
of danger where the casual observer would not be con- 
scious that such danger existed. Richard Bowen. 

West Pittston, Penn. 

Cost Reduced in Machine Mining 

Letter No. 3 — Kindly permit me to offer a few words 
in reply to Thomas Hogarth, whose letter appears in 
Coal Age, Jlay 8, p. 887, commenting on my previous 
claims of the work that can be and is accomplished 
in our mines, in cutting coal with the Sullivan machines. 
From Mr. Hogarth's remarks I can see plainly that he 
is a Goodman-machine man. 

First, in regard to my statement that our cutters 
left 4* or 5 in. of bottom coal, let me say that this 
was according to my instructions to the machinemen. I 
do not consider that the coal they left represented a 
loss. There was a reason for doing this that I do 
not care to explain further than to say that conditions 
often oblige a mine foreman to make some slight con- 
cessions to his men, in order to avoid extra expense. 
If my friend is a mining man of experience, he will 
understand my meaning, as he has probably been in 
positions before this that required him to study out a 
plan to extricate himself from a difficult position. In 
order to get the best results from machine mining, a 
mine foreman must be on the move and study carefully 
the work done in the mine, in all its details. 

Foremen Can Expedite Work of Coal Cutters 

Now, regarding the amount that I stated my cutters 
can advance, let me saj- that this very largely depends 
on what the boss accomplishes in getting the places 
ready and in condition to cut, so that the machinemen 
are not delayed in their work. At times, it is necessary 
to change the angle of driving the places so as to 
overcome water conditions. Everything depends on 
adopting a good system and seeing that the men live up 
to it and in making it plain to them that you are 
the boss. 

Another point Mr. Hogarth mentions is the kind of 
bits used in our machines. Regarding them, let me 
state that this is another point that I do not care to 
discuss more than to say that these bits represent some 
hard study, which has enabled me to overcome certain 
difficulties in the cutting of coal. 

In regard to caring for the machines, let me say that 
a machineman who is not capable of keeping up his 
own machine is not competent to run a machine. Fur- 

July 17, 1919 



ther, if there is any doubt in Mr. Hogarth's mind 
regarding my statements, I will bring cutters and come 
myself and prove the truth of my claims. In closing, 
let me add that 1 can have the coal cut on the slate 
bottom, or leave any thickness of bottom coal that I 
choose. I have observed in some mines that the cutters 
are boss, and not the foreman, which will explain the 
results accomplished. John H. Wiley. 

Oliphant, Penn. 

A.C. vs. D.C. Current in Mines 

Letter No. 3 — At the Pittsburgh meeting of the Coal 
Mining Institute of America, last December, there was 
a discussion of the question, "Is the underground use 
of alternating current more hazardous than the use 
of direct current?" Since then several writers have 
discussed the matter in Coal Age, and expressed their 
views regarding the relative hazard of these two types 
of current. While many points are involved in an 
answer to this question I will attempt to cover the most 
important ones pertaining to life and fire hazard in 

As direct current is more generally used than alter- 
nating current, in coal-mining operations, it is better 
understood by mining men, both in respect to its appli- 
cations and hazard. The general impression is that 
alternating current is more dangerous than direct 
current. Is this a fact and, if so, what is the reason? 
Can it not be made just as safe as direct current; or 
is there something about alternating current that makes 
it inherently more dangerous? These are a few of the 
questions that naturally arise and require an answer 
before a decision can be reached as to which of the two 
types should be installed, in a mine, in respect to the 
hazard, or other considerations of cost, upkeep, appli- 
cation and suitability. The items last mentioned are 
apt to occur in such a variety of combinations and of 
varying degrees of importance that any given case must 
be made a study by itself. 

Relative Danger Carefully Analyzed 

The danger involved in the use of either d.c. or a.c. 
current is the chance of shock, by men and animals 
coming in contact with live wires or equipment. The 
hazard of accidental contact can, of course, be reduced 
by protecting all wires and equipment; but in coal 
mining it is next to impossible to maintain ideal con- 
ditions even with a thorough system of inspection and 
maintenance. This applies not only to electrical equip- 
ment but to mining conditions in general. The question 
then resolves itself into asking which form of electricity 
is the more dangerous, assuming that the same atten- 
tion is paid to installation and upkeep. 

The impression that a.c. current is the more danger- 
ous type is probably due to the generally higher voltages 
than in the use of d.c. current underground. In the 
early days of mine electrification, it was natural to 
adopt the 500 or 600 volts used in railway practice 
and because this high voltage reduced the initial cost 
of installation and the line drop in the transmission of 

In those days, the question of life hazard was not 
ui-ged as forcibly then as now, and the danger from a 
live trolley wire 15 or 20 ft. over the track was nothing 
in comparison to what it is when that trolley is brought 
down within striking distance of a man's head. More- 
over, the damp and wet underground conditions 

increa.sed the danger of using a high voltage. For- 
tunately, however, the danger was quickly realized and 
at the present time 250-volt direct current is used for 
haulage, and in many instances for power in mines. 
This voltage is now considered as the standard for un- 
derground work. 

However, in the later development of mines, difficulty 
arose in transmitting the necessary electric power long 
distances to the working face, owing to the increased 
line drop and consequent loss of power. For this reason, 
it was necessary to employ a.c. current and, today, many 
new mines are thus equipped in the start, in order to 
forestall such difficulties arising later in their devel- 
opment. Another important reason for the general 
adoption of a.c. current is that many mines are now 
purchasing power from central stations, or are produc- 
ing it at other distant mines and using it as such or 
converting it, in part or entirely, to d.c. current, at 
convenient points. 

Increasing Use of Alternating Current in Mines 

To those who have studied the trend, it is apparent 
that a.c. current is here to stay, and is being more 
generally used for mine electrification the better it is 
understood. The question of safety that arises in every 
contemplated installation is. How does a.c. differ from 
d.c. current, and does it involve a greater hazard when 
used in mines? 

As far as the hazard is concerned, the difference lies 
in what the workman thinks is the relative danger 
and what that danger actually is; or what is the rela- 
tive effect on the human body or an animal when 
coming in contact with a live wire. 

The average mine worker, thinking that one current 
is more dangerous than another, will take risks with the 

^EfFBCTfiyeA.C. Vo/-^gre 



one he thinks is less dangerous. He knows nothing of 
the nature of the current, its voltage, frequency, etc., 
and, in all probability, will expose himself to a sadder 
experience with the kinds of current that he knows less 
about. But, as unfortunate as such an attitude in an 
employee may be, we will pass this by and discuss tne 
matter on a purely scientific basis regarding the physio- 
logical action of both kinds of current. 

The nerves of the body are analogous to the wires 
over which electric current is sent and, strange to say, 
there is a close resemblance between the mental stimulus 
putting a muscle into action through the nerve force 
and an electric nhock producing a similar action, by 
coming in contact with a live wire. The effect produced 
depends on: (1) The kind of current; (2) the voltage; 
(3) the thoroughness of contact. 

Now, in respect to kind of current, as its name 
implies, alternating current is constantly changing. 
From a maximum in one direction the voltage reduces 
to zero, then increases to a maximum in the opposite 



Vol. 16, JNo. 3 

direction and again reduces to zero, increasing then till 
it reaches the maximum from which it started. This 
alternating change in voltage is indicated by the curve 
shown in the figure just given, which represents a 
complete cycle. In a 60-cycle system, this is repeated 
60 times a second, or 25 times in a 25-cycle system, and 
produces the continuous stinging sensation experienced 
when coming in contact with a live wire carrying a.c. 

On the other hand, d.c. current consists of a steady 
flow and there is no perceptible sensation after the first 
contact, notwithstanding the current is flowing through 
the body. In other words, contact with a live wire 
carrying d.c. current immediately gives the muscles a 
twitch, after which there is no discomfort provided the 
contact is light ; but the twitch of the muscles will be 
repeated on breaking the circuit. In alternating cur- 
rent, the continuous reversal of the a.c. voltage causes 
stimulation of the muscles of the body as long as 
contact with the wire is maintained. Generally, there 
is difficulty in letting go of a wire charged with a.c. 
current, because of the stimulation of the muscles. 

Harm Done Depends on Energy of Current 

For the same power transmitted, the voltage deter- 
mines the amount of current flowing, assuming an equal 
degree of contact with the wire. The harm done is 
usually considered to be represented by the energy, 
which is the product of the voltage and the current 
passing. If the voltage is extremely high and the cur- 
rent immeasurably small, as in many of the stage 
exhibitions of passing "millions of volts" through a 
human body, no more harm is done than when a larger 
current passes under a lower voltage. 

The amount of current flowing under a given voltage 
will depend on how good a contact is formed. The 
surface contact of the human body is rather high and 
if this should be punctured it will allow considerable 
current to flow through the body, even though the pres- 
sure is as low as 50 volts. Also, much depends on the 
amount of surface in contact. A man who is very wet 
from perspiration and standing in water will receive a 
serious shock on making contact with a 250-volt circuit, 
even with the inside of his hand, which is considered the 
thickest insulation of the human body. 

Harm that comes from accidental contact with live 
wires depends also, to a great extent, on the makeup of 
the individual. It is a peculiar fact that a mule is more 
sensitive to shock than a human being. It has been 
frequently observed that it takes less voltage to kill a 
mule than a man. 

The voltage of an a.c. current, as measured by an 
instrument is not the maximum voltage that occurs at 
the peak of the cycle just described ; but, in case of the 
sine wave, is about 70 per cent, of that value, as indi- 
cated by the horizontal line in the figure. The injury or 
shock resulting from contact, however, depends on the 
maximum value of the voltage. Consequently, a 100- 
volt, d.c. current would be equivalent to about a 70-volt 
a.c. current; or a 220-volt, a.c. current would be equal 
to about a 315-volt, d.c. current. This is borne out by 
my own experience, and one frequently hears it re- 
marked that a.c. current stings more than d.c. current 
of the same voltage. If the a.c. current voltage gives 
a sharp saw-tooth wave instead of a sine wave the shock 
is all the more severe. 

The bare trolley wire required in mine haulage is the 
chief source of danger and must be guarded at all ex- 

posed points in the mine. As far as the other wires 
and equipment are concerned, there is no reason why 
they should not be installed and maintained so as to 
prevent any injury from accidental contact and all equip- 
ment made safe by grounding. Even then, after every 
precaution has been taken, many cases of willful contact 
for play or to win a wager will occur. There are, in 
this country, however, comparatively few installations 
of a.c. current for haulage purposes and, neglecting 
these, it is fair to state that an a.c. installation under- 
ground should represent no more hazard to life than 
d.c. current, even though, as has been stated, for the 
same voltage, the shock from a.c. current is slightly 
more severe than that from d.c. current. 

So far we have considered the comparative effects of 
a.c. and d.c. current of the same voltage. It is obvi- 
ously unfair to the former to compare its behavior at 
high voltage with that of the latter at low voltage. The 
high a.c. voltage is necessary to deliver the power to 
distant points, which could not be reached as economi- 
cally with d.c. current, unless the latter were of a 
similarly high voltage. In such an event, there would 
be just as much harm to life from the high voltage d.c. 
current as from the a.c. current. In other words, when 
adopting a voltage above the 600-volt class the danger 
is, of course, very much greater ; but the kind of current 
makes very little difference in the hazard. Practically 
all the installations of a.c. current underground are of 
1100-volt or higher. It has been found that the best 
voltage for electrocution is somewhere between 1800 
and 2200 volts. It is therefore obvious that the utmost 
precaution must be taken to install a.c. current of this 
high voltage properly, in order to reduce the life hazard. 

High-Tension Lines Safe If Properly Insulated 

In carrying a.c. current of high voltage into a mine, 
except when it is taken down a borehole, there is the 
natural feeling that high-voltage wires of any form 
whatever are objectionable where they may be exposed 
on a passage or traveling way. But, cables properly 
insulated, covered with lead and otherwise protected 
mechanically, are undoubtedly safe to install anywhere, 
provided they are properly grounded. Such cables, how- 
ever, are not foolproof against malicious damage, and 
it is possible for them to be deliberately damaged and 
cause shock by contact or by grounding. Men are, as a 
rule, afraid to tamper with such cables ; they have heard 
how some fellow got it by trying some stunt to put the 
mine out of business; whereas, he put himself out of 
business and the mine continued to run. 

The fire hazard, as far as arcing from the voltage is 
concerned, is practically the same whether a.c. or d.c. 
current is installed. If there is any difference it is in 
favor of the former, because an a.c. current arc will 
not sustain itself like a d.c. current arc. The a.c. arc 
tends to go out when the voltage passes through zero of 
the cycle. As far as the heating effects are concerned, 
they are practically the same for both types of current, 
except that in a.c. current a wire is more apt to be 
overloaded, especially if the motors are operating at 
low-power factor and allowance for this has not been 
made in the installation of the wire. 

In dealing with a.c. current of 1100-volt and higher, 
it is quite usual to find in every installation, oil- 
immersed transformers installed underground and also 
oil used for oil .switches and starting compensators. It 
must be admitted that the use of this oil is a fire risk, 
particularly in the case of transformers. A similar fire 

July 17, 1919 



risk is not present in a low-voltage, d.c. current installa- 
tion, and in this respect the use of a.c. current is 
slightly more hazardous than d.c. current. However, 
if it is necessary to install a.c. current, there are well 
known ways of guarding against this fire hazard, by 
locating such equipment where fire will do the least 
harm, and safeguarding it both against fire, and pro- 
tecting the remainder of the mine, in case of fire, by 
providing suitable means for confining the fire and 
extinguishing it should one occur. 

H. M. Gassman, 
Birmingham, Ala. Consulting Power Engineer. 

Firebosses as State Officials 

Letter No. 8 — Since reading the letter of Edward H. 
Coxe, Coal Age, May 8, p. 876, who, as general manager 
of the Snowdon Coke Co., at Braznell, Tenn., is opposed 
to the employment of state firebosses, I have been 
wondering if he recalls, as I do, the terrible explosion 
that occurred in the Braznell mine, Dec. 23, 1899. 

In the Braznell explosion, every man in the mine 
was killed, nineteen in all, if I remember correctly. It 
was known that there was a good deal of gas in the 
mine, but the fireboss did not dare to report it when 
making out his daily report, fearing that he would be 
fired. It was a well known fact that the mine 
would frequently work places containing gas. Other 
places were left full of gas, until the adjoining rooms 
could be driven up far enough to put a crosscut through 
so that the air current would drive off the gas. 

The same condition existed in the Grindstone mine, 
about a mile from the Braznell mine. An explosion 
had occurred in the former, owing to the same cause, 
about six months previous to the Braznell explosion 
(July 24, 1899). I was working in the Grindstone mine 
at that time, being employed as a machine runner. I 
also made one of the rescue party, at the Braznell mine, 
some weeks after the explosion in December. 

These occurrences lead me to think that if our fire- 
bosses were authorized to act as assistants to the mine 
inspectors, such conditions would not exist in the mines, 
and gas would be reported whenever found. A fireboss, 
then, would not fear the loss of his position by reason 
of reporting gas. It is natural to understand that a 
general manager would prefer to employ his own fire- 
boss, so as to control aflfairs in his mine according to 
his own will, which a state fireboss would prevent. 

Cumberland, B. C, Can. A. Trubie. 

Letter No. 9 — Referring to the discussion on this 
subject, I am convinced that if our firebosses were 
clothed with the authority of state officials no harm 
would result as some writers have predicted. Instead, 
I believe that it would prove a boon to both operators 
and miners. 

Accepting, as we must, that it is the general desire 
of all operators that their mines shall be kept safe 
and in the best possible condition, I fail to see that 
it matters whether a fireboss when making his examina- 
tion of the m.ine acts for the company or for the state. 
Operators have invested thousands of dollars in the 
development of their mines, and it is only to be expected 
that they require their superintendents and foremen 
to abide strictly by the laws of the state. 

This being true, the employment of state firebosses 
would seem lib appeal to most operators as a move that 

would yield better results and prove a big factor for 
safety. Operators who oppose the plan are largely 
those who object to receiving orders from their fire- 
bosses. They know that if a fireboss was to be clothed 
with state authority and act as an assistant mine in- 
spector they would be obliged to sit up and listen, or 
close their mines. 

In my opinion, if daily reports were required to be 
sent to the state officials as well as to the officers of 
the company there would be a vast improvement in 
the condition of our mines that would prove a great 
boost for safety. It would make all mine officials more 

It must be admitted that in a few instances a state 
fireboss might require the foreman of a mine to per- 
form some unreasonable work; but this possibility could 
be safeguarded by placing restrictions upon the kind 
of work that would be under the fireboss' jurisdiction. 
The argument, however, furnishes no grounds for op- 
position to the plan. It would be understood that a 
rigid test would determine the capability of a fireboss 
acting for the state, and only those showing the highest 
efficiency would be authorized to act as state examiners 
of mines. This would insure the employment of capable 
men, whose word should be law, in respect to safe 
mining conditions. 

Handicap of State Mine Inspectors 

Admitting that there are deputy mine inspectors who 
are paid to visit and inspect the mines for safety, is 
it not true that the territory in charge of each inspector 
is too large to enable a thorough inspection and insure 
safety at all times? Is it not true, also, that the term 
of office of mine inspectors is generally too short to 
make them thoroughly familiar with conditions in the 
mines in their charge? This being the case, a mine 
inspector may be easily misled by the arguments of a 
mine official who is disposed to take chances, and has 
no desire to comply with a request of the inspector. 
This could not happen where the fireboss stationed at 
that mine acted with the authority of the state. 

Although, in my experience of a number of years of 
firebossing, I have worked under many good and honest 
mine officials, it has happened, at times, that the situa- 
tion in a mine had to be dealt with forcibly and caused 
some unpleasantness before the mine foreman would 
comply with my orders. Some years ago an incident 
occurred at the mine of which I now have charge that 
I will cite as an illustration of the need of a fireboss 
being given a free hand. 

At that time, a flood was raging in the district and 
the mines were not working. The fireboss was ordered 
or told to be on hand in the morning when the men 
went to work and no previous inspection of the work- 
ings was made. A few hours later a sledge was needed 
and one of the daymen was sent down a certain entry 
to hunt for the tool, with the result that his naked 
light ignited gas that had accumulated there and an 
explosion followed killing four men. 

This is but one incident of many that cause the high 
death rate in mines throughout the country. I am 
confident that if we could hear many weak-kneed fire- 
bosses relate the results of mine foremen and superin- 
tendents not complying with their orders the narration 
would startle the public and show the need of greater 
authority being given the firebosses employed in our 
mines. J. H. TAYLOR. 

Athens, Ind. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 



Fatal Hoisting Accident 

Eecently a fatal accident occurred, killing one of the 
employees of a contractor who was engaged in ex- 
cavating and enlarging a cellar under the house shown 
in the accompanying photo, Fig. 1. The accident was 
due to the breaking of a manila rope used to hoist 
the excavated material up an incline that extended 
into the cellar. The steel rope shown in the foreground 
was used after the accident and until the .I'ob was 
finished. The man was killed 
by the loaded car running 
■wild down the incline when 
the rope broke. 

In order to quickly and 
conveniently remove the dirt 
from the cellar, an incline 
track had been erected, as 
shown in the diagram, Fig. 
2. This incline was about 
49 ft. in length. Commenc- 
ing at the top or outside 
dump, the incline pitched 6 
deg. for the first 6 ft., then 
22i deg. for 27 ft., and then 
10 deg. for the remaining 
16 ft., after which the track 
ran level for 35 ft. About 
20 ft. from the end was a shunting track. 

Two mine cars were procured for the purpose of 
conveying the excavated dirt up the incline, and a full- 
sized, i-in., or more likely ^i«-in., rope was used, 
a team of horses being employed to pull the loaded cars 

Show5 Position of Man 
when Struck by Car 



-16'— -'M-- 

Measured on the fitch 


up the incline. The rope had just been bought for a 
best quality of manila rope and was new when put 
on this work. However, in my opinion, the rope was 
much inferior to the best grade of manila rope. 

This new rope was put in and the work started 
Thursday morning. Some 200 cars had been pulled 
out of the cellar and when a loaded car was being 
hauled up, on the following Saturday afternoon, the 
rope broke about a foot from where it was coupled 
to the butt-stick of the horse's harness. The gross 
weight of the load being hauled was 2730 lb., the car 
weighing 840 lb. and the dirt 1890 lb. There was some 
dispute among the men regarding the weight of the 
load, and to ascertain this fact the loaded car was pulled 
out and weighed, showing its weight to be 2730 pounds. 


At the moment when the rope broke the load was 
on the steepest part of the incline, approaching the 
knuckle, as shown. At the point where the break 
occurred, there had been more wear on the rope, 
for some two feet or more, than on any other part of 
the rope. I presume this was owing to the rope trail- 
ing on the floor when the car was being lowered. 

The car had a sidedump and, after being emptied, was 
lowered by backing up the horses. The descending 
empty car kept the rope tight, until the car had reached 
the bottom of the incline. Then the car had to be 
pushed over the 35 ft. of level track, and the rope 
would trail on the floor. The extra wear on the rope 
was plain to be seen at the point where it broke 
close to the butt-stick, which was heavy and would have 
a tendency to hold the rope down on the floor. 

The rope passed over three pulleys, as shown in the 
figure, a 9-in. pulley on top of the headframe, angle 
of deflection 70 deg. ; a 9-in. pulley at the foot of the 
headframe, angle 90 deg.; and under a 5-in. pulley to 
hold the rope down. 

We want to ask. What would be considered a safe 
working load on this incline, with the pulleys fixed 
as shown in the figure and using a S-in. rope of this 
description, assuming the strength of the rope is de- 
creased, say 15 per cent., due to wear? Also, what time 
would it take for the loaded car to reach the man, 
counting from the time the rope broke to the moment 
it crashed into the empty? The incline and track were 
in excellent condition. MoSES JOHNSON. 

Lethridge, Alta., Can. 

The load on the hoisting rope, at the moment of 
rupture, is the sum of the gravity pull and the track 
resistance. Calling the angle of inclination a, the 
weight of the loaded car, in pounds, W, and assuming 
a track resistance, in this case, of 30 lb. per ton normal 
pressure on this incline, which makes the coefficient 
of track resistance 30/2000 = 0.015, the load on the 
rope when the car is approaching the knuckle is 

L = PF(sina + 0.015 cos a) 
But, W = 2730 lb.; sin a = sin 22i° = 0.38268; and 
0.015 cos a = 0.015 X 0.92388 = 0.01386; giving for 
the load that broke the rope 

L = 2730(0.38268 + 0.01386) == 1082+ lb. 

The breaking strength of the best grade of manila 
rope (average of different makers) i in. in diameter 
is 6000 lb. The safe working strength of such rope 
should not exceed 800 or 1000 lb. It seems likely that, 
if this rope was of "best quality," its fibers had been 
badly injured and cut by the horses' hoofs and other- 
wise worn, which caused the break. Nothing but a 
i-in., 6-strand, 19-wire, crucible cast-steel rope should 
be used for this work. 

Calculation shows that, under fair conditions of car 
and track, the loaded car would reach the man in 
exactly 4 sec. after starting from the knuckle. 

July 17, 1919 






Mine Managers' Examination, 

Springfield, 111., April 8, 1919 

(Selected Questions) 

Ques. — What is meant by the natural division of the 
air current in a mine, and what necessity arises for 
a different division of the air between the several 
districts of the mine? 

A«s.— The natural division of the air in a mine is 
produced when no artificial obstruction is introduced 
into one or more of the airways traversed by the cur- 
rent. In other words, the air divides naturally between 
the two or more airways that may be open to its 
passage through the mine, the larger quantity of air 
circulating through those airways having the lesser 
resisting power; or, in other words, the airways having 
a larger potential, as expressed by the ratio of the 
sectional area to the square root of the rubbing surface 
of the airway. 

It often happens that airways, or sections of the 
mine, that are more extended or which have a contracted 
sectional area require the larger proportion of the air 
circulating through the mine, owing either to a greater 
number of men working in the airway or section, or 
to the generation of gas. . In such a case, it is neces- 
sary to place an artificial obstruction in the airway or 
section that would otherwise receive more air than its 
rightful proportion. 

The obstruction placed in an airway increases its 
resistance and has the same effect as lengthening the 
airway, or decreasing its sectional area. In other words, 
it diminishes the potential of that airway or section 
with the result that the larger proportion of air is 
made to circulate through the other airway. This 
arrangement is described as "proportionate division" of 
the air. 

Ques. — How is the resistance of a regulator calcu- 

Ans. — In order to calculate the resistance of a regu- 
lator, it is necessary to multiply the unit pressure due 
to the regulator, by the sectional area of the airway 
in which it is placed. The pressure due to a regulator 
is equal to the difference between the natural pressure 
of the free or open split containing no regulator, and 
the natural pressure due to the passage of the required 
volume of air through the regulator, after it has been 
placed in position in the airway. The difference between 
these two natural pressures is the unit pressure due to 
the regulator, and which results in increasing the 
resistance in the regulator split. The increase in re- 
sistance, or the resistance due to the regulator is found 
by multiplying the difference in pressure just mentioned, 
by the sectional area of the airway. 

Ques. — A fan running at 80 r.p.m. delivers 100,000 
cu.ft. of air per minute in the mine; how much air 

will this fan deliver under the same conditions when 
running at 100 r.p.m.? 

Ans. — Approximately, under fairly normal conditions 
in mining practice, the volume of air in circulation 
varies with the number of revolutions of the fan per 
minute. On this basis, the speed of the fan being 
increased from 80 to 100 revolutions a minute, the ratio 
of increase being 10/8 = 5/4 = 1.25, the increased cir- 
culation will be 1.25 X 100,000 = 125,000 cu.ft. per min. 

Owing to the change that takes place in the efficiency 
of a fan when its speed is much increased, this increase 
of quantity is not realized, in practice. More accu- 
rately, the fourth power of the ratio of increase in 
speed is equal to the fifth power of the ratio of in- 
crease in quantity ; and, in this case, we have for the 
increased quantity when the increased speed ratio is 
1.25, 100,000 i^ 1.25' = 119,500 cu.ft. per min. 

Ques. — How would you conduct your examination of a 
gaseous mine to ascertain its true condition? 

Ans. — Such an examination must be made with an 
approved form of safety lamp that has been examined 
and tested. Before entering the mine observe that the 
ventilator is running uniformly at its regular speed. 
Then, proceeding to the foot of the downcast shaft or 
intake entrance of the mine, follow the air current in 
its course throughout the mine, examining in order each 
working place in each separate section of the mine, mak- 
ing a careful test at the face of every working place 
and observing the condition of each place to detect 
any danger that may exist, either from the presence 
of gas or bad roof. 

Where gas is found, it should either be removed 
at once, by erecting the necessary brattice to deflect 
the air current so as to sweep the place where the gas 
is lodged; or, if this is not done, all entrances to the 
place must be safeguarded by a proper danger signal 
that will warn men not to enter. In this manner, the 
working faces must be examined, in each of the several 
sections of the mine, and the quantity of gas circu- 
lating in each section noted. Notes must also be 
made of the condition of each section of the mine, in 
respect to the presence of danger from bad top. A full 
report of the examination must be entered in a book 
kept for that purpose, immediately after the examina- 
tion. is finished. 

Ques. — What load will a round iron bar one-inch 
in diameter carry, the tensile strength of the iron of 
which it is composed being 56,000 pounds? 

Ans. — The tensile strength given is the ultimate or 
breaking strength of bar iron, in pounds per square inch, 
and assuming a factor of safety of 4 or 5, the safe 
strength of the iron may be taken as, say 12,500 lb. per The sectional area of a bar 1 in. in diameter is 
0.7854 X 1' = 0.7854 The safe load, or the load 
such a bar will carry is, therefore, (0.7854 X 12,500) 
H- 2000 = 4.9-f tons. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

;^^--^^%^ FX3REIGN MARKETS ^ 3 

W^-^^W^ ??."r^.,»TT^ T-XTT^^T^T XTT-IA7-0 ijt ^ 



America's Export Coal Trade Dependent 
Upon Return Cargoes 

Our Export Trade in Coal Is Bound to Increase, But Permanency 

in Foreign Markets Depends in Great Measure on the 

Way We Treat Foreign Consumers 

Great interest has recently been mani- 
fested by the Government Departments 
concerned with matters of foreign trade in 
the question of the coal export trade of 
the United States. The world's rapidly in- 
creasing consumption of coal and the domi- 
nant position of the United States as the 
owner of 55 per cent of the world's coal 
reserves seem to make it inevitable that 
the United States should participate to an 
increasing extent in the coal trade of the 
world. Not all of the coals of the United 
States are of a quality which would enable 
them to compete in the markets of the 
world. Reserves of high-grade bituminous 
coal which might successfully compete with 
British coals are mainly in the Appalachian 
field, and while large, possibly in excess of 
40 billion tons, are far from inexhaustible. 
Furthermore, the ratio of annual coal out- 
put to reserves in tlie high rank coals is at 
present nearly tenfold that of the lower 
rank coals, indicating that our best coal 
will be the first to be exhausted. 

Furthermore, although it seems assured 
that there will be available in from one to 
two years sufficient tonnage for the ex- 
portation of largely increased amounts of 
coal, nevertheless it is important that our 
ships should be used in the most advan- 
tageous manner ; and from the standpoint 
of fostering domestic manufacturing indus- 
tries it is better national policy to export 
manufactured products rather than raw 
materials. From the standpoint of econ- 
omy in shipping space and profit, coal is 
a bulky and comparatively cheap com- 
modity, and is therefore not an attractive 

The small export coal trade in the United 
States is frequently compared dispara^-ing- 
ly with the tremendous coal trade of Great 
Britain, but It must be remembered that 
Great Britain is essentially an importing 
nation and that much of her coal is ex- 
ported in space that would otherwise be 
occupied by ballast. The United States, on 
the contrary, is in precisely the reverse sit- 
uation, being essentially an exporting na- 
tion, and to force our export of coal under 
these conditions is to work contrary to 
normal tendencies. 

In spite of the considerations just cited 
there are cogent reasons why the coal ex- 
port trade of the United States is likely to 
materially increase within the next few 
years, and it is reasonable to believe that 
the United States may acquire a npr"ia- 
nent foothold in many of the coal markets 
of the world. The information coming from 
Europe indicates that the coal production of 
Great Britain and Germany has been so re- 
duced as the result of the war that there 
Is now. and probably will be for several 
years to come, a great coal shortage in 
Europe unless the deficit is made up by 
the United States Neglected development 
work in many European mines during the 
■war and the wrecking of mines in France 
add to the difficulties of early resumption 
of normal production. It Is probable, there- 
fore that the United States will as a 
measure of industrial relief be called upon 
to supply large amounts of coal to Europe : 
but, while American exporters may ac- 
quire a temporary foothold in certain of 
the European markets they will unquestion- 
ablv face the possibility of being unable 
to compete In these markets when normal 
production Is again resumed in Great 

Certain other markets are virtually de- 
pendent upon the United States for their 

coal supplies — for example, the "West In- 
dies and Central America. Our present 
coal trade with these countries will pre- 
sumably gradually increase, and may be 
extended permanently to certain parts at 
least of South America. An additional 
reason for encouragement of the export of 
coal is found in the added bunkering fa- 
cilities which will be needed for our mer- 
chant marine so as to facilitate the ex- 
port of products other than coal and to 
insure favorable coal prices for United 
States vessels bunkering in foreign ports. 

Whether or not the United States event- 
ually expands her export trade in coal to 
a magnitude comparable to that of British 
trade, the trade developed should be built 
upon the secure foundation of just and 
equitable treatment of foreign consumers, 
and, to insure this, provision should be 
made for grading and inspection of coal 
for expor*, either through the agency of 
the Government, the Coal Exporters' Asso- 
ciation, or through some joint arrangement, 
so that the foreign consumer may be rea- 
sonably assured that he will receive the 
grade of material for which he places his 
order. Only through the building up, by 
such practice, of a reputation for integrity 
and efficiency can American exporters hope 
to retain permanently markets which may 
be acquired under the unusual conditions 
of the next few years. 

Marine Strike Affects Exporters 
of American Coal 

A tnreatened general tie-up of shipping 
along the Atlantic coast because of the 
refusal of private boat owners and the 
United States Shipping Board to grant the 
demands of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
"Water Tenders' Union faces the coal in- 
rtustrv. On Monday of this week the labor 
leaders claimed that between 250 and 300 
vessels were idle in the New York harbor 
because of the lack of men and that men 
were leaving their vessels at all the ports 
from Portland. Maine, to Galveston. Texas. 
The men demand a closed shop, three 
watches of eight nours each to replace the 
present system of two watches of twelve 
hours each, and an increase of $15 a 
month in pay. The Shipping Board and 
the American Steamship Association, the 
members of which are the private boat 
©"wners, have agreed to advance the wages 
of the men 10 per cent., but refused an 
eight-hour day except when tne vessels 
are in port, and also refused preference to 
union workers in employment. This reply 
of the owners and the Shipping Board was 
rejected as not' satisfactory by the union, 
and it "was predicted that the strike would 
spread and that other unions would be in- 
volved. It was also predicted that the 
strike would spread to transatlantic vesse's. 
Coming at this time the trouble may 
prove of serious consequences to exporters 
of coal -who are just developing foreign 
markets for this country's fuel. Many of 
them have closed contracts for large ton- 
nages and prompt shipments, some of which 
are based on present freight rates. So far 
no e-Tious flel.ay bas taken place because 
of the partial tie-up inaugurated. Ship- 
pers of bunker coals are already beginning 
to feel the effects of the strike, and unless 
it Is quickly .settled it Is evident that em- 
bargoes will have to be ordered on ship- 
ments within a couple of days. 

Lower Cost of American Coal 
Output Helps Export Trade 

The advantage in the matter of exporting 
coal enjoyed by Great Britain and Germany 
is likely to be offset, under ne'w conditions, 
it is pointed out by Dr. J. B. Umpleby, 
of the Foreign Minerals Division of the 
Geological Survey, who recently returned 
from the Peace Conference. The United 
States is handicapped by tlie fact that its 
export coal is from 300 to 400 miles away 
from tidewater and must pay an average 
freight charge of $1.40 a ton to place it 
at shipside. The effect of the rise in labor 
prices, however, is much greater in Europe 
than in the United States because of the 
greater output per man in this country. 
In support of such a contention. Dr. Umple- 
by cites the figures about to follow. The 
last figures available are those of 1912, 
but the general relation is the same. The 
value of coal at the mine and the output 
per person employed was : 

Average Annual 

"Value Output 

per Ton per Person 

at Mine Employed 

Belgium $3.24 155 

France 3.05 200 

Germany 2 52 269 

United Kingdom 2.18 244 

UnitedStates 1.44 660 

The production and consumption of all 
classes of coal per capita in 1912, as shown 
by Dr. Umpleby, is as follows: 

Production, Consumption, 

Tons Tons 

United Kingdom 5.70 3.83 

UnhedStates 5.00 4.82 

Belgium 2.99 3.35 

Germany 2.59 2.12 

France 100 1.48 

Austria-Hungary (1911) 0.31 0.52 

Spain(19l1) 0.18 0.31 

Russia(191l) 0.15 0.19 

Sweden 0.06 96 

Italy Small 0.28 

In 1912. Great Britain exported 67,000,- 
000 metric tons of coal. Germany ex- 
ported, during the same year, 39,000,000 
tons. In the five-year period from 1907 to 
1912, British exports increased 1.4 per cent., 
whereas German exports increased 58.3 per 
cent., showing the great inroads that Ger- 
many was making in England's export coal 
trade before the war. The changed situa- 
tion in Europe will curtail, to a great de- 
gree, the coal exports of each of these 
countries, with the obvious deduction that 
the United States has a chance to get the 

Cost to England of Control of 
Coal Industry 

The parliamentary report of the London 
Daily Telegraph of May 19 states that the 
liabilities of the British Government in 
connection with the control of coal mines 
in the current financial year will amount 
to about $130,000,000, made up of: Wages 
and hours concession to miners, $100,000,- 
000 ; compensation under control agree- 
ment, $24,000,000 ; emergency claims (ad- 
vances), $5,000,000; indemnity to coal mer- 
chants. $750,000. The emergency claims 
are for the purpose of keeping open col- 
lieries which mignt otherwise be closed 
and making good extraordinary loss or 
damage, etc., while the indemnity to coal 
merchants represents the estimated loss 
arising during emergency arrangements 
for diversion of coal from Its normal chan- 
nels of distribution. 

The Government of India will gradually 
relinquish its control of coal and abolish 
the present distribution system. 

July 17, 1919 





What Happened in June 

[The bracketed figures in the text refer 

to the number or the page of the volume 

In which references to the matter noted 

may be found and should the reader desire 

further information he can obtain it in the 

place indicated."] 

June 1 — A new coal agreement is con- 
cluded between Germany and Switzer- 
land for the monthly delivery of coal 
and coke [XVI, 75]. 

June 2 — The final report of the Canadian 
Fuel Controller is presented to the Cana- 
dian House of Commons [XV, 11S4] — 
Senator Davis introduces a bill in the 
Pennsylvania Senate relative to mine 
cave conditions in the anthracite field 
[XV, 1101] — Mine workers at the Creigh- 
ton and one other mine in Allegheny 
County. Pennsylvania, go on strike to 
compel a recognition of the miners" union 
[X\^ 1132] — The final report of the Ca- 
nadian Fuel Controller is presented to the 
Canadian House of Commons [XV, 1184]. 

June 3 — The Second Pan-American Con- 
ference begins a four-day session at 
Washington, D. C, With delegates from 
North and South America in attendance 
— The Pittsburgh Coal Producers' Asso- 
ciation holds an important meeting at 
Pittsburgh discussing the present and 
future coal situation [XV, 1102], 

June 3 to 4 — The West Virginia Coal Min- 
ing Institute holds its twentieth semi- 
annual meeting in Huntington, W. Va.. 
at Hotel Frederick. Papers are read and 
discussed [XV. 1018]. 

June 4 — The Pennsylvania Senate passes 
the McConnell bill relating to insurance 
[XV, 1101]. 

June 4 to 5 — The Western branch of the 
Canadian Mining Institute holds a meet- 
ing at Nanaimo, B. C. [XVI, 66]. 

June 5 — An ignition of powder takes place 
on a man trip in the Baltimore tunnel 
of the Hudson Coal Co.. at Wilkes-Barre. 
Penn. : 92 men lose their lives as a re- 
sult [XV. 1076]. 

June 10 — The annual meeting of the West 
Virginia Coal Association is held at 
Huntington. W. Va., when officers are 
elected and the question of a continua- 
tion of Government supervision of the 
coal industry is discussed [XV, 1183]. 

June 11 — The employees of Vesta No. .5. of 
the Jones and I^aughlin company, return 
to work after a strike of eight weeks 
[XV. 1173]. 

June 1 2 — A strike takes place at the mines 
of tho ■R'est Rnd Coal Co.. in the anthra- 
cite field. 1 500 mine workers going out 
[XV. 1173], 

June 1.5 — A secret session of past and 
present chiefs of the United Mine Work- 
ers of America is held at Atlantic 
City, N. J. [XV, 1172]. 

June 1R — Two hundred coal miners at the 
Pranklin-Tandv-IjOW mine near Brazil, 
Tnd., strike when company ceases eriv- 
Ing a bonus of fin a ton [XV, 1173] — 
After a strike of one week, the Norfolk 
& Western Rv. motive power, emplovees 
return to work fX^V. 11731 — A strike of 
the Federation of Miners of France takes 
place, involving all the mine workers of 
that cnuntrv. on a question of working 
time rxv. 1132]. 

June 17 — The Flynn nnti-sedltion hill l.s 
rtofeqfcd in the Pennsylvania House of 
Representatives [XV. 11S31. 

JUT>e IS — The coal mine otmerintendents of 
Peoria. Fulton and T.azewell counties. 
Tlllnnis, meet at Cnnton. perfect an or- 
ganization and elect ofTlcers [XVT, 36]. 

.Tune 23 — The American Federation of La- 
bor mfetln<r at Atlnntlc CItv doclqres It- 
.oelf In f^vor of a universal 44-hr. week 
[XV. 1172]. 

June 23-24 — A conference of prominent 
educator.s Is held In Washington, D. C. : 

the economic and business training of 
engineers being discussed [XVI, 65]. 

June 23-25 — The coroner's jury sits at 
Wilkes-Barre, Penn., on the Baltimore 
tunnel disaster of the Hudson Coal Co. 
It refuses to fix the blame for the acci- 
dent [XVI, 55-58]. 

June 25 — Bills are introduced in each house 
of Congress proposing that the Federal 
Department of the Interior become the 
Department of Public Works [XVI, 17]. 

June 26 — The Williamson Operators' Asso- 
ciation holds a meeting and banquet at 
Williamson, W. Va, [XVI, 36] — Jerome 
Watson, chief deputy and safety com- 
missioner of mines of the state of Ohio, 
sends a communication to the operators 
and miners of that commonwealth rela- 
tive to the conveying of explosives into 
mines [XVI, 78] — A meeting of the 
executive board of the three anthracite 
districts of the United Mine Workers is 
held at Wilkes-Barre, Penn.. to decide 
on details of the next tridistrict con- 
vention [XVI, 25]. 

June 26-28 — The conferences started at At- 
lantic City commence anew at Charles- 
ton, W. Va. [XVI, 64]. 

June 27 — The sedition bill is finally put 
through the Pennsylvania Legislature 
and signed by the governor. The bill 
amending the workmen's compensation 
law is also signed [XVI, 35] — Joint con- 
ferences of operators and mine workers 
are held In the Alabama district 
[XVI, 64], 

June 28 — The signing of the peace treaty 
takes place in Paris. 

June 30 — The Fuel Administration passes 
out of existence [XVI, 21] — An explosion 
occurs in the No. 15 mine of the Rock 
Island Coal Mining Co., at Alderson, 
Okla., with disastrous consequences 
[XVI, 79]. 

Sunbury, Penn. 

Harrisburg, Penn. 

Coal producers in the central Pennsyl- 
vania field are complaining over the action 
of Secretary of the Navy Josephus N. Dan- 
iels in commandeering coal for the use of 
the navy. They do not question his right 
to do so nor the right of the navy to first 
consideration, but they do assert that he 
should expand his list of mines producing 
coal that would be acceptable to the navy. 
They contend that he steadfastly refuses 
to take coal from large producing mines, 
whose output is just as available for ocean 
shipping as that which he is now relying 

Thev also complain against his right to 
fix the price, pointing out that if coal is 
commandeered at a price below what they 
got in the market it is nothing more nor less 
than confiscation. An adjustment can only 
be obtained through the court of claims, 
which sometimes takes four or five years. 

The operators in this section say there 
is no trouble at present in the car situation, 
but a shortage is anticipated Later, par- 
ticularly on the Pennsylvania lines. Many 
curs are being used in hauling coal to the 
Lakes for the Western trade and on the 
return trip thev are utilized for hauling 
ore to the steel plants. The Pennsylvania 
R R. is usually shorter on coal cars than 
mos' of the other roads, for the reason that 
its lines extend through a greater coal 
producinc district than most of the other 
roads, with the result that Its cars must 
he sent over other lines In hauling the coal 
to Its destination. 

Tt Is manifestly Imnosolhle to secure 
either labor or cars to handle a year's re- 
quirements of coal tn seven months, which 
Is what must he done If peonle will not 
place their orders for coal during the sum- 
mer, when orders are needed, and It Is 
for this reason that operators welcome a 
hr'»V rtemnnd at this time. 

The Onvernor. on .Tulv 10. signed the 
Crow RiII. allowing coil companies to tun- 
n-I under rivers, nrovldino- they nay for 
Hie coal taken while tunneling. 

Anthracite coal land valuation has been 
a matter of much interest for the past few 
months. Considerable activity in this di- 
rection has been shown by the Northumber- 
land County Commissioners who some time 
ago appointed T. Ellsworth Davies, of 
Scranton. as a mining expert to adjust coal 
land valuations for taxation purposes. Mr. 
Davies died before his report was flushed 
and the task fell to his assistant, W. F, 

It is generally accepted that anthracite 
coal land valuations will be advanced ap- 
proximately $50,000,000 for the next 3-yr. 
period. In the case of Northumberland 
County, the bonded indebtedness is the 
reason advanced why taxes should be in- 
creased. There is a persistent demand that 
coal land valuations be increased and that 
it be not merely nominally. It is claimed 
that with the coal companies paying taxes 
on proper valuation, that it would be pos- 
sible to pay off all county bonds as they 
come due. It is said that the valuation of 
all other lands in the county in question 
is about 50 to 60 per cent, of the full 
market value and it is thought that coal 
companies should be assessed on a like 

In his report to the Northumberland 
County Commissioners. Mr. Sekol recom- 
mends that coal in the ground be valued 
at Sc. per ton. In the case of the Susque- 
hanna Collieries Co., Mr. Sekol's esti- 
mate as to the tons of coal unmined — 29,- 
000,(100 tons — agrees closely with the result 
arrived at by the engineers of the Susque- 
hanna company. The county commis- 
sioners assess the coal lands of the Susque- 
hanna company on a valuation of $2,- 
346.000 or about four times last year's 

The appeal of the Susquehanna Collieries 
Co. from the assessments fixed for lands 
held by that corporation were heard on 
July 11 and it is understood that this 
company will ciirry the fight before the 
County Courts for final decision. The mine 
officials agree that some increase over 
present assessments is justified as assess- 
ments in general have gone up with values 
all over the country ; the Susquehanna 
company is said to have agreed to double 
the former valu.ation in its appeal for a 
reduction of assessment. 

It seems that a similar method of assess- 
ment is in effect in other counties. Further- 
more in Luzerne Coiuity the assessment Is 
from 14 to 15c. a ton on coal in the 
ground ; in Lackawanna County the assess- 
ment is 22c. a ton. However, it is pointed 
out that in a conuiarison of rates of assess- 
ment, that conditions of seam occurence, 
cost of mining coal and other considera- 
tions should be taken into account. 

Based on Mr. Sekol's report, the coal 
lands of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal 
and Iron Co., in Kast H.anover. Rush and 
Middle P.axton townships were assessed on 
a valuation of $1,372,814 or about $1,000,- 
000 more than present valuation. The 
hearing of the appeals of the Philadelphia 
& Reading company were to be held on 
July 14. 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Mines marked time In West Virginia 
during the first five days of July, with not 
enough miners reporting during the week 
to produce much coal. While, of course, 
there was a general suspension of opera- 
tions on July 4. miners frequently took the 
whole week off so as to be in at the 
of .Tohn Barleycorn in nearby states. Un- 
der such conditions production declined 
quite conslderablv. Indeed, it is doubtful 
If It reached as much ns .50 per cont.. t'<k- 
Inc the state as a whole, that being a loss 
of 25 per cent, or more for the whole state. 
However, It was regarded as cer'ain that 
looses would bo recnnned tn some extent 
du'lnf 'he second week of the month un- 
der favorable conditions. But for holl- 


day conditions Just described, there would 
probably have been an unusually good pro- 
duction because circumstances were fav- 
orable to full time operation ; there were 
plenty of cars on hand in nearly all fields, 
while market conditions, generally speak- 
ing, were tending to stimulate the produc- 
tion of a larger tonnage. That was true 
beyond question as to smokeless coal both 
in prepared sizes and run-ot-mine. the ex- 
port demand for which was said to be 
lively ; however, the demand for smokeless 
coal was not confined to export markets. 
In central southern West Virginia, terri- 
tory production during June was in excess 
of that for June of last year, that not ap- 
plying of course to the Pocahontas field 
where a strike held back production to a 
serious extent. ^Vhile it appears to be dif- 
ficult to move high-sulphur coal at the 
present time, on the other hand there is 
a pronounced demand for low sulphur fuel 
in eastern markets. At the outset of July 
there seemed to be a growing market for 
steam coal but such improvement as was 
observed was confined to eastern consum- 
ing areas. Prepared sizes of coal from the 
high-volatile fields were finding a ready 
market at better prices than in previous 
weeks, but mine-run and slack were not 
quite so active especially as to spot sales ; 
there were a number of producers who 
were in no hurry to contract for the de- 
livery of their coal, in view of advancing- 
prices and the prospect of further advances. 
Losses in production followed in the 
New River and Winding Gulf fields in the 
early part of July, even though cars were 
fui nished in sufficient number to make 
prompt loading possible, the dearth of 
miners being instrumental in lopping oft" 
many tons of production, the total tonnage 
mined not being over half of that produced 


terence, however, in the sale of northern 
Uest Virginia coal: the low-sulphur coal 
IS bemg readily sold while high-sulphur 
coai IS not moving with so much alacrity. 
Formerly the high-sulphur coal was sold at 
Clfveland and other points, but adverse 
freight rates are debarring that kind of 
luel from the Lake markets, it being found 
imi-ossible to compete with Illinois and In- 
duma coals in that respect. 

Huntington, W. Va. 


bargo of three days' duration as 
well as the holiday of the Fourth reduced 
production in the Logan mining district 
during the week ended July 5 to the tune 
?,..'?,'„'„ '^ }°^^ o"" 'he difference between 
23 1,000 and 170.000 tons. However, such 
a loss was rather to have been ex- 
pected as production for the same period 
last year was only 175,000 tons. During 
the week ended June 28, a labor shortage 
was responsible for the. loss of 8000 tons 
In the following week the loss from the 
same cause was 33,000 tons. While labor 
shortage was on the increase, car shortage 
losses Were being decreased from 30.800 
tons to 10.589 tons. Mine disability losses 
were doubled, however, from 4 600 tons to 
aio.J tons. But further improvement was 
observed in the market for Logan coal, 
there having been during the week ended 
July 5 a loss of only 6.4 9 per cent of 
capacity amounting to 15.983 tons, as 
against a loss of 7.72 ptsr cent, during the 
preceding week. 

Figures compiled by the Guyan Oper- 
ators Association disclose the fact that 

-- ^-^ ^■^. ..«.. ... W...C ^.„„^^^„ the output of coal in the Logan field for 

ard the latter part of June. Far from June, 1919, was somewhat larger than the 

abating, the demand for smokeless coal 
after July first was heavier than ever, pro- 
ducers reporting an extremely active ex- 
port market as well as a strong domestic 
demand from all consuming areas. The 
average price at which mine-run smoke- 
less was selling, according to the best 
information obtainable, was $3.50 a ton 
while as for lump and egg. it was being 
quoted at prices ranging from $4.00 to 
$4.50 a ton and even higher. Smokeless 
producers hope it may not become neces- 
sary for the navy to adhere strictly to the 
requisition for smokeless coal, as Secretarv 
Daniels recently indicated it was the inten- 
tion of the navy to do. 

output of June. 1918 ; the tannage for June, 
""" being 902.693 tons as against 902,484 

llrlii 1Q1C fl-.^ ^-.^ — -v .1 - 

Vol. 16, No. 3 

trols 33,000 acres of coal land in Franklin 
County and it has tested the coal in its 
mines in this district ; the test proving 
successful, the company is now ready to 
do business on a larger basis. In addition 
to the many large and up-to-date mines 
which this concern operates in this sec- 
tion, it has also recently put into use the 
largest washer in operation. 

Ground has been broken and tons of 
machinery are arriving daily, preparatory 
to the erection of the plant which will 
cost in the neighborhood of $3,000,000 and 
cover about 25 acres of ground. Hereto- 
fore only eastern mined coal in West Vir- 
ginia and other places, has been success- 
fully put through the retort oven process 
but recent tests made by the company show 
that Illinois coal is capable of being suc- 
cessfully handled in the byproduct ovens. 
There are 12.000,000 tons of coal being 
mined annually in Franklin County by 
13.000 miners and at the present there 
or o additional large mines being 
The sinking of these mines together 
".11.. the installing of coke ovens will 
greatly increase both the tonnage of coal 
and the number of miners in this district. 
The entire output of the United States 
tuel Co.. will be put through the Semet- 
Solvay process in byproduct coke ovens. 

In anticipation of an unprecedented in- 
crease in the volume of coal traffic in this 
section of southern Illinois coal fields the 
various railroads operating through the 
section are making provisions for handling 
this business more efficiently and are ap- 
propriating thousands of dollars for this 
purpose. The Illinois Central has com- 
pleted a large roundhouse in Duquoin and 
has five miles of new switching tracks to 
liandle the thousands of cars which pass 
through here from Jackson, Williamson, 
and Perry and Franklin counties. The Illi- 


for June. 1918. the average production for "°i^ Central tracks m this city are the 
the month being nearly 70 per cent. Of a „?„?'"'"°''t!!?,'^'^''" ^"^ fie long trains which 

^'Jo^l-J"^^ '" production during June, of 
419.3o3 tons, the car shortage prevailing 
during the early part of the month was 
responsible for half or for 201.348 tons 
there being a loss of 145,000 tons from no 

The embargo, referred to in the fore- 
going paragraph, greatly reduced ship- 
ments from the Logan region to Lake ports 
via Toledo. It became effective July 3 
and la.sted over July 5. a congestion on 
Lake coal carrying roads and a shortage 

come m daily from these adjoining coun- 
ties. A large roundhouse has been completed 
at Carbondale to handle the business over 
the Carbondale-St. Louis, Carbondale-Her- 
rin and Carbondale-Paducah. Ky., divisions 
I he Illinois Central has also commenced 
surveying in the southern part of Jeffer- 
son County, for a branch line to run 
through the coal fields in that region, which 
have had inadequate transportation facil- 
ities for sometime. 

Little attempt was made in the Kana- of vessels at the Lakes makine it neeiS 
wha region during the first week of July sary to impose embargo restrictinns 
to produce any large amount of coal, it 

bemg out' of the question with so 
a portion of the miners away in quest of 
pleasure. Otherwise, so far as the car sup- 
ply and markets were concerned, an in- 
creased production over previous weeks 
might have been possible, but for apparent 
reasons shipments were only about half as 
large as during the last week of June or 
approximately 100.000 tons, perhaps not 
that much. Developments up until Julv 8 
did not disclose much variation from previ- 
ous weeks, at least as to mine-run and 
slack, which are not as yet being produced 
to the maximum ; this was owing to the 
fad that there is not as lively a market 
for such coal as there is for prepared sizes. 
Producers gave it as their opinion that 
sale.s of mine-run. spot, were not being 
made on any considerable scale at the out- 
set of the month ; prepared sizes, however. 
quoted to Jobbers at $3.25 and to the trade 
■ S3,"(1 boing extremely active. The gen- 
eral average price for spot, mine-run. dur- 
ing the week was $2.10. contract from $2.25 
to $2.35. 

Bluefield, W. Va. 


f T,r .^^.^'"ue in nearly every other field 
of West Virginia, production was lowered 
in the Kenova-Thacker district during the 
week ended July 5 to the extent of 22 000 
tons, dropping from 110,000 to 8-8,000 tons ■ 
this was. briefly, because of a shortage of 
miners due to the holiday, the shortage 
,^°'^-, .fn'n ♦ ^ source increasing from 4000 
to 13.000 tons, or from 2 to 8 per cent of 
full time capacity. On the other hand the 
car shortage loss was cut down from 15 to 
11 per cent., or from 26,000 to 18.000 tons 

Kansas City, Mo. 

The board of directors of the National 
Coal Association held a meeting at the 
Baltimore Hotel, Kansas City, on July 9 
The session lasted a little over an hour 
during which time several important ques- 
tions were brought up and discussed. 
Among these was a resolution urging the 
Director General of the United States Rail- 
road Administration to make every effort 
°._. oetter the transportation conditions 
which have reached a crisis. Director Gen- 
''«'• ,H'n«s was requested to make an 
official statement as to the present situa- 
tion and also details of any action con- 
templated by the board to better the sit- 

cut in two the tonnage loss coming down 
from 22.000 to 11,000 tons. Production 
only reached 56 per cent, of capacity as 
against 62 per cent, for the week ended 

Largely because of a holiday among the ','^''^ TT''*'l,to be done immedite'ly:^' Presl 
iners lasting until Monday July 7 Poca- , "' H. N. Taylor of the National Co£ 

Fairmont, W. Va. 

While the holiday at the end of the week 
made inroads on the output of northern 
West Virginia fields during the period be- 
tween June 30 and July 5. yet during the 
first three days of the week in question a 
record for the present year was established 
in this section, shipments of coal exceed 
ing in volume those for any like period 
since the latter part of 1918; at least that 
wab true as to the mines in the Fairmont 
field. By the middle of the week, however, 
the mining and loading of coal began to 
diminish and for the last two days of the 
wtek production was light. The car sup- 
ply during the first part of the week re- 
ferred to was much better than that wit- 
nessed at the end of June. The number 
of idle mines In the field is being rapidly 
cut down. Shipments to Curtis Bay 
throughout June and. In fact, during the 
first few days of July, were unusually 
heavy, a large proportion of such coal being 
for export. The first week of July also 
hrouETht a revival of the demand for north- 
ern West Virginia coal at Lake ports, there 
being a most perceptible increase in ship- 

better market was shown for' Kenova- uation for the public's relief in the pressing 
Thacker coal, the "no market" losse^ being ™?.'. shortage 

,___ -_ . >==> o«'ng ^jj.g President J. D. A. Morrow brought 

out the fact that the Government had 
tailed to provide money to get out the 
weekly report on coal conditions and said 
.t!? „ ,, ,'"^.r*l'°''t, ■"'^s to continue, some- 


. . ^. . - - .*. Coal 

Association autliorized the payment of a 
sum to carry on this work until the board 
could handle it. In the meantime the asso- 
ciation would have Congress pass a bill to 
take care of the situation. 

The Southwestern Coal Association pre- 
sented an impressive and befitting testi- 
monial to Mr. Taylor, in recognition of his 
splendid services to the Government, as 
.assistant to Dr. Garfield, while represent- 
ing the Railway Administration i"h the 
Southwestern territory. 

hontas mines failed during the week ended 
i"^oo"..S,°„-"''''"t^'" the output at the mark 
ot .J36.00O tons set during the previous 
week, production dropping down for the 
time being to 237.000 tons, a difference of 
neaily 100,000 tons. An idea of the extent 
to which lack of miners affected produc- 
tion may be obtained from the figures cov- 
ering that particular item of tons, 4 6 94 7 
tons, as compared with 10.4 67 tons for the 
previous week. A loss of 27,000 tons, on 
the other hand, was cut off insofar as a 
shortage of cars was concerned. There 
was a market for all Pocahontas coal 
which could be produced. Coke production 
slumped to 4887 tons. 


Duquoin, 111. 

The United States Fuel. Co. has started 
operations installing large coke ovens near 
its mine at Benton, in Franklin County 
and it is estimated that within the next 
tew years practically all of the coal which 
IK mined in this county will be transformed 
in byproduct ovens, into the three score 
valuable products which the commercial 
world is now using extensively. The United 

Victoria, B. C. — Questions of direct inter- 
est to those identified with the coal industry 

,n ,h„ x.„„,«„ XT..., _. betore the 

9 to 

menta to such points. There is this dlf- States Fuel Co. at the present time con 

m the Pacific Northwest can... „^.„. „ 
delegates to the International Mining i 
vention held at Nelson, B. C, June 1 
LI. Among matters discussed was the 
present strike of the coal miners in Dis- 
trict IS (U. M. W. ot A. eastern British 
rolumhin and the Province of Alberta). 
It >.•,.■ .. ...1:1, ned that the tie up in the 
'al field was having a serious 
• ' metal industry as the lack ot 

'..I with the efficiency of the 
■'• '■-■ '."- industries referred to depend- 

July 17, 1919 



ins lo ii larye i.xteiu on Fernie coke, to 
niainfain operations. For this reason a 
resolution petitioning the Dominion Gov- 
ernment to intervene in order that a set- 
tlement of the labor difficulties may be 
reached was carried unanimously. 

Another matter receiving considerable 
attention was the use o£ powdered coal in 
British Columbia in the nodulizing: of cop- 
per sulphide concentrate. Some difficulties 
of operation had been experienced but ex- 
periments seemed to show that powdered 
coal could be used provided proper equip- 
ment was employed. As coal dust firing" 
was being used at reverberatory works and 
under boilers of various types in other 
sections and countries, a similar arrange- 
ment no doubt could be worked out for a 
nodulizing kiln. Touching on the question 
of costs it was estimated that between 12 
and 14 tons of concentrates were treated 
with one ton of coal ; the coal was charged 
at $5.00 a ton pulverized and in the bin. 
The popularity of powdered coal as a fuel 
was commented upon and it was thought 
that this development would result in mak- 
ing certain so-called serai-lignite coal of 
British Columbia a commercial possibility. 

Dealing with the iron and steel industry 
in British Columbia, Dr. E. T. Hodge, pro- 
fessor of geology at the University of Brit- 
ish Columbia, stated that there was plenty 
of good metallurgical coal available for the 
maintenance of a large smelter in the 
province. As to Vancouver Island coal it 
had been subjected to some experiments 
but he did not think that it could be defin- 
itely said that it was not a good coking 
coal imtil it had been tried in byproduct 
coke ovens. The coal of the Nicola-Coal- 
mont-Princeton Field, however, had been 
established as a fine metallurgical fuel. 
Coal dust, too. had been used to advantage 
in a blast furnace, so that, all things con- 
sidered, there was no problem in connec- 
tion with the securing of an adequate sup- 
ply of fuel for the proposed Iron and steel 

In connection with the mineralization of 
northern Manitoba, some of the problems 
to the development of this section were 
noted, among them being the fuel problem. 
Coke was priced so high that its utilization 
was almost prohibitive but it was thought 
that powdered coal might be used here. 

The output for the coal mines of British 
Columbia for the month of May, 1919, was 
as follows: 



Western Fuel Co., Nanaimo collieries 48,012 

Canadian Collieries (D), Ltd., Comox col- 
lieries 44,297 

CanadianCollieries (D), Ltd., Extension 

collieries 20,068 

Canadian Collieries (D), Ltd., So. Welling- 
ton 7,783 

Pacific Coast Coal Mines, Ltd., Morden col- 
liery 6,170 

B. C. Coal Mining Co., East Wellington col- 
liery 1,508 

Nanoose Collieries, Ltd., Grant colliery 397 

Granby Consolidated M. S. & P. Co., Cassidy 6.887 

Total 135,122 


Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co., Coal Creek col- 
liery 26,064 

Crow's Xest Pass Coal Co., Michel colHen,'- 1 4,024 

Corbin Coal and Coke Co., Corbin colliery.. . 4,287 

Total 44,375 



Middlesboro colliery 3, 1 08 

Flemine Coal Co 2,649 

Merritt colliery 771 

Coalmont colliery . 706 

Princeton colliery , 1,095 

Total 8.229 

Alberta Province — Some interesting fig- 
ures have been compiled by John T. Stir- 
ling, chief inspector of mines for this 
province. The figures show the coal output 
for the province during 1918 and Indicate 
Its relation to Canaila's total production. 
During that year the ennviumption of coal 
was approximately 37.2.'!7.0B5 tons, of 
which 22.057.nfi.-, tons w.-re imported from 
the United States: 2..-i.'i9.041 tons of this 
amoun* wer<- iiriportcd into wesienj C;in- 
ada. In 191S there wfre nroduced In the 
province of Alberta 6,14 8.620 tons of coal, 
100.470 tons of briquettes and 32.S.t8 tons 
of coke. Purine the period In que'stion 317 
coal mines were in oper.atlon In Alberta. 
Seventy new mines wen- opened while nine 
old mines were reopened : offsetting this to 
some extent, there were 71 mines aban- 
doned. To operate these mines an aver- 
age of 2633 persons wer" employed above 
and fil 4 * below ground. 

An.vox, a. C. — The byproduct ovens of 
the Granby Consolidated Mining and Smelt- 
ing Co. are being heated up preparatory to 
their regular operation. This plant will 
provide the company's smelter with coke 
and also recover byproducts. When the 
company started this works at Anyox, the 
war was in progress and it was essential 
that the byproducts of coal should be re- 
tained in any coking that was done. Be- 
fore its plans were completed, however, the 
armistice had been signed. Now the com- 
pany proposes to operate its byproduct 
plant to secure coke for its smelter and 
recover, treat and market the coal byprod- 
ucts entirely on a commercial basis. The 
company is securing the coal for its work 
at Anyox from the Cassidy collieries, Van- 
couver Island, where a new mine has been 
opened, a modern plant installed, and pro- 
vision made for the housing or employees 
after modern ideas. Cassidy's output is 
constantly increasing. 

Portland Canal District — The revival of 
interest in metalliferous mining throughout 
this district in northern British Columbia, 
has directed attention again to the Ground- 
hog coal fields, as they are colloquially 
termed. These fields are situated about 
90 miles from the mining town of Stewart. 
Judging from available reports the coal is 
of high quality and quite plentiful. To 
open up the district, railroad construction 
would be necessary and three feasible 
routes are being discussed. The shortest 
would be from Stewart, at the head of 
Portland Canal, from which point a rail- 
road has been built 15 miles in the direc- 
tion of the coal fields. Another route 
would be from tidewater up to Naas River, 
but this would be 80 miles longer ; how- 
ever, there would be less rockwork and an 
easier grade. A third possible route is from 
the Grand Trunk Pacific Ry.. at Hazelton, 
about 150 miles southward. The Ground- 
hog coal fields have been reported upon 
by a number of engineers and are known 
to extend some 70 miles, the strip being 
over 30 miles wide over which coal out- 
crops in different places. 



Lansford — Six men are dead and ten 
others are seriously and probably fatally 
injured as the result of an explosion of 
gas at No. 4 slope at a colliery of the Le- 
high Coal and Navigation Co. at this place, 
shortly before quitting time on July 9, 
Most of the injured are in the state hos- 
pital at Coaldale. The cause of the ex- 
plosion is not known ; most of the injured 
were working up on a heavy pitch when 
the explosion took place, and were sup- 
posed to be using safety lamps. It may 
have been caused by a spark from an elec- 
tric locomotive as the motorman was killed 
while working under his machine ; or a 
large body of gas might have been ignited. 
Little damage was done to the mine work- 
ings, and the colliery was operated the 
next day. Seward E. Button, Chief of the 
State Department of Mines, has directed 
inspectors I. M. Davies. Evan G. Evans. 
A. B. Lamb and B. I. Evans to make a 
thorough investigation. 

WUkes-Barre — All the compensation 
cases growing out of the Baltimore tunnel 
disaster of the Hudson (^oal Co. at this 
place were adjusted by July 9. It required 
exactly a month to .settle satisfactorily 
more than 130 cases. 

The estimated average compensation 
awarded in each fatal case where there 
is a widow or dependent parents is $4000, 
to be paid over a period of years. The 
cor.ipensation, exclusive of the disability 
cases, will amount to about $325,000 : 138 
children under 16 years of age will be bene- 

Agreements have been signed by 56 
widows and 12 dependent parents. Of the 
4 5 disability cases, 37 have entered into 
the compensation agreement : 36 out of the 
37 men received the maximum compensa- 
tion paid to them until they are .able to 
return to work. 

The promptness with which these cases 
were closed up and with everybody s.atls- 
fied, may put a damper on agitation to 
compel the coal companies to carry their 
insurance with the state rather than In 
their own organization. 

Uninntown — The sale of the Nellie mines, 
one of the properties developed under the 
firm of Brown & Coheran. to Gaetano Cor- 
rado. for $20,000 was approved by Judge 
J r. Work of the Orphans' Court on a 
petition presented by E. C. Higbee for M. 
M. Cochran, surviving fnistcc The mine, 
located In Dunbar and Franklin townships. 
Is now worked out. The mine was one of 
the first opened bv Captain Samuel Brown 
nnd the Intp James Cnciiran in the lower 
Connellsville region. W. Harry Brown, rep- 

Uomer City — The Rochester & Pittsburgh 
Coal and Iron Co. have closed their Lu- 
cerne Shaft Ne. 3 mine at Lucerne mines, 
near here. All tile coal from the No. 3 
workings will be taken out through the No. 
1 and 2 mines, thus saving the hoisting of 
the coal up the shaft. Men will be taken 
to their work in man-trips instead of being 
lowered down the shaft The electric mine 
lamp houses have been combined and are 
now located at the sub-station at the en- 
trance to the two drift mines. The new 
lamp house has about l.Ouu lamps to give 
out daily. 

Fayette City — Three men were killed 
and seven others were seriously injured 
on July 7, by a fall of rock and earth in 
the O'Neill mine of the Pittsburgh Coal 
Co,, near this place. Approximately 300 
miners were imprisoned in the workings 
by the cavein for 1* hours. The rock and 
earth fell without warning and buried tlie 
ten men before they could escape. After 
an hour and a half of hard work the buried 
men were reached and removed from the 
mine. The men who were killed and in- 
jured were boarding a mine car to be taken 
to their working places when the accident 


Bichwood — The Elk Lick Coal Co. is 
about ready to begin the shipment of coal 
from its new plant near this place, in 
Nicholas County. All machinery is in- 
stalled in the new tipple. The company 
has a large acreage of coal in the Sewell 
seam which it will develop. 

Beckley — Twelve directors of the E. E. 
White Coal Co. were sufficiently interested 
in the employees to make a trip recently in 
a special train from Philadelphia to Glen 
White, near this place, to participate in the 
celebration there in honor of employees 
who have returned from service overseas. 

Olooti — There was a disastrous flood in 
the Briar Creek Valley near Coal River. 
the bridge of the Kanawha Central railroad 
across Briar Creek near here being swept 
away. Of course that necessitated the can- 
cellation of all trains and it is estimated 
that it will require a month to repair the 
damage brought about by the storm and 
flood. Several coal companies operate in 
the neighborhood of Olcott. 

Short Creek — United States mine rescue 
crews have been fighting a fire in the 
Beech Bottom mine of the Richland Block 
Coal Co.. of this place. The damage to the 
mine is heavy but it is hoped that the fire 
will be speedily subdued and that tempor- 
ary repairs will make it possible to operate 
the mine. Several hundred employees 
are idle because of the fire. A short cir- 
cuit following a fall of slate started the 
fire on July 3, at a time when only a few 
men were in the mine ; fortunately they all 

Hartland — Progress is being made by the 
Lima Coal Co. in getting its mine at 
Leatherwood ready for operation although 
considerable work yet remains to be done. 
The company is driving entry, is be- 
ginning actual construction work on its 
tipple and is also ready to begin laying 
track for the siding leading to its opera- 
tion. As the Elk River will separate the 
mine from the tipple, a conveyor system is 
being installed. The secretary of the com- 
pany. M. P. Goetschons of Lima. Ohio, is 
giving his personal attention to the work 
of construction. 

ICiueflnld — Virginia and West Virginia 
business men have consummated negotia- 
titms with the Black Eagle Coal Co. for 
the of about four thous.and acres 
of coal land as well as for the other assets 
of the company, paying therefor In the 
neighborhood of $300,000. the property 
being in the Harlan field of Kentucky. 
The Black Eagle company has for some 
time been mining coal at two mines in the 
field. Among the purchasers of the land 
and mines referred to were F. C. Neikerk. 
of Graham ; C. B. Smith, of Maybeury ; 
C. E Wagner, of Bailey : C. M. Graham, 
of Graham : W. F. Harman. of Tazwell : 
W. R. Graham and E. T. Tyree. of Blue- 

Mt. Hope — Two large companies In the 
New River field effected a consolidation on 
Jul,\- 1 and In the future will bo known as 
the East Gulf foal Co. Tlie companies 
combining were the East Gulf Coal Co. 
and the SImall Coal Co. The latter Is a 
new company organized a few months ago 
hv Dr. Gory Hogg, S. A. Scott, J Paul 
Stevens and others. Slnc^ Its organiza- 
tion much headway been made In get- 
ting a plant ready for operation. In order 
to cover the purchase, the capital slock of 
the East Gulf companv was Increa.sed from 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

$500 000 to JSOO.OOO. The directors for the 
companies as reorganized include P. 11- 
Snvder. J. L. Bumgardner, S. A. Scott and 
C "H Grose. The officers elected were P. 
RI Snyder, president and general manager ; 
J L. Bumgardner. vice president ; L,. b- 
Tullv, secretary and treasurer ; P. C 
Thoroas, assistant general manager. 


Mt. Savage — The Frostburg Big Vein 
Coal Co. has taken over Union No 1 and 
No 2 mines, formerly operated by the 
New York Mining Co. By this transaction 
the new company, it is stated, will become 
the second largest producer of "Big Vein 
coal in the Georges Creek region. 

Jenkins — The Elkliorn Collieries Co., oi 
Huntington, now operating here, is open- 
ing a new mine near Wheelwright, Ky., 
on the Left Fork of Beaver Creek, in 
Flovd County. The new location will 
be " known as Redhall and shipments 
■ are expected to be made from this 
place by the end of summer. The. niiiie 
IS being opened on the Elkhorn seam. The 
company recently increased its capital 
stock to $100,000. The officers are as fol- 
lows • B. L. Priddie. president ; H. B. 
Hagen, vice president ; R. W. Brunk. secre- 
tary and general manager — all of Hunting- 
ton. These officers, together with J. t. Kat- 
clif; and R. E. Bruns. compose the board 
of directors. Arthur Brunk is manager ot 
the mine at Jenkins. 

LoalsvUle — While movement of river 
coal has not been very heavy the river coal 
companies have been bringing down enough 
coal to fully supply all concerns with equip- 
ment for handling river business. The T. 
J Hatfield, one of the largest tow boats 
o.T the Ohio, recently took a large tow ot 
emptv boats from the Falls Cities to the 
West" Virginia mines. There have been 
excellent river stages. ^ , 

There is no relief for the 1.000 shop men 
out at Louisville, under orders af the f.ail- 
road Administration, and not much pros- 
pect for improvement ot car conditions 
It h.T« been announced that the lay-ofE ^\1U 
continue throush July, it is not known 
what plan will be followed in August^ 
However, many of the men are going into 
other industries, which will probably re- 
sult in a shortage for shopmen, and a long 
period of bad cars. 

The coal operators of the Louisville dis- 
trict in fact the coal trade as a whole 
in this section is mighty glad to see John 
Barleycorn put out of business. ^While the 
average coal man is not a prohibitionist 
he has been forced to recognize the edect 
of booze on labor, and troubles that come 
up which could be averted if whiskey did 
not reach mining camps, especially a>""if>S 
labor troubles. The greater part of the 
coal mining regions ot the state have been 
drv for some time past, but booze has 
slipped in regardless of all efforts to keep 
it out In the eastern Kentucky mountain 
district the moonshiners have been a thorn 
in the side of the coal operators since de- 
velopment was first started, and prpspects 
are for a lone and hard fight in this con- 
nection. Moonshining has been prospering in 
the ranges of the Cumberland Mountains 
in spite of the "revenuer" and has been 
especially noticeable since taxes climbed 
and values became greater. However, re- 
duction of outside competition will result 
in keeping the miners closer at home, and 
reduce week-end trips to wet territory. 


Sprinefleld — Ten coal mines near here 
have been closed down because of the lack 
of work, these being the Capitol. Dawson. 
New North Old Citizens, the two at Lin- 
coln two at Girard, one at Cantrall and the 
Tuxhorn mine. Other mines in the Spring- 
floM territory are working about two days 
each week. 

Christopher — The inspection ot Mine 
No 10 of the Old Ben Coal Corporation, at 
this place. Franklin County, is now being 
made bv Jo.seoh C. Thompson, director of 
State Penartment of Mines and Minerals 
and Arfhie Neison and James Tavlor, state 
mine inspectors. A recent explosion at this 
m'no on .Tune K in which three men were 
killed, is the reason for this inspection 

ITerrln — The surface nlnnt of the Haf»r 
Washed Coal Co.. at Carferville. was des- 
trovpd hv Pre on Jiilv 8 when the engine 
mom c-iucrht Are from defective wirin<r. 
The hlTire started about 5:30 n.m, .-ifter t'le 
dav shift hnd come un and before th- 
night crew went helow. The stnictnr.s 
were ot wood and the estimated loss is 
over Several coal cars were also 

The large new J90.000 power plant 
of the Big Muddy Coal and Iron Co. at 

Clifford was put in operation on July 1. 
This plant furnishes power to No. 7 mine 
here and to No. 8 at Clifford as well as a 
washer at each of these places. The Pub- 
lic Service Corporation power supply was 
so irregular that the installation of this 
plant was necessary. Other mines are ex- 
pecting to have to follow suit. 

Sesser — The Old Ben Coal Corporation 
has acquired the big mine here of T. C. 
Keller & Co., of Chicago. The daily out- 
put is 3500 tons with 6000 acres of un- 
worked coal. This gives tlie Old Ben peo- 
ple eight mines in Franklin County making 
them one of the leading producers in the 
field. The other mines operated by this 
company are : three at Christopher ; two 
at West Frankfort ; one at Buckner and 
one at Pershing. 

Westville — The United States Fuel Co. 
recently completed 60 new houses near its 
mine at Benton, and these houses were im- 
mediately filled with families who have 
been waiting for months for their homes to 
be finished. During the past year tliis 
company has been greatly handicapped for 
the lack of men. mainly because there were 
no houses for them to live in. It is said 
that the company contemplates the erection 
ot more houses in the near future. 

Benton — The Supreme Court has decided 
an important case in options on coal rights. 
Farmers around "^^altonville gave IS-month 
options on their coal without accepting the 
dollar mentioned in the option. The West 
Frankfort Coal Co. took options and cov- 
ered the coal optioned previously. Tlie first 
option owners sued the farmers and made 
the coal company a party to the suit The 
Supreme Court decided as did the Circuit 
Court that the first options were not valid. 
That method of taking options is still 
prevalent in some sections of Illinois. 


Georgetown — The Illinois & Indiana Coal 
Co. is developing a strip bank east of 
here. A switch has been put in and the 
smaller of two steam shovels to be used 
have been set to work. The company 
has purchased tour tracts which will be 
used as sites for new mines. 

Vinrennes — The Washington-Wlieatland 
coal mine, located on the county line be- 
tween Knox and Davies counties, has been 
sold to a new organization known as the 
Standard Coal Company. The capital stock 
is $350,000. The new owners are John T. 
Oliphant, who has an interest in the Oli- 
phant-Johnson mine ; Ira D. Schaffer and 
John L. Baker. 

Terre Haute — The Indiana Bituminous 
Coal Operators' Association was the host 
July 10 to about 40 mine inspectors from 
different parts of the United States, who 
were returning from the Mine Inspectors' 
Institute which convened in Indianapolis 
just previous to the Terre Haute visit. 
Carey Littleton, chief mine inspector, was 
in charge of the party. The visitors were 
taken up the Wabash River on the steamer 
Reliance and a barge and after a bountiful 
box luncheon inspected the Ferguson and 
Spears mine at Tecumseh. This mine is 
known as the "Sub-marine Mine." from the 
fact that the main entries are driven under 
the Wabash River to reach the workings 
that lie on the opposite side. Luncheon 
was served after the inspection. The fol- 
lowing day tlie visitors went to Vincennes 
where they were entertained and banqueted 
by the American Coal Mining Co., after in- 
specting their mines at Bicknell. 

Vincennes — More than 40 United States 
mine inspectors visited Vincennes July 11 
and were taken for an automobile ride 
over the city, and then to Bicknell where 
they visited mines Nos. 1 and 2 of tlie 
American Coal Mining Co., in Knox County 
and returned to Vincennes for a banquet in 
the evening. Among the mines visited were 
the American mines near Bicknell. which 
for months held the world's record for 
hoisting in one day. 


Birmingham — Official figures as to the 
coal and coke output in Alabama for the 
year 191S given out by C. H. Nesbit, chiei 
state mine inspector, show 19.521,S40 tons 
of coal and 4.344,726 tons of coke. The by- 
product coke production last year amount- 
ed to 2.611.215 tons, and t>eehive oven coke 
1.733.511 tons. The coal production in 
Alabama in 1917 amounted to 20.412,841 
tons, and 1916 to 18.234.625 tons. Coke in 
1917. went to 4.868,598 tons, and in 1916 
to 4.385,483 tons. 

State Mine Inspector C. H. Nes- 
bitt will hold tjie mid-year examination 
of applicants for certificates ot competency 
as mine foremen and bank in his 

offices in the Chamber ot Commerce Build- 
ing from July 21 to 24 inclusive. An un- 
usually large class is anticipated in view of 
the fact that tile adjourned session of the 
-\labama Legislature will undoubtedly pass 
a Workman's Compensation Law, which 
will naturally cause an increased demand 
tor men holding certificates of competency 
in the above line of work. 

The coal output of the mines ot this 
district tor the week ended June 14 
was 264,5-81 tons, an increase of 16.550 
over production for the preceding week 
— an increase ot 14 per cent. The In- 
creased consumption is largely due to the 
blowing in of idle furnaces. The Tennes- 
see and Woodward companies have resumed 
operations at the Alice and Vanderbilt fur- 
naces, respectively. Another ot the besse- 
mer furnaces of tile Tennessee company 
will be blown in soon, it is stated. The 
active stacks of the district will be 20 com- 
pared with the recent 16. 

A majority and also a minority re- 
port is to be submitted to the Alabama 
Legislature on the convict lease system. 
An effort is to be made to take the 
convicts out of the mines and work 
them upon the state highways. 'The ma- 
jority report reviews conditions ot convict 
labor at various industries in the state, 
citing statements ot many witnesses as to 
inhuman conctitions existing in convict 
cairps. The matter is attracting much dis- 
cussion and there is strong feeling that 
many of the abuses cited, at least as far 
as the convict miners are concerned, are 
much exaggerated. ^Miat may have been 
true years ago seems to have been largely 
corrected and today those in the mining 
camps are said to be humanely treated. 


Seattle — Two new appointments as dep- 
uty mine inspectors were announced re- 
cently by James Bagley, State Mine Inspec- 
tor ot Washington. The two men receiv- 
ing appointments were the following who 
successfully passed examinations held at 
the University ot Washington: John 
Parker, ot Black Diamond, and George T. 
Wake, ot Roslyn, take up their duties un- 
der the new safety law which creates places 
for two deputies instead of one. S. H. 
Ash, the former deputy, vacated his place 
to take up other work. 


Cleave Fuqua, formerly mine manager of 
the No. 6 mine ot the Madison Coal Cor- 
pora.tion, at Divernon, 111., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of this company's-- 
No. 10 mine at Central City, Ky. 

Frank .1. Hayes, president of the United 
Mine Workers ot Illinois, has been able to- 
leave an Indianapolis sanitarium after a 
few days treatment. He has been spending- 
a few days at the sanitarium in rest and 

J. F. Wellborn, president of the Colo- 
rado Fuel and Iron Co., was elected direc- 
tor at large of the National Coal Associa- 
tion to succeed the late John P. Reese, of 
St. Louis. He will have supervision of the 
association's territory west of the Missis- 
sippi River. 

Robert Henderson, fire boss at the Hare- 
wood Mine. Canadian Western Fuel Co., 
has been appointed manager of that mine- 
in the place of Richard Batty, resigned. 
Mr. Henderson formerly was manager ' at 
No. 4 mine, Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), 
Ltd., Cumberland. 

.John A. Garcia, mining engineer, of the 
Allen & Garcia Co.. Chicago, III., left on 
July 7 for a combined business and pleas- 
ure trip to Alaska. He expects to investi- 
gate the possibility of developing the coal' 
fields in that section, returning the first 
week in August. 

Charles G. PuBois was elected president 
of the ■^'estern Electric Co. to succeed H. 
B. Thayer ; the latter was elected chair- 
man ot the board. Mr. Du Bois went with 
this company in 1896 : his long association 
with Mr, Thayer in the administration ot ■ 
the romnany insures a continuity ot policy 
and methods in the conduct of its business. 

J. G. Bradley, ot Dundon. W. Va., has 
been appointed by H N. Taylor, president 
of the National Coal .A.ssociation. as chair- 
man of the new subcommittee on Railroad 
Relations of the general committee on Gov- 
ernm.ent Relations. Mr. Bradley is one 
of the directors at large of the National 
Coal .Association as well as president of" 
the West Virginia Coal .Associ.ation. 

Ralnh E. Snnderland, of Omaha, vice 
president and general manager of the Co- 
lonial Coal and Timber Corporation, vis- 

July 17, 1919 



itfiil Charleston, W. Va-, recently to estab- 
lish general headquarters for his company. 
Thn Colonial company is a $10,000,000 con- 
cern and will start active work on its prop- 
erties shortly. Mr. Sunderland's headquar- 
ters will now be in Charleston. Walter 
L,. Strickler is the president of this new 

r. S. Pfahler, general superintendent of 
the Northwestern coal properties in Illinois 
and Iowa, was appointed the successor o£ 
the late John P. Reese as general manager 
of the coal operations o£ this company. Mr. 
Pfahler has made Gillespie, 111., his head- 

General Richard Coulter, Of Greensburg, 
Penn., has accepted the appointment of 
Governor Sproul as one of the three brig- 
adier generals to organize the National 
Guard of Pennsylvania. His appointment 
has been confirmed by the state Senate. 
General Coulter is president of the Key- 
stone Coal and Coke Co., one of the largest 
coal companies of Westmoreland County, 

Ij. C. Spragrne, formerly district manager 
of sales of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. 
at New York, has been appointed manager 
of western railroad sales, with headquar- 
ters at the Fischer Building. Chicago. 
H. G. Barbee has been appointed manager 
of eastern sales with headquarters at 62 
Vanderbilt Ave., New York City. Nelson 
B. Gatch, formerly district manager of sales 
at Chicago, has been appointed district 
manager of sales at New York succeeding 
Mr. Spragiie. 

Eliot Blackwelder, head of the Depart- 
ment of Geology of the University of Illi- 
nois, whose resignation at the university 
becomes effective September 1, has already 
entered upon his new work with one of the 
large mining companies of Montana, which 
will take him Immediately to New Mexico 
to do field work. During the coming win- 
ter he will furnish the basal ideas upon 
which a staff of younger geologists will 
work. Prof. Blackwelder began this work 
a number of years ago and it will consti- 
tute a detailed geological history of the 
Rocky Mountain region. While with the 
University of Illinois he has also given 
courses at Iceland Stanford University. 
Prof. Blackwelder has been appointed a 
member of the geological division of the 
National Research Council. 

Jndge E. H. Gary, chairman of the board 
of directors of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, accompanied l3y a number of offi- 
cials of the company, went aboard a 
steamer on the Monongahela River at 
Ronco recently and inspected coal roads 
and the new byproduct plant at Clairton. 
It is intimated that this visit of the Steel 
corporation ofRcials anticipates some im- 
portant changes in the coal and coke pro- 
ducing plants of the company. It is ex- 
pected that the mines in the upper pools 
will be pu.*ed to the limit, while other 
workings will have to be changed to de- 
liver their product to the river. Additional 
tonnage may have to be found by opening 
up new properties to keep the big Clairton 
plant in operation : it will be the largest 
bN-product plant in existence when com- 

Coming Meetings 


New York Coal Merchants* Association 

will hold its annual meeting Sept 11-13 at 
Alexandria Bay. N. Y. Executive secre- 
tary, G. W. F. Woodside, Albany, N. Y. 

American Institute of Mininir and Metal- 
lurgical Engineers will hold its fail meet- 
ing Sept. 23 to 26 in Chicago, 111. Chair- 
man Chicago meeting, Carl Scholz, 547 
West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Tile National Commissary Managers' As- 
Bociatiou will hold its annual meeting 
August 5-7 at the Sinton Hotel, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Secretary. D. J. Eichoff, Manhattan 
Building, Chicago, 111. 

Pennsylvania Ketail Coal Merchants' As- 
sociation will hold its annual meeting July 
23 and 24 at Reading, Penn. Secretary, 
W. M. Berolet, Reading, Penn. 

National Exposition of Chemical Indus- 
tries will hold its fifth annual meeting at 
the Coliseum and First Regiment Armory, 
Chicago, 111., during the week of Sept. 22. 
Manager, Charles F. Roth, 417 South Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111. 

The National Safety Council will hold 
its annual meeting Oct. 1 to 4 at Cleve- 
land. Ohio. Secretary, S. J. ^Vlliams, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Recent Coal and Coke Patents 

■\>ntilating Apparatus for Mines. D. F. 

Leplev, Connellsville, Penn., 1,297,191. Mar, 
11, l'Jl9. Filed Sept 19, 1917. Serial No. 

Furnace Grate. W. M. Duncan, Alton, 
111., 1,297,116. Mar. 11, 1919. Piled Dec. 
10, 191S. Serial No. 266,120. 

Sectional Coal Auger Nut. J. H. Mason, 
Duncan Falls, Ohio, 1,297,215. Mar. 11, 
1919. Filed July 22, 1918. Serial No. 

Trade Catalogs 

Elias Hopkins, Inside foreman ,at William 
Penn colliery. Penn.. shot himself through 
the right temple while in the mines on July 
3. The act was committed in a fit of de- 
spondency due to poor health. A widow 
and five children survive. 

Vincent Mauck, active in the Danville, III., 
mining field since Civil War days, died .luly 
4 at the age of 84 years. He owned and 
operated a number of coal mines in the 
Danville territory. Four of his sons are 
interested in the coal fields near Danville. 

.Tnhn Wood, of Pottsville, Penn., died on 
.luly 7. at his home at the age of 70, He 
had been a superintendent of the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Coal and Iron Co. for 
21) years. Among his .survivors are George 
■Wood of Hazleton, Penn.. division engineer 
for the Lehigh Valley Coal Co. 

W. A. Hurst, of Williamson. Mingo 
County. W. Va., met his death in the New- 
York wreck at Dunkirk, N. Y., on 
.Tuly 1. Mr. Hurst was a director of the 
Winifrede-Tharker Coal Co., of Nolan, and 
had been r*»-elerted as a member of the 
Executive Committee 'of the Operators' 
Association of the Willi.-imson field only a 
few days before his death. He is sur- 
vived by a widow and one son. W. R. Hurst, 
who wa.") also Injured in the same wreck 
in "which his father was killed. 

Crushing Rolls. Allis-Chalmers Manu- 
facturing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Bulletin 
No. 1816. Pp. 16; 8 x 10 J in.; illus- 
trated. Rolls of various designs are illus- 
traled and briefly described. 

Storage Battery tocomotives. The Iron- 
ton Engine Co., Ironton, Ohio. Folder in- 
cluding letter. Pp. 4 ; 8J x 11 in. ; illus- 
trated. Facts and illustrations of indus- 
trial storage battery locomotives — also 
charging outfit. 

Direct Current Motors and Generators. 
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co., Milwau- 
kee, Wis. Bulletin No. 1096-A. Pp. 20 ; 
8 X lOi in. ; illustrated. Gives details of 
types "Iv" and "KC" motors and generators 
and notes their application in industries. 

Stationary and Portable Air Compressor 
Equipments. Allis-Chalmers Manufactur- 
ing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Bulletin No. 
1105. Pp. 7 ; 8 X lOJ in.; illustrated. Gen- 
eral description given of electrically driven 
air compressors and accessories and equip- 

Direct Current Generating Sets. Bng- 
berg's Electric and Meclianical Works, St. 
Joseph, Mich. Catalogue No. 103. Pp. 32; 
81 X 11 in. ; illustrated. Descriptions of en- 
gines and other parts of electric genera- 
tors and accessories ; working drawings 
given ; applications of the generating sets 

Wilmot Complete Repair Parts. Wllmot 
Engineering Co., Hazleton, Penn. Cata- 
logue. Pp. 118; 7 X 10 in.; illustrated. 
Notes particulars about all the necessary 
parts applicable to the various types of 
machines and equipment built by the Wil- 
mot company. Numerous illustrations and 
full Instructions specify Information re- 
quired in ordering material or equipment. 

Industrial News 

Elkins, W. Va. — Work has recently been 
cotiipleted bv the Elkins Coal & Coke Co. 
on the complete electrification of Its mines 
and plants in the Elkins district 

Klchwood, W. Va.— The Elk IJck Coal 
Co. ha.s recently completed the construction 
of a new tipple and incline at Its proper- 

ties here and also the installation of min- 
ing machinery. 

Grove City, Penn. — The Atlas Coal Co.. of 
this place, intends making improvements 
to its plant in the near future by installing 
machinery and boilers. The improvements 
will cost in the neighborhood of $50,000, it 
is stated. 

Roanoke, Va. — At a recent meeting of 
the board of directors of the Pocahontas 
Coal and Coke Co.. Thomas Reath was 
elected assistant general counsel of the 
company, with an oflice in the Commercial 
Trust Building, Philadelphia, Penn. The 
secretary of this compay is O. Lynn 

Wilkinsburg, Penn. — Frederick & Co. 
has recently completed negotiations for 
the purchase of 1200 acres of coal proper- 
ties in the vicinity of Farmington, W. Va.. 
and it is understood that the company is 
arranging to commence work at an early 
date for extensive development. Fred A. 
Sesler is president. 

Whitesbnrg, Ky. — It is reported that the 
McKinnev Steel Co.. operating at Wolf 
Pit, is planning to install a large power 
plant in connection with development 
of about 40.nno acres of coal land. The 
company also expects to erect several hun- 
dred modern miners' houses, and develop 
on a big scale. 

Baltimore, Md. — The Peerless Coal Min- 
inE- Co.. Munsey Building, of this place, 
i=i"^understood to be arranging plans for 
th'^ development of coal properties com- 
pr-'sing about 4000 acres located m the 
vicinity of Red Rock. W. Va. It is expected 
to have an ultimate output of about 2000 
tons daily. 

Pittsburgh, Penn.— The Edison Storage 
Batterv Co. announces the removal of its 
rii=!trict office here to Room 431 Union Ar- 
rade Bldg The removal has been made 
necessary' by the increase in the volume 
of business handled through this office. 
The new location provides better facilities 
and has large office space. 

TTenlawson, W. Va. — The Merrill Coal 
Mine" Inc is the title of a $600,000 cor- 
poration organized here tor the purpose of 
developing 3S00 acres of coal lands m Lo- 
gan County. . , , »•„„!„ 

The improvements are to include a tipple 
to cost $70,000. Five hundred miners will 
be emploved. and a town to accommodate 
that number will be erected. L. B. Con- 
wav of Roanoke. Va.. is !"-""'ent of the 
company: C. W. Jones of Cora. W. W. 
vice nresident and General manager, and r 
G. Holland, of Roanoke, secretary and 

New York, N. T.— The New York Steel 
Exchange, Inc.. controlled 1^^' M";'. R^ 
Lamb, is having plans f.'-P;:"^^. ^g,: '7° 
coal plants in the Lens district of France. 
These plans are under the ™r>"vis,on of 
the Wood Equipment Co.. and **i'" A""^" *- 
Garcia Co.. both of Chicago The pro- 
posed equipment Includes a r?^"!^'"^,^^^ 
nnloader skip hoist and modern Pffl'^'P"* 
nbSr saving devices. The merger of Mr 
Lamb's export business '" "|'"'"P^„%"'J 
other heavy machinery with ',"<',/^''°" 
business In Iron and steel products, pro- 
vide" fncllitles for handling the two groups 
of clients. 

Reading. Penn.— Announcement has been 
m,-'de by the Pennsylvania Retail Coal Mer- 
Siants- Association that the fi.«7""i ^?,j 
nual convention of the organization will 
be held at this p ace on July 23--VtA"i 
elusive, with headquarters at the «"♦%• 
Berkshire. It Is interesting to note that 
thi.o will be the first annual rneetlng "t the 
association since 1914. and it is expected 
that a very irstrurtlve program will be 
followed Ihroueh. In connection w ith tne 
meeting, the arrnngemcnt committee is 
Planning to present an exhibition of the 
latest enuinment In coal handling machln- 
erv supplies, etc.. at which a number, ot 
.he lending manufacturers of these special- 
ties win take an active part. 

New Tork. N. T.--W. IT. Truesdale. presl- 
,Ient of the Lackawanna RR. devotes con- 
siderable .space In his report for ti,e ^ ear 
ended Dec. 31. 191S. to the activities of the 
coal properties of the company, saying that 
the mining operations were somewhat re- 
duced, owing In great part to the scarcity 
of labor, m.any of the mine employees either 
having been called Into acllve war serv- 
ice or secured employment in munition 
fnctorles shlnvards or Government work 
of other kinds, owing to the high wages 
paid. He sava that although the wages 
of all mine employees were substantially 
advanced on two occasions, and that the 
prices of coal to the public was Increased, 
Ihese price Increases did not prove suf- 
ficient to reimburse the mining companies 
for the wage increases plus the high cost 
of materials used In mining operations. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 




IVeekly Review 

Soft Coal Market Tightening, with Prices Going Higher — Production Far Behind Last Y ear 

— Anthracite as Short as Ever — Steam Coals Moving Well — Output of 

Domestic Sizes Not Equal to Demand 

AN INCREASE in the demand 
for bituminous coal was felt 
along the Atlantic Seaboard, 
and as a consequence the price of 
the quality grades has gone up. 
Operators and shippers were expect- 
ing the spurt, but labor shortage and 
inadequate car equipment militated 
against any record outputs being made. 
For the week ended July 5 (the latest 
statistics available) the production of 
soft coal amounted to 7,469,000 net 
tons. The output of the bituminous 
coal mines for the calendar year to date 
totals 220,361,000 net tons", or nearly 
74,500,000 net tons less than than in 
the corresponding period last year. 
Coal not under contract was eagerly 

sought at the various tidewater ports. 
The demand for New River and Poca- 
hontas coals was even more urgent 
than formerly, and quotations for the 
former were given for twenty-four 
hours only and at around $6.25 at 
Hampton Roads for the standard used 
by the Navy Department. 

From Pittsburgh comes the report 
that much uneasiness is being felt that 
production will not be sufficient to meet 
industrial requirements in that region. 

As the season advances, the domestic 
sizes of anthracite are becoming more 
scarce. It is unlikely that this condi- 
tion will better itself, as the lack of 
labor at the mines and the deficit in the 
production of hard coal are handicaps 

that it will be impossible to overcome. 
For the week ended July 5, the anthra- 
cite output was 1,408,000 net tons, mak- 
ing the total production to date 40,204,- 
000 net tons, or 10,600,000 net tons less 
than in the corresponding period last 

Finding it difficult to obtain the egg 
and stove sizes of hard coal, consumers 
are accepting either chestnut or pea in 
lieu thereof, and this is serving to re- 
lieve the situation somewhat. 

Steam coals, too, are not so easy to 
obtain as they were a week or so ago. 
Buckwheat is readily absorbed by the 
trade, and rice and barley are firmer, 
owing to a decrease in production at 
the washeries. 


The production ol: bituminous coal in the 
week ended July 5 is estimated at 7.469.000 
net tons, an average per day for the five 
working- days of 1,494,000 tons, compared 
with an average per day of 1,576,000 tons 
in the previous week, as against 2,050.000 
ton.? in the week ended July 6, 1918. The 
production for the calendar year to date 
was 220,361,000 tons, nearly 74,500.000 
tons less than in the corresponding period 
last year. The average daily production, 
considering only working davs, has been 
about 500,000 tons less this year than last 

The estimated production of anthracite 
in the week ended July 5 was 1,408,000 
net tons, compared with 1,735,000 tons in 
the corresponding w'eek last year. The 
average daily production in the week ended 
July 5 fa 5-day week) was 282,000 tons, 
compared with 307,000 tons in the previous 
week and 347,000 tons in the correspond- 
ing week last year. The production of 
anthracite to date is estimated at 40,204,- 
000 tons, or 10,600,000 tons less than in the 
corresponding period last year. 

Returns from the operators for the week 
ended June 28 record a general improve- 
ment in market conditions, the loss of time 
on account of no market averaging 29.2 
per cent- of full time in the week, compared 
with 29.3 per cent, in the week ended 
June 21, and more than 32 per cent, in the 
first half of June. Market conditions in 
Illinois and western Kentucky recorded a 
notable improvement. Less 4 per 
cent, of the full-time operation was lost 
because of no market in western Pennsvl- 
vania. less than 9 per cent, in the West- 
moreland and neighboring fields. Central 
Pennsylvania showed an improvement. Car 
supply in southwestern Virginia was better 
in the week ended June 28 than in the 
previous week, but In several of the other 
districts, including northern Ohio. Penn- 
sylvania, northern West Virginia and east- 
ern Kentucky, slightly greater losses of 
time were reported because of the laclc of 

The production of beehive coke In the 
week ended July 5 Is estimated at 262,410 
net tons, compared with 579,000 tons In 
the week ended Julv 6, 1918, and with 
283,600 tons in the last week of June, 1919. 
The production In the week ended July 5 
was curtailed because of the celebration of 
the holiday on July 4. 

Bituminous coal dumped at lower Lake 
Erit ports in the week ended June 28 was 
'Jy4.901 net tons, compared with 1,058.273 
tons in the week ended June 21 and 900.- 
nii'l tons in the last week of June, 1918. The 
total lake coal dumped to the end of June 
of this year was 9,129,502 tons, compared 
with 7,699,423 tons in the corresponding 
period last year. 


Dr.v Goods Economist — The movement of 
dry goods over the counter continues to 
be steady throughout the country, and, 
in consequence, stocks of many lines of 
goods are becoming depleted. Due to the 
semi-annual stocktaking which will occur 
in most stores the last of this month, there 
has been the usual falling off of orders for 
many lines of goods. 

Marshall Field & Co. — Current whole- 
sale distribution of dry goods ran consid- 
erably ahead of the large volume of the 
corresponding week a year ago. More 
merchants were in the market than dur- 
in.T the same week of 191S. All report 
retail business as excellent. Orders from 
read salesmen for both immediate and 
future delivery were very much greater 
than for the comparative period of last 
year. Collections continue satisfactory. 

The Iron Agre — Improvement in the steel 
situation is asserted in stronger terms 
this week. Mill schedules show it. par- 
ticularly in the Central West. In a num- 
ber of finished lines bookings are large 
and the opinion has been ventured that 
May output will stand as the low record 
of the year. Steel ingot production fell 
last month to an average of 85,000 tons 
a day, against 102,500 tons in .\pril, a 
decrease of 17 per cent. The May rate 
represents about 26,000,000 tons a year, 
or about 55 per cent, of the country's 

American Wool and Cott.on Reporter — 
Wool is being held at very firm prices. 
Higher prices are being asked for wools 
in the West, although in some localities 
the clip is cleaned up. The demand for 
rav cotton may not appear exceptionally 
large but the supply is not so large as pub- 
lished figures indicate. The prospective 
demand from other countries or Increased 
exports has not been discounted at all. 
The higher price for cotton is due to gen- 

eral inflation and to higher producing costs 
in combination with the ability of holders 
to lieep their cotton. 


Appreciable hardening of prices on bet- 
ter grades. Light output causes renewed 
buying interest. Inferior grades duU, but 
gas coals are being rapidly sold up. Pos- 
sible strilie of marine workers a factor in 
water coal. Hampton Roads coals sub- 
ject to slow loading. Future of marlset 
in this territory in doubt, due to uncertain 
requirements the ne.vt si.v montlis. Holi- 
day internal leaves loading piers almost 
bare of anthracite. Shipments of pea urged. 

Bituminous — The quality grades are 
noticeably flrmer-in price. Grades that were 
selling at $2.95 a fortnight ago are now 
commanding more than $3 for spot ship- 
ment. While there is no great pressure to 
get these coals forward, it is easy to see 
that the demand is improved. Those steam 
users who have ordinarily taken coal via 
water routes and this season made it a 
practice to test different grades all-rail 
have now had it forced on their attention 
that the tonnage of desirable coals avail- 
able is much less than they supposed, and 
that for the balance of the season they 
will be obliged to take what they can man- 
age to pick up from one region or another. 
It develops that a number of operators in 
making season contracts reckoned on much 
larger output than now seems possible, and 
the extent to which mine-workers have 
left certain of the districts is little short 
of alarming. It will take more than ad- 
vanced prices to bring them back, as the 
situation looks now. 

Extremely light shipments since July 1 
have reminded buyers that they must be 
forehanded in t.aking on coal. There has 
been renewed buying on that account the 
past week, and should this c6ntinue there 
would doubtless be a further stiffening of 
prices for prompt shipment. Already there 
are operators who are charging 20c. ad- 
vance for deliveries after July 31. and this 
reflects the present state of the all-rail 
market in New England. Only small ton- 

Juiy II, 1919 



forward. This territory is flooded with cir- 
culars from ■aarious independent operators 
who on paper have offered their egg and 
stove at premiums as high as $1.25, but 
when favored with spot orders they seem 
quite as slow making shipments as the 
companies at circular prices. 

Pea has been in long supply all season 
but only within a few days have retail 
dealers shown any disposition to take on 
straight cargoes of this size. The extreme 
shortage of the major sizes, however, has 
encouraged this to some extent and it is 
quite likely that a large tonnage of pea 
and buckwheat will be moved this month. 

nages are involved in present sales and re- 
serves are still abnormally large, but there 
can be no question of a inuch more whole- 
some situation from the operator's stand- 
point than has prevailed for many months. 

On the other hand, the inferior grades 
still meet with hard going. Coals from 
the Fairmont region, limited as they are 
by the tariffs to certain parts of this ter- 
ritory, are still being pressed upon un- 
willing buyers. Prices are unchanged on 
these grades, and efforts to contract meet 
with little response because deliveries 
from that section have usually proved un- 
dependable when railroad conditions were 
unfavorable. Already there are indications 

of large numbers of crippled cars being NEW YORK 
stored on various sidings, and in July this 

is hardly a good sign. Dealers are hard pressed for domestic 

The better grades of gas coal have met loulu, whieli are becoming scarcer. De- 

with much better sale the past fortnight mand from Canada and New England iu- 

than during any similar period earlier in creases and quick deliveries are urged. 

the year. The new impetus given the iron Authracitc steam coals not so plentiful. 

and steel industry is largely responsible. ." '«' prices easy. Market for bituminous 

and not only are screened coals in better ■" '«'*?"" s';?Pf- Demand increases fol- 

demand. but run of mine and slack are al- '""ed by slight advances in prices for 

ready commanding better prices. This is various grades. Export and bunker busi- 

particularly true of the Greensburg dis- "**'* hit by shipping tie-np. 

trict, where operations are now apparently Anthracite — The trade continues to be 

well supplied with orders and output is as pushed for the domestic coals, which ap- 

great as the labor supply will permit. pear to be getting tighter as the season 

Coastwise trade has been upset the past advances. There is nothing ahead that 
week by the threatened strike of 40,000 ma- would indicate a betterment of conditions 
rine workers. This was to be effective outside of a heavy increase in production, 
July 15, and steamers and tugs have been and that is unlikely when one considers 
enabled to leave port the last few days the present deficit in this year's tonnage 
only through promises on the part of figures and the lack of labor at the mines, 
owners that their wages will be adjusted. Local retail dealers are heavily booked 
At this writing it is rumored that through witii orders, and instead of having an easy 
intervention of the Shipping Board an in- summer season, as was the case .a couple 
crease of 10 per cent has been granted of years back, they are prepared for hard 
along with an eight-hour day while in port work. There is hardly a customer who 
and preferential employment of American does not want his coal "at once," notwith- 
workers. A tie-up of coast-wise shipping standing that there may be many orders 
would be serious in its effect on coal alone, ahead of his. Because of this urgency and 
for there are several distant markets in his inability to get as much of the domes- 
South America and overseas that are prac- •'■■ coals as he can use, the retailer has 
ticallv dependent upon current deliveries. his own troubles trying to please everybody. 

Steamers at Hampton Roads have been The situation regarding egg and stove 

meeting with slow dispatch now for two or sizes has not changed materially. These 

three weeks. Coal has come down in ir- coalf are hard to get from the producers, 

ree-ular volume and it has become increas- ""'• =»« this is well known to consumers 

ingly difficult for the agencies to plan ship- thf- dealers are not havmg so much diffi- 

ments. Current sales of Pocahontas and <=ulty as formerly m substitutmg either 

New River at this end are now being made chestnut or pea size. This concession on 

at stated prices f.o.b. cars plus steamer 'h? P^rt of the consumer has served to 

demurrage. In some cases the latter itrm T™"";* *« supply of chestnut and pea at 

has amounted to 40c.. and this is another '"§ j '''^^■- » , ,, • j j 

reason for the improved demand for Penn- Independent coals are much m demand, 

.sylvania coals all-rail. Receipts from ?"." ""S,''*" much is heard of premiums 

Hampton Roads are still relatively light I"'"?,^ "f^evetl for quick shipments, especially 

and are confined largely to consumers who '^ Canada and New England, nothing has 

tak" their supply at tidewater points Spot 'iP^Vl!,"^ 'tol '^?"\?,i"'i^"S!^.i1?I i^'fi. 

coal at the niers is hard to B-et hut nn th:ng more than $1 has been offered for 

materUl advanci n nr^ce has vet been """"^ *° ^e sent to Canada. New England 

r^Dorted ^'^^*"''*' '" '"^"^* "^^ ^" *'<'®" dealers are in the market tor all of the 

L. „ ',t, , ,! c , ,, . J, ., domestic coals they can get. Thev cl.aim 

t,. ^1,°?," °'^ '"^"^ September is favorable ,„ h„ f^^ behind in stocks and are anxious 

,?,^^ ^<'"f.'^, market m this territory, but ,„ „„ ^-^^^^ ^ins before transportation dif- 

there is still some doubt -whether we shall ficulties set in 

have the broad market which has been so The steam coals are in better shape. 
freely predicted. Strange as it may seem. R„pkwheat is not so free as it was a week 
there is no apparent anxiety on the part or ten days ago. and more of it is being 
of s earn -users through New England, due nbKorhp.l by the trade, especially when it 
partly to heavier reserves than used to be i., possible ' to secure either of the larger 
customary and also to the uncertainty .sizes with it. Rice and barlcv are firmer, 
what requirements are to be the next due to lessened production of the wash- 
half year. Manufacturers are basing their eries. There has been practically no change 
probable needs on an output somewhat in quotations, a good grade of barley being 
greater than present business would war- quoted around $1 at the mines, 
rant, but there is not yet in sight the Dealers are interested in the .shipments 
large orders that were expected. of anthracite last month, which .showed a 

Current quotations on bituminous at decrease of 92.324 tons as compared with 

wholesale range about as follows: May. the larger part of this being 

. attributed to the smaller output of steam 

Cambnae and coals from the washerios. 

Clearfields Somersets There were 4nns cars of anthracite 

F.o.b. mines, net tons... .$2. 1 5® 2. 75 $3.00@3 40 dumped at the railroad piers here during 

F.o.b. Philadelphia, gross ^r'lor'"'"''^ 'lu'''^'' •^"■'^' " '^'^ ,'^°"'-^,'"'"\Zl^!l 

tonn 1- • 1* 77<a4 g? e 7n/at ■:? 548n cars the previous week. The reports 

„'''°"-„- ••■„■■, 4.27@4.95 5.20@5.55 ^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^„^ ^^^^ ^^ ^3,,,, 3, compared 

F.o.b. New York, gross ^nrith 2773 cars on .Tuly 4. 

'o"' 4.62@5.29 5.55@6.00 Current quoiations. white ash. per gross 

Alongside Boston (water ton at the mines and f.o b. at tidewater. 

coal) , gross tons 6.10@6.85 7.00@7.50 at the lower ports, according to company 

Ocorgcs Creek is still quoted at $3.70 per net ton schedule, are as follows : 

fob. mines. Mine' Tidewater 

Pooahontas and New Rivpr ftre being quoted at Broken $5.95 $7 . 80 

$5.Mfi'5.35p<TgroBBtonf.o.b. Nortolkand Newport Kgg 6. '5 8.00 

NoKs. Va. Alongside Best™ the samp gradi-s are Stove 6.40 8,25 

being oflorH at a range of from $7.32(a 7.60. and on Chestnut 6.50 8.35 

cars Boston and Providence at from $7. 50(ii> 7. 90 per Pea 5.10 6.85 

gross ton. Buckwheat 3. 40 5.15 

Rice 2.75 4.50 

Anthracite — Output was seriously let "arley 2.25 4.00 

down, during the July 4 celebration and as nituminous — The bituminous market Is 

a result domestic sizes have been In ex- |n better shape and the prospects are 

irrniely short supply at the Philadelphia bright. Demand has increased and prices 

and New York piers. Rarges have been have stiffened .slightly. But. on the other 

waiting ten days to two weeks for egg and hand. Is the threatened marine strike which 

stove, and at Philadelphia bottoms that were may tie up much of the coastwise shipping 

scheduled to load anthracite have been and may menace transatlantic transporta- 

turned over to shippers of bituminous. All- tion. Siich a tie-up would cause a serious 

rail shipments have been similarly dis- los.-- to producers of bunker and export 

aiipointlng and retail dealers especially In coals. 

the larger towns and cities are much exer- Producers and shippers for the most part 

clf^ed at the slowness with which coal comes have been optlml.stic for some time and 

were prepared tor the spurt that developed 
during the past ten days. Free coals at 
the various tidewater ports were eagerly 
sought, and within a few days most of it 
had been picked up at prices slightly higher 
than those that prevailed for a couple 
of weeks back. 'Wliile some of the buying 
no doubt was the result of the advertising 
campaign instituted by coal associations, 
more of it was due to reduced stocks in the 
binu of manufacturers, who have been en- 
tering the market in greater numbers the 
past few weeks. These heavy buyers now 
realize that if they want to be protected 
this fall and winter from the lack of coal 
they must begin now to replenish their 
hin,s. Contract holders are receiving their 
full allotment of coal. 

The increase in demand was not confined 
to this market alone, but was spread over 
almost the entire eastern section of the 
country. Reports from along the railroads 
show a heavy call for coal and a slight in- 
crease in mine prices. 

Operations failed to respond generally to 
the extra call. In addition to the slow- 
ness of labor the trade is now confronted 
with a slackened car supply besides poor 
equipment. Warnings have been given 
many times this spring that cars would be 
short this fall because of the heavy de- 
mands of the steel industry and the need 
of cars to move grains, but it was not ex- 
pected that this demand would set in until 

Supplies here are considerably smaller 
than they were a week ago. but there is 
no trouble to make shipments promptly. 
Some of the pools are almost clear of free 

There is a heavy demand for New River 
and Pocahontas coals. Quotations for the 
former are given for 24 hours only and 
are around $6.2.5 for Navy Standard at 
Harripton Roads. From Pittsburgh comes 
word of much uneasiness because of the 
fear that production will not be able to 
take care of the requirements of the indus- 
tries. Youghiogheny gas coal of good qual- 
ity was quoted early in the week around 
the $3 mark. Smokeless coals were mov- 
ing rapidly. 

Quotations for the various pool coals 
f.o.b. piers here ranged about as follows: 

Nos. 1 and 71. $.5 .50 to $5.65 : No. 9. $5. ,10 
to $5.60; No. in. $5. no to $5.25; No. 11. 
$4 75 to $5.00; and No. IS. $4.35 to $4.50. 

Tlie range of prices for sriot coals at the 
mines ranged about as follows: 

South Forltp (Best) . 
Cambria (Best) . . . 
Cambria (Ordinarv) 
Clearfield (Besti . . . . 
Clearfield (Ordinary) 


Somerset (Best) . 
Somerset (Poor) 
Western Maryland 


Latrobe . . 
Orpenshnrg . 
Westmoreland 3 in. 


2 75(5i'2.95 

. 2.10(012.25 

. 2 35(312.50 


.Anthracite retail trade held ImcU by light 
Hhipmcnts. Prcminnis in other markets 
hurt local trade. All dealers waul stove: 
chestnut and egg In strong demand, but pea 
plentiful and inclined to dragglness. Pro- 
duction fair. New ordering is light. Ad- 
vertising and rumor of freight change 
cause some new business. Retail prices 
grow firm. Steam coals off, and storage in- 
creases. Bituminnus high grades scarcer. 
Good business in other grades. Prices firm. 

/Anthracite — With plenty of orders on 
their books the local retailers are making 
little progress with deliveries. The ship- 
ments recently have been tnuch below what 
they should have been to enable the deal- 
ers to do a really profitable business. Many 
times lately teams and men have been idle 
on account of the lack of certain sizes of 
coal. 'When the dealers complain to the 
shippers they have pointed out to them 
that even the tonnage they have received 
thus far this summer Is much in excess of 
what they received in a similar period in 
pre-war times. The shippers do not deny 
that heavy shipments are going to western 
nn 1 New England markets, and on the part 
of the company shippers they point out that 
this has .tlways been more or less a cus- 
tom As a matter of f.act the shipments 
frcm Port Richmond via barge for eastern 
polrts has been quite heavy of late and 
wll' no doubt continue all summer. 

The dealers are also annoyed liy the re- 
ports of heavy premiums being paid In 
ntl er markets. This thev feel acts to the 
disadvantage of the local trade It is 
known that local shipping ofBces have re- 
ceived offers of premiums running from 50c 
to $1 per ton over the announced July 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

prices of the individual houses. Even the 
South has lately come into the market 
willing to pay excess prices. It is felt in 
some quarters that this coal is not being 
delivered immediately, but is being stored 
fo."- delivery later. It is certain that no 
appreciable amount of premium coal is be- 
in^ sold in this city, the only instances 
being in cases where dealers have been de- 
sirous of satisfying some choice trade and been anxious to complete delivery. 

As has been the case for weeks, the big 
demand is for stove coal and of the hun- 
dreds of customers who make personal calls 
at the offices of the mining companies they 
without exception ask for stove. Chestnut 
is also scarce and not growing much easier, 
but many local dealers have managed to 
keep a fair supply on hand. Egg has not 
as yet put in its appearance, and while 
the new orders for this size are rather 
light, nearly every dealer has a larger ton- 
nage than usual on his books awaiting de- 
livery. Pea coal is plentiful and if any- 
thing more so than at any time this sum- 
mer. Some of the big companies have ac- 
tually instructed their salesmen to make 
efforts to place heavier tonnage of this 
size. It is just barely possible that pea 
will be a little draggy for the balance of 
thT month, but there is one thing that may 
help out the situation and prevent it from 
liocomine actually troublesome, and that is. 
the dealers being short of the other do- 
mestic sizes are using the opportunity to 
urge their customers to take a fair tonnage 
of this size, and it is believed quite a little 
has been placed in this way. Thus far all 
the heaviness in pea has been confined to 
the larger companies, as the independents 
claim to be able to place all of their ton- 
nage without price concessions. 

Recently a rumor has gone broadcast 
that an increase in freight rates might be 
ordered before the first of the year. This 
seems to be based on more than mere 
rumor, for while the railroad authorities 
have all along been averse to another in- 
crease, the report is that the deficit of the 
railroads is such that an increase cannot 
be avoided. By some this accounts for the 
heavy premiums which are being offered by 
dealers in outside territories, who hope to 
be able to recoup part of the extra ex- 
penditure by getting the coal in at the 
lower freight rate. One thing is certain, the 
consumers cannot expect to receive any re- 
duction in coal, (or the trend is in just the 
opposite direction and it is believed that 
they have for the most part been convinced 
of this. 

.411 of the above is reflected in the retail 
price situation, which shows signs of 
strengthening. The firm which has always 
led in price cutting is now asking $10 S.i 
for egg. $in.60 for stove and nut, and $9 
for pea coal. The improvement can readily 
be noted when these figures are compared 
with the prices of one of the largest deal- 
ers in the city, as follows: Egg $10.65. 
stove $in..S.5, nut $in.95, and pea $9.30. 

This week the larger companies seemed 
to have more buckwheat than ever to offer 
and the quantity going to storage has con- 
siderably increased. Wlien it is picked up 
th3 coming winter it is more than likely 
that the cost of storage will be added to 
it. as the companies have more than once 
intimated. There is no question that the 
coa.l will be in demand and it will be 
cleaned up long before spring arrives. The 
smaller sizes have also lately gone into the 
yards in increasing volume, but with the 
month close to half gone it is felt that all 
industrial plants will call for increased 
quantities for storage at their plants. 

Bituminons — The only noticeable change 
in the soft coal situation is the growing 
tendency of the high-grade coals to become 
harder to get. It is believed that in order 
to meet this situation the operations are 
making better working time. While ship- 
per."! show an inclination to book orders for 
such coals, practically none of them is will- 
ing to take on any heavy business at a 
price. The one result of this has been to 
create a better demand for the ordinary 
coals and some good spot business is being 
reported in those grades. The pos=:ihility 
of a freight increase has also stirred some 
interests to the point of endeavoring to 
increase stocks, but this is by no means 
pereral. as the tendency as yet is simplv to 
drift along and buy as the coal is required. 

There has been little price fluctuation 
pnd quotations are fairly firm within the 
following range, f.o.b, mine: 

Oeorecs Creek Kg Vein $2. 95 (a) S3 OS 

Snuth Fork Miller Vein 2.95© 3 05 

Clearfield (ordinary) 2. 60 © 2.75 

Somerset (ordinary) 2.50® 2.65 

Fairmont lump 2.50 (n> 2.60 

Fairmont mine-run 2.35® 2. 50 

Fairmont alack 1.90® 2.05 

Fairmont lump (ordinary) 2.25® 2.35 

Fairmont mine-run (ordinary) 2 . 00 ® 2 15 

Fairmont slack (ordinary) 1 . 65 @ 175 


Change in the bituminous situation is 
small. Prices continue llrmer for domestic 
grades and the export trade Is still the real 
business at this port. The supply of high- 
grade coals is fast dLniiiiisliing and the de- 
mand of tlie domestic buyers grows strong- 
er, sending prices up. For domestic use 
the price remains strong around :>2.75. 
wliile foreign buyers have been paying in 
the neighborhood of S3 for the best grade 
of fuels. 

E.xports during tlie first part of July 
reached 44.105 tons cargo and 3,950 tons 
of bunker coal. These figtires furnished bv 
the custom house officials are for but three 
days. July 1, 2, and 3, on which days 10 
vessels left port. The cargoes were des- 
tined, two each going to Holland, Cuba. 
Svi-eden and Switzerland, and one each to 
Norway and Italy. 

Shippers continue to be bothered some- 
what in obtaining bottoms from the United 
States Shipping Board. They obtained allo- 
cation of tonnage, but there is always a 
cei tain indefiniteness about just when the 
bottoms will be ready for use. On the other 
hand, bottoms obtained from private 
sources are always ready on time. 

Notice was given by the Pennsylvania 
R R. to all shippers using its lines that 
coals consigned to this port for foreign 
shipment must be loaded from the Canton 
pier of the company and not sent to the 
B. & O. pier at Curtis Bay. During the 
war the railroad administration closed the 
western Maryland piers at Port Covington 
to foreign service and all exporting of coal 
was made from Curtis Bay piers, while the 
Canton pier was used exclusively for har- 
bor lighterage business. The order did not 
meet with general approval, for shippers 
say the Canton pier, while modern in every 
particular, is not as well operated as the 
Curtis Bay pier 

Light anthracite shipments continue to 
cause dissatisfaction among the dealers in 
general. The increase of the retail prices 
did not cause any let-up in buying, but 
adfied to the undelivered business already 
on file. Premium rates continue to go up 
and as high as 75 cents per ton were quot- 
ed. Some small dealers, probably for the 
first time in the memory of local dealers, 
paid premiums for anthracite in order to 
handle their business. 

Lake Markets 


Market strength continues. Contracts 
not popular witli operators. Production at 
6') or 63 per cent, of full capacity. 

The Pittsburgh district coal market con- 
tinues to reflect the stronger undertone 
noted a week ago, some operators being 
quite averse to selling at $2.35 even for 
early deliveries, while there is not much 
disposition on the part of any operators 
to accept contracts for delivery to Apr. 1. 
Some grades of steam coal continue to be 
available at $2.25 and occasionallv odd 
lots go at lower prices still. The differen- 
tial between gas and steam coal is very 
narrow as compared with the marke't 
of early in the year. By far the largest 
differential is in the case of slack, in 
which it is about 40c., but this is a for- 
tuitous circumstance due simply to the 
fact that the lake movement of 3 -in is 
.->linost wholly in steam coal at present, 
thus causing heavy production of steam 
slack as compared with gas slack. 

Labor conditions are about the same as 
formerly. There is still much talk of 
foreign-born miners and common laborers, 
particularly the latter, going back to the 
countries of their birth, but in some quar- 
ters the suspicion is growing that this 
pvospective movement has been greatly 
ex:iggerated. Coal production in the dis- 
trict as a., whole is at about 60 or 65 per 
cent, of full cnpacity: while calling ca- 
pacity merely the full-time tonnage that 
'"otild be gotten out with the present sized 
jia'vrolls. the output is about 75 per cent. 

We quote the market unchanged from a 
week ago as follows: Steam slack. $1.30^ 
1.40: gas slack. $1.7oai.S0 : steam mine- 
run. $2.25(3)2.50: gas mine-run, $2.35!i? 
2.50: S-in. gas, $2 60(3)2.75 per net ton 
at mine, Pittsburgh district. There is no 
movement in domestic coal and no definite 
market exists. 


Bitnntinous improving slowl.v. No great 
rush to bay yet. Prospect of increase till 
volnme is good. Everyhod.v confident. An- 
thr:»cite active as ever. Lake shipments 

prices, unless it be for slack, are strong, 
and this will soon be influenced by the 
condition of sizes. Nobody expects slack 
to be firm in summer, unless the general 
demand is rushing, so it does not affect 
conditions much. Steady improvement is 
looked for right along. 

At the .same time the amount of busi- 
ness is not yet large in this market. The 
Pittsburgh shippers thought they saw the 
stir coming and announced that it had 
arrived, thus being able to boost the mar- 
ket before the conditions were quite ready 
therefor, possibly helping the trade, pos- 
sibly not. Buffalo was more conservative 
and waited till the real improvement was 
here. Consumers are not buying as freely 
as could be wished, but are mostlv in the 
market in some way. They are still trying 
to contract at going figures, but shippers 
usually decline their offers. 

There is every prospect of a steadily im- 
proving trade. Other industries are active. 
Iron is in better demand and the furnaces 
must have fuel. There is much less bitu- 
minous in consumers' hands than there has 
been, the war tangles are slowly straight- 
ening out, Otily labor and the consequent 
high cost of living go adversely. 

If the condition of slack should improve 
materially the whole bituminous trade 
would be strong. Prices continue at $4.55 
for Allegheny Vallev sizes, $4. SO for Pitts- 
burgh, and No. S lump. $4.65 for same 
three-quarter, $4.20 for mine run and $3.65 
for all slack, with $5.25 for Cambria 
County smithing and smokeless, all per net 
ton, f.o.b Buffalo. 

Anthracite — The trade is without much 
change. The demand exceeds the supply 
and this promises to continue. What it 
will be when the regular time comes for 
laying in the great part of the winter sup- 
ply depends on the summer mining, which 
has not been satisfactorv so far. There is 
much complaint that the miners are not 
working steadily and that thev are going 
back to Europe at a considerable rate. The 
much-feared demands for higher wages 
have so far not developed and war wages 
still prevail. 

Shipments by Lake continue good, the 
amount for the week being 107,100 net tons, 
of which 3S,10O tons cleared for Chicago, 
28.000 tons for Fort William, 16,000 tons 
for Duluth and Superior, 12,S00 tons for 
the Canadian Sault, S,100 tons for Milwau- 
kee. 3,000 tons for Houghton, and 2,800 
tons for Marquette. 

Freight rates continue easy at 60 cents 
to Chicago. 50 cents to the Sault. 47J cents 
to Milwaukee. 421 cents to Duluth, Fort 
", Port .\rthur, Houghton, Mar- 

The anthracite quotations for July ad- 
vanced 10 cents a ton except on grate and 
buclcwheat. Prices now rule as follows: 

Foh.Cnr.s. At Cnrb, 

(^ross Ton Net Ton 

Crate $8 55 $10 20 

Egg 8 75 10.50 

^tove 9 00 10 70 

Chestnut 9.10 10 80 

Pes 7 30 9 15 

Buckwheat 5 70 7 75 


Demand for all grades of coal is slowly 
but steadily increasing, and prices are stif- 
fening accordingly. The shortage of an- 
thracite and Pocahontas borders on the 

Bitnminous — Steam coal users continue 
increasing their buying. Southern and 
eastern Ohio mines now are being operated 
at about 75 per cent of full-time capacity, 
an increase of from 10 to 15 per cent, in 
most instances, and northern Ohio buyers 
are absorbing this increase. In addition, 
coal moving to the Lake decreased some- 
what owing to the holidays, a temporary 
shortage of cargo space, due to freighters 
being bunched at the Upper Lake ports, 
and a three-day embargo at one of the 
big shipping points on Lake Erie on ac- 
count of car congestion. WTiile no trouble 
is encountered in placing coal, yet the sup- 
ply on the local market is not excessive. 
All that is coming in is being placed. 
Prices are somewhat firmer, though no 
mf-rked advance in either steam coal or 
sl.'ick is noted. In slack, the range con- 
tinues quite wide, from $1.30 to $2.10. 

Counting out the Fourth of July holi- 
day, labor conditions at the mine show 
much improvement. Prospects of con- 
tinued steady work h.ave drawn back many 
workers who left. But car supply still is 
a source of much trouble. Reports that 
the Railroad .\dministration will take over 
and put into use the coal cars the carriers 
are refusing to .accept because of their 
high cost are warmly received by Ohio 

July 17, 1919 



opLiators. Xow that workers can put in 
a full day much less talk of difficulty over 
a new wage scale is heard. 

Anthracite and Pocahontas — It may be 
safely said that for every ton of anthra- 
cite and Pocahontas local retailers are able 
to deliver they could place two. Some 
operators are even making personal trips 
to the West Virginia fields in order to ob- 
tain increased" shipments. Prices have ad- 
vanced on both Pocahontas and anthracite, 
dealers who had been holding back the 10- 
cents-a-month increase putting the entire 
burden on the consumer. 

Lake Trade — Shipments of bituminous 
coal from Lake Erie ports in the last week 
of June totaled tons, including 
vessel fuel, making the season's shipments 
to Julv 1 9.144.600 tons, compared with 
7.6,',0,000 tons up to July 1 last year. 
■\Vhere last season shipments did not really 
begin until July 1. it is believed shipments 
thi.v season will not show any great gain 
from now on. owing to the big grain and 
iron ore movement later in the season. 
The first week in July will show shipments 
not much more than TriO.OOO tons, because 
of the holiday, it is feared. 

Prices of coal per net ton delivered in 
Cleveland are: 


Eeg $11.15 

Chestnut 11,65 

Grate 1 1 45 

Stove 11.55 


Forked; 9 50 

Lump 8 75 

Mine-run 7.50 

Domestic bituminous: 

West Virginia splint $7 75(S 8 00 

No. 8 Pittsburgh 6.15@6.60 

Massillon lump 7.50@7.60 

Steam coal: 

No. 6 slack 4 , 20(r7 4 . 40 

No. 8 slack 4 . 70f« 5 , 00 

Youghiogheny slack 4 85(5 5 . I 5 

No. 8 J-in. lump 5.40(3 5.55 

No. 6 mine-run 4 . 50@ 4 . 60 

No. 8 mine-run . 4.90@5.05 


Sales of bituminous coal fall short of tne 
business usual at tliis season in Detroit, 
with buyers Iiolding: back. 

Bituminous — Consumers of steam coal 
have not yet decided that the time for 
stocking up has arrived. Few of them are 
buying to any extent. Their procrastina- 
tion occasions much uneasiness among job- 
bers and wholesalers, whose study of mar- 
ket conditions discloses a situation that, 
they say, is far from reassuring. Through 
members of the trade and Detroit's Board 
of Commerce, warning has been given the 
coal users that immediate action is impera- 
tive to assure obtaining coal in sufficient 
quantity to meet winter reciuirements. 
Still, a large number of the leading con- 
sumers of steam coal are holding back, 
seemingly exerting no effort to protect their 
interests. Coal is not being brought into 
Detroit in the quantity that should be com- 
ing at this time of the ye:ir. jobbers say, if 
adequate reserves are to br- provided. 

In the case of some of the buyers, it is 
pointed out that the re:tson for delay is 
found in the desire to free storage yards 
of the stock of inferior rpiality that was 
bought a year ago. The jobbers feel, how- 
e\er. that in following this course, consum- 
ers are assuming a risk that is likely to 
prove costly later. Some difficulties an(J 
delays in m.aking shipments already ha\'e* 
Ixen reported as due to scarcity of suit- 
able cars at v.arious production centers. 
That the car shortage will increase as the 
season advances is certain, the jobbers as- 

Domestic lump from the TTocking district 
is quoted at $2.7.'j for net ton. f.o.b. mines. 
Mine run from Ohio is offered at $2, and 
slack i.s held at $1..'>0. though sales have 
been reported at a lower price. Ga.s or 
.splint lump is selling around $3 to $3.2T, ; 
2-in lump from Wpst Virginia at $2.7!!, 
mine run at about $2.10 to $2.15, and slack 
at $1.8.5 to $1.90. Smokeless coal is hard 
to find, and mine run is reported selling 
around $2.75 to $,3. with freight charges 
and federal tax to be added. 

.Intliracitp — Considering the trials and 
flifTif'Ulties experienced by household con- 
sumers during the last two winters, the 
volume of business in anthracite is sur- 
prisingly light. .Jobbers say stocks in pos- 
session of retailers wouhl be exhausted 
speedily with anything like a broad gen- 
era! dem.ind. and that Ihrir rc^newal likely 
would involve considerable delay. 


More activif.v is developini; in Imtli steftm 
and domestic grades. Ifouseliolderft are 

buying better, although man^' are still 
holding back. Steam buyers are now in 
the marketl as reserve stocks are generally 

The domestic trade is now attractmg 
more attention, although business is not 
yet up to the usual volume for the time of 
year. Retailers report a better run of 
orders, some of which are for immediate 
delivery. Retailers are also booking orders 
for delivery later in the season at the price 
prevailing at that time. There is a good 
demand for Pocahontas anl West Virginia 
splints. Semi-smokeless grades are also 
moving fairly well. Retail stocks are only 
fair and there is still considerable storage 
space to fill. Hocking lump is not being 
stored to any extent and the same is true 
of Pomeroy Bend grades. The uncertainty 
as to houses and the likelihood of dwell- 
ings being leased over the heads of pres- 
ent occupants has the effect of causing 
householders to hold off on their winter's 

The steam trade is also showing up bet- 
ter and the volume of business is slightly 
increased. Reserve stocks are pretty well 
exhausted and as a result quite a few large 
consumers are in the market. Iron and 
steel plants are buying better and quite a 
few have entered into contracts. Consum- 
ers are not buying off the open market as 
largely as formerly. General manufactur- 
ing appears to be more active and the fuel 
consumption is greater. Railroads are not 
taking any large tonnage and this is caus- 
ing uneasiness among contract holders on 
railroad tonnage. 

The T>ake trade is rather active, although 
the holiday week showed a decrease in 
movement. There is still, however, quite a 
large tonnage to be moved to the North- 
west. The docks of the upper Lake ports 
are not congested. ,as the interior movement 
is good. Vessels are plentiful, as the grain 
tr.nde has not called boats into that service 
as yet. 

Production is fairly good in every mining 
district of the state. This is especially 
noticeable in the eastern Ohio field where 
the output is estimated at 65 to 75 per 
cent. Pomeroy Bend is also showing up 
better as far as output is concerned. The 
Hocking Valley is producing about 65 per 
cent and the same is reported from Cam- 
bridge. Crooksville and Massillon. 

Retail prices prevailing in Columbus are: 

Hocking lump $5 50(ffi$5 75 

Pocahontas 7,50 

Splints 600 

White ash 6 , 50 

Island Creek 650 

Pomeroy Bend 6 00 

Semi-smokeless 7 00 

Wheeling Creek, Kentucky 6 75 


Situation shows signs of improvement, 
witli industrial consumers eager to sign 

Cincinnati coal users have finally come 
to realize that there is to be no reduction 
in the prices. Where several weeks ago 
the dealers were notifying and pleading 
with their large customers to contract for 
the year's supply, they now are refusing 
to enter into big contracts. Labor condi- 
tions and the transportation situation to 
and from the mines are not what they 
should be, and consequently the dealers 
are hesitating about entering into contracts 
at this time. 

The situation as regards the domestic 
user has improved greatly. Spurred on 
]>y III,- :mIv, rtisements of the Nation:il Coal 
AsMH i:ii inn ,ind the individual appeal of 
111. I. Mil , (,:i| men. the domestic users have 
111. 1, lii.iiulii to se(- the situation in the 
liglil IlKit ii i,'; lif'iiu- iniiiiind by the dealers. 

and ;is ;i rnik^iijiiF (!.',■ are not sitting 

l..-ick, w:iilinp. tor Im\\. t inires, having been 
fidlv I'liiivincf il iliiii ilhi.' is to be no re- 
dtiction and they do not want to take a 
chance of there being a shortage. 

The demand from all quarters is show- 
ing a great improvement, with the Ivtmp 
situation strong. The market on mine-run 
is good. Very little lump coal is being 
placed by dealer.s. All prices remain firm. 


Domestic ilemnnd strong, with producers 
refusing much additional business without 
acciimpan^'ing steam orders. Western Ki-n- 
tucky market very weak on all grades. 
Kclailers reporting better demand. 

The operators are receiving such a strong 
demand for block and lump coal that many 
of them are refusing additional business, 
except where the lump orders are accom- 
panied by orders for screenings, as the 
steam market is weak and it is Impo.sslhle 
to load out screenings otherwise. Retailers 
are iin:il>li' in some cases to secure as much 
lump coal as tbey desire, .as they have 

not facilities for stocking or disposing of 
the steam coal. 

There is a fair demand from the lake 
regions, and a slightly better general in- 
dustrial demand, but stocking as a whole 
continues light on steam coal, and con- 
sumption apparently is below normal. 
Operators have been virtually giving away 
screenings for the last few weeks in order 
to move them, and have been making lump 
coal carry the loss. 

Western Kentucky prices have been weak 
all along the line, owing to the tact that 
eastern Kentucky coal has been in good 
supply. Western Kentucky is not a good 
summer stocking coal, as it heats and 
fires readily. Last season western Ken- 
tucky was about the only coal available, 
and much dirty coal was shipped into 
I^ouisville in response to a heavy demand. 
The result was that with poor coal, and 
small knowledge of stocking, many con- 
cerns had trouble with it, resulting in a 
prejudice against this coal which has made 
it hard to sell. 

Western Kentucky coal is expected to 
move much better by Aug. 1. when general 
demand should be better. Wide differentials 
are not helping movement materially just 
now. however. 

Tliere is some car shortage reported from 
the various mine sections of the state, 
while there is also a scarcity of labor in 
sections where mines are busy. Cars are 
in generally bad repair, with tills condition 
growing worse. 


Steam demand shows a slight improve- 
ment, a very good tonnage in the aggre- 
gate being covered b.v contracts. Xo 
change in the domestic situation. .Short- 
age of labor and car^ *)ecoming a factor in 

Reports indicate a better feeling in the 
trade, the steam market becoming more 
stable under healthy basic conditions. 
While there is no great amount of spot 
business being offered, consumers are sign- 
ing contracts which as a whole represent 
considerable tonnage, government prices 
ruling. Prices range from $2.75 per net 
ton miles for Big Seam washed mine-run 
to around $3,S5 for washed nut and slack 
from the Black Creek and similar seams. 
The Louisville & Nashville and the South- 
ern Railway System have not as yet con- 
tracted for fuel for the year beginning 
July 1. the second bids asked of operators 
by the latter having been submitted, but no 
decision has been announced as to con- 
tract awards. 

There is a sharp inquiry for lump coal, 
thp mines having contracted for about all 
the coal they can expect to produce under 
present conditions and the spot demand is 
brisk, prices ranging from $3. .50 for me- 
dium grades of lump and nut to $5.50 for 
Cahaba and the like, with only a few cars 
to be had here and there. 

Already some complaint is being heard 
in the coal fields of labor and car short- 
age, which all indications point to becom- 
ing serious factors as the season advances. 
Considerable labor is being taken from this 
section by labor agencies, and mines and 
ovens which are now starting up after 
several morrths of idleness .are having 
trouble in securing the necessary forces. 



Spot furnac 


gotiations by idle furnaces. 

As soon as the holidays and celebrations 
in the Connellsvllle region were over the 
market for spot coke softened, bidding fair 
to get back to where it stood in the first 
three weeks of .Tune, if not to a lower level. 
During the week of Independence Day the 
spot furnace coke market was firm at 
$1.25 as minimum, representing an ad- 
varice of 2.5c. over the previous market. 
I'larly last week, however, a little coke be- 
gan to on the market at $4. and 
while $4.25 Is still quoted by a number of 
producers the limited demand that has de- 
veloped up to date has been met In nearly 
all cases with $4 coke. 

The foundry coke market, however, has 
malntnlned a stiffcr tone and bids fair to 
continue on a higher basis. For many 
werks the market ranged from $4.50 to $5. 
.according to brand, the lower priced coke 
being of quite ordinary quality. In the 
past fortnight it has been only occasionally 
that any $4.50 coke could he secured, 
most makes that formerly went at 54.50 
now commanding $4.75, while several choice 
lirands that wen', at $5 have lately been 
bringing $5.25. 



Vol. 16, No. 3 

There is nothing panicularly new in 
tlie contract situation. Almost all tlie fur- 
naces in blast that use purchased coke have 
bor.ghl for the half year, while a few of 
Ihe idle furnaces continue to negotiate for 
supplies on requirement contracts, ship- 
ments to depend upon whether or not the 
furnace chooses to run. 

There has been a considerable increase in 
llie number of ovens in blast in the past 
nvi^ or three weeks. Oelebrations have in- 
terfered with output increasing in keep- 
ing with the increased number of ovens 
in blast and some doubts are entertained 
whether there will be ready absorption 
of all the coke made when operations pro- 
ceed at regular rate. 

The market stands quotable ae follows : 
Spot and prompt furnace. $4 ©4.25; spot 
and prompt foundry, $4.7.5S)5.25 ; contract 
foundry. j.Tfffio.Sn, per net ton at ovens. 

The Tourier" reports production in the 
ronnellsville and Lower Connellsville re- 
gion in the week ended July 5 at 1 30.790 
tons, a decrease of 7S43 tons. 

Buft'nio — Tile trade revives slowly. For- 
mer reports of local furnaces not running 
or operated on slow time are not heard, so 
that the consumption is considerably in- 
creased. The prospect is for a steady, 
though not rapid increase of activity 
Ihrough the rest of the season. Prices re- 
main as Ijefore. $7.S5 for 72-hr. foundry. 
.$7.10 to $7.35 for 4S-hr. furnace, and $6.20 
for off grades, with fuel sizes and breeze 
not moving much. 

The long-heralded car shortage is be- 
ginning to be felt. We understand that 
several mines in the Springfield district, 
as well as the southern District in Illinois, 
have been affected, although plenty of 
cais are reported in the Indiana coal fields. 
.\ car shortage is coming, and coming fast. 

Middle Western 










nut as 



it r 





ng to 



he. Car sh 

Jlarket conditions in the Mid-West are 
showing signs of some improvement, al- 
though one has to inspect the situation 
carefully to find this change for the better. 
The demand for domestic coals is continu- 
ing very strong, and in some cases prem- 
miunis are being paid for high-grade Illi- 
nois and Indiana lump, egg and nut sizes. 
Steam coals are still continuing to be a 
drag on the market, although the demand 
was incre.tsing to some small extent during 
the last week. This demand is probably 
oplained by the fact that the mines were 
closed down over the Fotirtb. 

The situation of steam coals in the 
central markets of this territory is far 
better than the situation in the Kast and 
near Fast, particularly in stich cities as 
Detroit. Pincinnati. Columbus, etc. Hock- 
ing' operMtors and West Virginia operators 
are flooding the market with cheap nut 
and slack. By cheap we are referring to 
coal that is being sold at 90c. per ton and 
under. Illinois and Indiana operators, as 
a general rule, have been maintaining their 
price on screenings at $1.50, or better. The 
Franklin Totinty people have consistently 
been getting $2 or better for their fine 
coals. Operators in the Mid-Western ter- 
ritory certainly deserve praise for being 
able to maintain their prices as well as 
they have, especially in view of the fact 
that a Hocking operator, witli 100 or so 
cars of "distress" coal on his sidings, is 
selling a whole lot of it to a Chicago packer 
at a price below $1 per ton mines. Con- 
.siderable feeling has developed from this 
sale, as Illinois and Indiana producers feel 
that they have enough problems on their 
bands without having their market demor- 
alized by Ohio producers with poor sales 
oi vanizations. 




factor in tht- ^nal .^ 

stand that se\.ial 

districts in Iveiituck; 

liavt already been 

lack of equipment in 

coal. It is the general opinion that it 

only be a matter of a short time before 

thi3 will be true in our own producing 



We under- 
iportant producing 
and West Virginia 
rionsly affected by 
I'hich" to .ship their 





llB (0 


The steam trade in this city continues 
to lag, although prices have been fairly 
well maintained because producers have 
irtelligence enough not to flood the market 
with open consignments of coal, iireferring 
to keep no bills at the mines raiher than 
shipping to the jobbers in Chicago. Al- 
though prospects for a better steam mar- 
ket in this city are fairly bright, there 
has been little immediate improvement over 
last week, and no radical improvements 
are expected until two or three weeks 
from now. 

The domestic situation continues strong. 
We understand that the more responsible 
Pocahontas operators have discontinued in- 
creasing the price of their prepared coals, 
as they believe that the public will not 
stand for prices over and above $.t on pre- 
pa'-ed sizes at this time. It is generally 
understood that the Pocahontas and New 
River operators are in an independent 
pos'tion. because they are able to .send 
practically all of their coal to the sea- 
board for export, and at a very nice price. 
We understand that the last export coal 
was sold at $3. .56 mines, for run-of-mine. 

The retailers of Chicago are beginning 
to stock coal in better (piantities, although 
they claim in doing this they are taking 
a chance as the public has shown but little 
inclination toward purchasing at this time. 

sual condition in the St. Louis territory. 
Every high-grade mine in the State of 
Illinois is oversold on lump and egg coal. 
Nut and screenings are so much in sur- 
plus that mines are i<lle on account of the 
failure to move them. With the continuous 
growing demand for domestic sizes and no 
chance at all of the steam conditkins im- 
proving, the Middle West is confronting a 
serious sliortage of domestic coal of the 
higher grade. 

In the Williamson (Franklin County) 
field there is at the present time a mild 
car shortage. The movement in a general 
way of the loads is good, but the no bills 
of the smaller sizes from No. 1 nut down 
is so lieavy at nearly all the mines that 
it is becoming a seriotis prolilem of the 
railroads as to what is eventually going 
to become of the no-billed cars. At the 
liresent time many mines are unable to get 
equipment for loading until they reduce 
the number of the no Ijills on their track. 
Tliey are making a strenuotis effort to work 
in order to keep their organizations to- 
gether. Mines are working from two to 
four days a week, with the exception of a 
few mines in Franklin County that are 
getting full time, and a like number in 
Williamson County. The prices are being 
maintained in the Franklin County field 
without exception. The Williamson County 
independents are still below the circular. 

In the Du Quoin field similar conditions 
exist, and prices are not maintained. This 
is occasioned by the fact that a few 
operators there are cutting, in order to 
move the smaller sizes. .^ fairly good rail- 
road tonnage is going from both fields. 
The past week the railroad tonnage was 
increased considerabl>-, which indicates 
that some storage railroad coal is being 



Coal inarUet quiet, with a U 
demand, Cargroes arriving freely b,v lake. 
Coke in no demand. 

Summer dullness rules in the coal mar- 
ket. Dealers report the situation as being 
(|Uiet, with a falling off in deliveries. The 
Milwaukee public seems to be satisfied with 
the outlook for coal, despite the disturb- 
ing statements published by those best able 
to judge the situation at the mines. Coke 
is not moving as fast as the producers 
would like and stock piles are increasing 

There has been a steady run of cargoes 
ai the docks thus far in July, and the ag- 
gregate of receipts continues in excess of 
last vear. Up to the present time 254.764 
tons of anthracite and 1.307.913 tons of 
sofl coal have been landed on the docks, a 
gain of 71.750 tons of anthracite and 336.- 
011 tons of soft coal over the receipts dur- 
ing the same period Last year. 

There has been no change in the price 


A runaway market iiii liigli Enide. do- 
mestie sizes. .\ll high-grade mines sold up. 
Steam market weak and no i-oal. Mines 
idle aeemint of surplus steam sizes. Toun- 
try demand good on domestic. .Awakened 

iigerly of better eoals. 

veek has developed an nnu- 


puhlir huy 

The past 

In the Mount Olive district there has 
lieen a noticeable increase in the move- 
ment of the domestic sizes the past weel\. 
especially to the north and northwest, and 
for country trade. Steam sizes from this 
field seem to move more evenly than from 
other districts and the situation is more 
satisfactory than elsewhere. The prices 
are maintained and the mines are getting 
lietter working time than in the surround- 
ing fields. 

The Standard field is still long on every- 
thing. Steam sizes are the most trouljle- 
some and some mines are idle on this 
account, while other mines have no bill 
lump, egg and nut. and are sold out on 
screenings. Cars are iilentiful and train 
movement good. 

Railroad tonnage shows an increase this 
week over last, and in a general way the 
working time of all mines has improved. 
Steam market for coal from this district 
shows no improvement, however, with the 
result that there is a greater tonnage of 
no bills than in any other uistrict. 

The local condition in St. Louis is re- 
markable. Dealers are getting orders for 
tnore Carterville coal than they can get 
from the mines. The same condition ap- 
idies in a way to anthracite and smokeless. 
The Mount Olive demand is light, but seems, 
to be growing, wliile Standard shows little 
if any impro\'ement. 

In the country a good movement of 
.Standard coal is reported for domestic pur- 
poses and country steam business shows tip 
somewhat better than for some weeks past. 

Smokeless coal came in during the weeic 
to the extent of about 25 cars. Anthracite 
is scarce and little is coming through. No 
.Vrkansas anthracite has come in yet. but 
a few cars of smokeless that up to the 
present has not improved satisfactorily. 

Coke is mo\ing fairly good for <lomestie 


,. of.Vllncho 

Elk 11. 

Elk II. 


' ^.:.l, I'fd 

.Icff.-i !. A CI. iili.ldCouI& Ir. 
New C. i,ti:,l C.ial of West Va 

IMttsburcli ConI, Com 

Pittsburgh ConI, Pfd 

Pond Ci eek Coal 

Virginia Iron. Conl & Cok.- 





















Coal and Coke Securities 

rk Stn.k ExrhanKO Closing Quotations .Inly 14, 1 1 1 Q 


CalKiha Coal. Isl Ctrl 6.s. |i)22 V 

CI. :, I In 1.1 f.iiui,.ni...i. C.. il, |.i 4-. Sit .A, |040 75; 

C '..I I.. I n. I ,\ lr..|,, 1 .. I, ". . I'I43 90 

C..I..I ,.l. In.l.i I t Ml- .V c.l -fr. 5s. 1934 80', 

1 ..I ..':.: .ii.L ' . .1 "< M .1 C: ,1, i^t l!,f 5f, 1950 87' 

I. ■ . : V .!...' |. .. I, -.. M,,it. 5.«. 1926 96 

I . . .' \ '. (..III...; . I'lC, 100 

t . <'■"!' \ 'I ■. I .. .1 ' .1.1 I-.' i:..l I.. 4'., 1913 79i 

1 . . . I \ .: I .. I .\ •. . ' ... ~ r . 4',s, ScT. A. 1954, ... 90 

I'!. ; I \ .1!. 1 c . .1 I 1 - I , -,-. |Q28 805 

r... !...! I,. I ..,.1 .^ I ■ ■ . l.i..: -I-.. 1941 83! 

I'... .1 ..1.1:. c ..I I I S |.' 5s. 1957 84i 

l;... 1. .^ I'lH. C..:,l ,\ li II. Ix. Iia I'ur MoiifV 5s, 1 946 , . 98 

-;i I , I.'... I ^ M..1 .V P.... Slaliipod 5s. 1955.' ( .,;il, I1..H .1, Ji H., Cc.ll 5s. 1951 . . 92 

I I,. I I li. 1. l-i Sn, I. MIL. fiiiiil 5s, 1931 , . 87 

\vi', lu.l, l-l MlL' Sinking Fund 5s, 1953 55 

\i....niia Iron, C.,..,l & C.iUc- 1st 5s, 1949 85! 





f'olume 16 

New York, July 24, 1919 

Numbir 3 

An Occupational Disease 

By R. Dawson Hall 

I Y MANY a man is not considered a 
good executive unless he exudes 
seriousness, sobriety and even gloom. 
The man who would fill the ideal 
of the multitude must always be 
hurried and worried. The chief 
executive himself is also apt to 
think that because he has the distinction of control 
conferred on him, he is bound to exhibit a greater 
persistence in labors and a more ardent devotion to 
his duties than any of his subordinates. 

As a result he breaks down in a few years. He loses 
his poise and develops executivitis — an occupational 
disease in which the stomach ceases to function, sleep 
is denied and the nerves give way. When, after a 
few months, you enter his office and spend a few min- 
utes in his presence, you are convinced that his capable 
secretary or stenographer would be more able than 
he to fill his office. He has entirely lost his patience 
and sense of proportion. 

This disease is not so common among men whose 
duties require the exercise of both mind and body as 
it is among desk executives who are moreover troub- 
led by the fact that the work they are regulating is 
being performed or neglected by persons beyond the 
range of their vision and often beyond their immediate 

Most men newly appointed to executive positions 
assume and feel an overburdening sense of responsi- 
bility and an overmastering desire for intense activity. 
They feel that they are called upon to do something — 
they know not what ~ but whatever it is, to do it 
immediately. Yet perhaps what is needed more 
than anything else is just to fall back easily and rest- 
fully till the newness of the work loses some of its 
effect upon the nerves. 

The first duty of every executive is to avoid worry 
and fatigue, for these are merely diseases of the mind 
which prevent its proper functioning. To acquire 
the right poise, all the duties that can be laid upon 
others should be disposed of in that way. One can 
nearly always find others in the organization who can 
perform any and all of the offices to be filled with a 
large degree of acceptability. They may even func- 
tion in many ways better than the executive himself. 

The thinking powers of the average brainworker 
are so cluttered with his labors that he cannot survey 
his work with any serenity. To some extent it is the 
work of the chief executive to do that for him, and if 
that executive is himself harassed by work and worry 
how can he visualize another man's difficulties? He 
has too much on his mind to visualize even his own. 

Successful executives are neither self-conscious nor 
worrying. They are usually easy-going men. Their 
conclusions are reached and their actions performed 
without excitement or heat. They are not paid high 
salaries for large personal accomplishment or for 
mental distress, for the best men of this class do little 
and suffer less. They are paid to secure results from 
others, and such results cannot be obtained by those 
who worry crabbedly over the difficulties confronting 

Too much has been written about the long hours, 
unflagging energy and minute information of great 
executives. Many have been led astray by such men- 
dacious records and tried to make 100 yards in 5 
seconds. It isn't in the range of human possibilities. 
It is not safe to crowd any man too hard, executive or 
worker, certainly not to a degree that will prevent 
either of them coming up smiling on every occasion, 
for it is the smile that wins. 



Vol. 16, No. 4 

Operating a Coal-Stripping Plant in Ohio 

stripping coal and loading the fuel into cars is not a novel or 
new proposition, but the details of this work often vary in the 
different coal fields of the country. The practice followed in the 
crop strippings in Ohio is here described. The overburden is 
handled by shovel entirely, and some suggestions are made for 
stripping by this method. 

By S. B. Creamer 

Cambridge, Ohio 

THE amount and cost of production of coal from 
a stripping operation dfpend largely on the plant 
layout. There are two systems of loading coal — 
loading directly into standard-gage cars or by a tipple 
for the preparation of the coal. With the former system 
the layout is comparatively simple and consists of a 
standard-gage track laid directly into the open pit. This 
track is kept up to the loading shovel. On this layout 
a passir.g switch should be kept as near the loading 
shovel as practical, as it permits a dinkey to shift 
cars from the siding to the shovel with little loss of time 
to the loading crew. But if there is sufficient coal 
uncovered ahead of the loading shovel, a track of suffi- 
cient length to hold empties for a few days run may be 
laid, the cars being placed in the night or on overtime 

two men in from four to five minutes when the hopper 
has sufficient capacity to hold the coal from a full 
train. The easiest and quickest method of dumping 
such cars is by means of a pipe or bar, the usual 
length being about 5 ft. This lever is placed against 
a strip nailed to the dumping platform of the tipple 
and is caught under the bed of the car as the engine 
pulls the train ahead. This dumps the car, and the 
brakeman with a helper can right the car again and 
release the chains on the next car without stopping the 

On a coal-stripping plant the stripping shovel controls 
the output, since it is possible to load out more coal with 
the loading shovel than can be stripped in the same length 
of time. The amount of coal that can be uncovered by the 

10' eo' 30'40' 50' 

Spai/Bciink art , / loss- pfSpo// 
Jeconc('Cuf mffi /'■ ^Room c/u^ ■ft? 
narrowStrip / \/7a/rvw\ 

Loss of spoil room caused by leaving a narrow strip of coal after each cut 

by the switching crew. These cars can then be pulled 
into place as the loads are removed, thereby preventing 
any loss of time on the part of the loading shovel. 

Where a tipple and contractors' equipment are used, 
the layout is more difficult to plan, requiring a thorough 
survey and study of the property before the location is 
chosen. The tipple must be placed so as to have the 
proper height and yet make possible the building up of 
a haulage track for side-dump cars. These cars should 
dump into a hopper with a capacity of at least 
50 tons the hopper discharging onto the picking 
table. The level of the dinky track should be at least 
50 ft. above the level of the standard-gage railroad 
track under the tipple, in order to gain hopper room, 
pitch for the screens and height for the installation of 
a crusher. This requirement often makes the dinkey 
track layout difficult and expensive, but such an ar- 
rangement is essential to cheap production. The main 
haulage track ought to enter the track at the tipple on 
an easy grade. 

It is important that all grades on the haulage track be 
kept under 4 per cent., preferably under 2 per cent. 
With easy grades it is possible for a 14-ton dinkey to 
handle a train of 15 4-yd. side-dump cars easily and 
expeditiously. Such a train of cars can be dumped by 

stripping shovel depends on the thickness and nature of 
the overburden. The average width of the first cut is 
about 110 ft., and this cut usually can be dug without 
blasting. The average thickness of overburden is about 
10 ft. on the crop side of the cut and about 25 ft. on 
the "high wall" side. The amount of dirt necessary to 
be moved per ton of coal uncovered on the first cut 
averages about 3 cu.yd. This is naturally the cheapest 
stripping. In order to conserve spoil room the stripping 
shovel must be kept as near the spoil bank as possible. 
Spoil room is the limiting factor in the stripping of 
coal. It is possible to blast and dig any depth of over- 
burden, but it is not always possible to dispose of the 
dirt without hauling. This method is out of the ques- 

In the loading of the cars with coal there should be a 
strip of coal at least 25 ft. wide left next to the "high 
wall." It is more desirable to leave a strip 40 ft. wide. 
On this coal the haulage track is placed. A wide strip 
of coal makes it possible to shoot the overburden of the 
second cut without covering the haulage track. 

On the second cut it is usually necessary to haul the 
coal past the stripping shovel. This requires more 
care in the operation of the stripping shovel; also in 
the blasting and haulage. When a width of coal of 40 

July 24, 1919 



ft. is left, the operation on the second cut is made less 
expensive and a great saving of spoil room is made pos- 
sible. The haulage track is kept on the edge of the 
coal and the stripping shovel is kept as close to this 
track as possible, to allow clearance for the dinkeys past 
the shovel. The haulage track is then thrown to the 
desired width for the loading shovel to operate next 
to the spoil bank. With the haulage track so far from 
the stripping bank it is possible to do much more ef- 
fective shooting without the danger of delays and the 
expense caused by the covering of the track. Operating 
the stripping shovel so far away from the spoil bank 
makes it necessary to dig at a greater angle with the 
line of the cut, and this makes more of a swing for 
the stripping machine. But the saving in spoil room, 
more satisfactory shooting and less trackwork justify 
the loss of time due to the greater working angle of 
the shovel. Where the conservation of spoil room is not 
so essential, a strip of coal 25 ft. wide will serve very 
well, although the expense of track maintenance is 
greater and more skill is needed in shooting the bank 
because of the danger of covering the track. 

The disposal of the spoil is one of the most interest- 
ing and most vital points in coal stripping, while 
to the casual observer it is seemingly of little import- 
ance. The amount of overburden it is possible to dig 
depends largely on the amount of spoil which can be 
taken care of; as stated before, the placing of the shovel 
in the cut greatly affects the amount of dirt that can 
be spoiled without loss of coal. The width of the cut, 
therefore, is governed by the spoil room available, 
height of the bank and swell of spoil. The apex of the 
spoil bank should be kept opposite the middle of the 
shovel (directly opposite) or behind it. There are 
times when this might be difficult to accomplish, bui 
the failure to do this has lost hundreds of tons of coal 
that have been uncovered. 

The most difficult time to keep the spoil behind the 
shovel is on a curve, v^hen the cut is on the outside and 
the spoil bank on the inside of the curve. The average 
observer fails to comprehend the increase in volume 
due to an increase in radius of 100 ft. even in curves 
of large radius. The volume of bank is increased and 
the dirt on the coal due to rolling lumps of dirt and 
rocks is largely eliminated by the use of the "double 
spoil bank." This bank. Fig. 1, is formed by building 
a small bank with a low bucket; it acts as a "breaker" 
for all rolling material from the top of the main bank, 
which is often 75 ft. high. 

In stripping it is often economical and advantageous 
to make a "boxcut" through a saddle or low place in a 


hill; while the only difficulty encountered is in the dis- 
posal of the dirt, it is sometimes hard to solve, espe- 
cially where it is impossible to haul the dirt out. Figs. 
2 and 3 show a "boxcut" 500 ft. long which was made 
at Apex, Ohio. The deepest overburden was 45 ft., 
for a distance of 300 ft. the cut was over 40 ft., and the 
shallowest cutting was 15 ft. The width of the cut 
was 81 ft. at the base and about 90 ft. at the top; 
the width of the cut was necessary to give clearance for 
the shovel. None of the dirt was hauled, but some of 
it was double cast. The second cast was made with a 
Marion "Model 36" caterpillar shovel. Fig. 2 shows 
the shovel where the cut is almost completed and Fig. 3 
shows the finished cut. 

The drilling and shooting of the overburden, if prop- 
erly done, greatly facilitates the work ; but if improperly 
done, it is practically money thrown away. Many seem 
to think the only thing necessary to be done is to drill 
a hole in the ground, pour in a little dynamite and 
powder, and satisfactory results will be obtained. But 
to do successful shooting it is necessary to have 
the holes drilled to within 1 ft. of the coal, and no 
damage is done if the drill touches the coal. These 
holes are drilled on about 25-ft. centers and 25 ft. back 
from the face. They should then be "sprung," and it 
might require 15 or more sticks of dynamite to do this, 
depending on the charge required. Usually 10 to 25 
kegs of powder is sufficient to shoot the bank under 
ordinary conditions. Holes should not be loaded above 
the collar of the hole and should be well tamped. With 
good shooting, repair costs are materially lowered and 
the yardage moved considerably increased. 

Stability of Methane 

Mayer and Altmayer investigated the stability of 
methane and found the following percentages were 
stable in the presence of hydrogen: 

Tcmpcnitiire, (leg. C 
CHe, per cent 


The reaction is represented by the expression CH, = 
C -f- 2H.. At 850 deg. C. and atmospheric pressure 
1.59 per cent, of methane is in equilibrium with hydro- 
gen whose partial pressure is then 0.9841 atmospheres. 
As the partial pressure of the hydrogen decreases the 
equilibrium pressure of methane decreases also. The 
partial pre.ssure of hydrogen in the furnace is small 
and the temperature much higher than 850 deg. C, 
therefore it is evident that only a very small per- 
centage of methane can exist in equilibrium in a boiler 
furnace. — Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 135. 



Vol. 16, No. 4 

Valuable Pyrite in Illinois Coal Beds 

By G. H. Cady 

Geologist in Charge of Coal .Studies, 
State Geological Survey Division. Urbana, 111. 

SYNOPSIS — More than a million to'/is of py- 
rite, readily available for commerce, is found in 
the coal excavated every year by United States' 
mines. Of this Illinois could furnish 200,000 
tons. Native sulphur should not be used where 
pyritic sulphur is equally effective. Article de- 
fines the various types of pyrite, their modes of 
occurrence, and shores in what beds and sections 
these types may be most generally found. 

MUCH interest has recently been shown in the 
pyrite occurring in Illinois coal, and special in- 
vestigations have been made into the matter 
during the period of our participation in the war. The 
investigations carried on by the geological surveys of 
the various states, in cooperation with the Bureau of 
Mines, had their origin in a desire to find near the mar- 
ket a source of raw material for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid in a quantity adequate to supply the an- 
ticipated demand. 

The purposes of the investigation were more than ful- 
filled, to the extent that a possible supply of pyrite 
of more than one million tons annually was found read- 
ily available, the recovery of which would entail an al- 
most negligible financial outlay on the part of the coal 
operators. A much greater amount was found to be 
available if mechanical means were installed for its 
separation, but this would necessitate a somewhat 
greater financial outlay. It would, however, result in 
the production of cleaner and more marketable coal. 

Inasmuch as the need for the pyrite was not as great 
as had been anticipated, much of the benefit that was 
expected from the taking of the inventory will probably 
not be realized. Since this is the case, other considera- 
tions, only incidental to the main effort of finding py- 
rite supplies, become of relatively greater importance 
and deserve some attention. 

For instance, the conservation of our national re- 
sources seems to call for the recovery of at least the 
best of our pyrite supply; and, again, the successful 
recovery of clean coal in Illinois depends considerably 
upon the recognition by the engineer of the variation 
in the form and in the manner of occurrence of the py- 
rite itself. The present discussion is concerned with 
these two considerations arising out of the pyrite in- 
ventory, which considerations at the beginning of the 
inquiry were of relatively minor importance. 

If the mines of Illinois saved all the pyrite that is 
picked out of the coal at the face and also concentrated 
the pyrite that is found in the washery refuse, most of 
which is now lost, about 200,000 tons of raw pyrite 
could be recovered annually. This crude material, in- 
cluding the mill concentrates, would probably average 

•The pyrite inventory in Illinois was conducted as one of the 
activities of the Illinois Coal Mining Investigations under a coop- 
erative agreement between the State Geological Survey, Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station, University of Illinois, and' the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines. 

more than 75 per cent, pyrite having a sulphur content 
in excess of 45 per cent. Of the 25 per cent, waste prob- 
ably more than half would be coal. 

The milling and concentrating of the material would 
produce nearly double the amount stated above. Look- 
ing into the future, it will without question be nec- 
essary to work poorer and poorer grades of coal con- 
taining increasing amounts of pyrite, so that the avail- 
a!ile supply will increase rather than decrease. It 
is certainly reasonable to inquire whether this large 
amount of material, which can be manufactured into 
a material of great economic importance in our in- 
dustrial life, should be wasted. If the failure to use 
the pyrite does not involve a permanent economic loss, 
it certainly suggests that such a loss is resulting from 
the present practice; and this possibility certainly 
merits investigation. 

The possibility that the present practices are not 
desirable seems to involve at least two considerations. 
In the first place coal brasses must be recovered as the 
coal is being mined, for otherwise they will be either im- 
mediately buried in the gob of the old workings or thrown 
on the refuse heap at the shaft mouth where they will ' 
speedily oxidize. Accordingly, if the present practice 
is judged wasteful, new practice should be instituted 
at once to forestall further waste. Secondly, the use of 
native sulphur instead of pyrite for the manufacture 
of most of the sulphuric acid seems to involve the un- 
necessary expenditure of an extremely pure substance 
of which the supply is probably limited and which ac- 
cordingly should be conserved only for necessary uses. 

Pyrite Problem One of Many Angles 

Conditions justifying the use of native sulphur in 
war time do not obtain during peace, and it is a ques- 
tion whether this material should be sacrificed to the 
ordinary processes of trade. The pyrite problem has 
many ramifications, and a decision as to the correct na- 
tional policy as regards coal brasses can be reached only 
after a further investigation has been made, which 
should study the sulphur reserves, the method of manu- 
facture of sulphuric acid and the adaptability of the 
coal pyrite to manufacturing processes. The continual 
waste of pyrite demands that such investigations be 
carried to a point where a correct decision can speedily 
be reached. 

The pyrite inventory in Illinois has emphasized the 
possibility of waste in present methods of pyrite recov- 
ery. It is also the first systematic study of the rela- 
tive character and occurrence of pyrite in the various 
coal beds and individual mines. The survey did not 
include mines in all the districts, but for such districts 
as were included the observations furnish a basis of 
estimating the comparative amount of pyrite present 
and its relative ease of removal. Such information 
carefully collected over the entire Illinois field and made 
generally available would, it is believed, be useful as 
a basis of judging the character of a coal and in esti- 

July 24, 1919 



mating the results that might be expected from dif- 
ferent methods of preparation between the face and the 
railroad car. 

The large assemblage of chemical data available con- 
cerning Illinois coal has put selection as regards relative 
heating value on a definite basis and, accordingly, vari- 
ation in the quantity and character of the ash has be- 
come a matter of much importance. Most of the chem- 
ical data is based upon samples from the working face 
and in consequence these samples are almost invariably 
favorable so far as ash is concerned; for in the collection 
of the sample, impurities with a thickness of i to [; 
in. or more are supposed to be removed. 

The possibility of removal of impurities varies con- 
siderably under working conditions in different mines, 
and this is as true of pyrite as of the other impurities. 
In fact, if any distinction is to be made it is even more 
true. Accordingly, since the presence or absence of 
pyrite in a coal commonly is the basis for a purchaser's 
judgment as to the quantity and fusibility of ash in a 
coal, and since there is such a wide variation in the pos- 
sibilities of its removal at the mine because of the va- 
rious ways in which it occurs, definite information con- 
cerning the character of the pyrite and of its mode of 
occurrence in the different coals and in the different 
districts is certainly desirable. In the following para- 
graphs the character of the different forms of coal py- 
rite in Illinois coals and their manner of occurrence are 
briefly summarized. 

Forms of Pyrite in Illinois Coal 

Pyrite has been observed to have the following habits 
of occurrence: As brassy, massive, metallic-appearing 
mineral without apparent crystalline structure or form; 
as a crystalline mineral ; as a brown or gray mineral 
without metallic luster or apparent crystalline char- 
acter, this form being commonly laminated; and as 
impregnations in a very fine state and probably crys- 
talline. The material occurs in the following common 
forms: As balls and lenses of a well defined shape and 
easily separable from the surrounding coal (see Fig. 
1 ) ; as balls and lenses with the outer parts more or less 
ramifying into the surrounding coal and hence not easily 
separated from it (Fig. 2) ; as a fine leaf mineral in 
finely divided state lying along innumerable joint cracks 
in isolated patches of the coal (Fig. 3) ; as typical vein 
filling, especially in "horsebacks" (Fig. 5) ; as replace- 
ment of limestone, forming "niggerheads" in the roof 
shale, and in other limestone masses found associated 
with the coal; as impregnations of mother coal and of 
the clay filling of horsebacks (Fig. 6) ; as balls in the 
floor clay (Fig. 9) ; as plates or sheets commonly found 
in the partings between benches (Fig. 7) ; as facings in 
joint cracks, commonly very thin plates ; and as rosettes 
in the laminations of the black fissile shales found 
above some of the coals. 

; The habit of occurrence of the pyrite seems to bear 

relation to the form. Pyrite in balls and lenses easily 

j separated from the coal is apparently nearly always of 
the brassy, massive variety. The lenses and balls of in- 
definite boundary are commonly the gray, stony variety; 

' this variety, at least, seems always to have an indefi- 
nite outline. The plate and sheet pyrite is variable in 
its habit, but pyrite of metallic appearance seems to 
be the most common variety. Facings are composed 

of the bright pyrite. Vein fillings, the nodules in the 
fireclay, the rosettes in the roof slate and probably the 
impregnations of the clay fillings of horsebacks and of 
mother coal are all of a crystalline nature. Pyrite which 
replaces limestone takes on the form and texture of the 
original rock. 

The ease with which pyrite is separated from coal 
at the face, the tipple or the washery depends largely 
upon the form of occurrence. As between the stony, 
crystalline and massive bright varieties there is prac- 
tically no distinction so far as relative ease of recov- 
ery is concerned. The most easily separable pyrite is 
that occurring as balls and lenses of the brassy variety. 
It is plainly seen and its outline clearly defined, «o that 
it is usually broken out by the miner at the face. There 
is little excuse for material of this kind ever appearing 
at the surface, unless it is present in unusually large 

The pyrite occurring in the niggerheads and in lime- 
stone lenses or masses in the coal or near the boundary 
of the coal and the roof rock are also readily discarded. 
Next in relative ease of removal is the plate or sheet py- 
rite, provided the plates are of sufficient thickness to 
withstand the shattering effect of mining. If 4 in. or 
more thick, the plates can usually be removed without 
diflSculty from the coal in pieces, sometimes more than 
a foot wide. As the seam commonly parts at the pyrite 
band the material can usually be removed rather easily. 
Small pieces, however, commonly remain in the coal. 
If the plates or sheets are thin the proportion that is re- 
coverable is small, since it is commonly so badly shat- 
tered in mining that removal by the miner is practically 
impossible. Such pyrite as this could be largely removed 
by washing the finer sizes of coal. 

The removal of the brown, or gray, banded pyrite 
(see Fig. 4) in the mine is attended by more or less 
difficulty. It is not quite as readily seen as the bright 
variety, for not uncommonly it is rather dark colored 
by reason of the presence of a large quantity of what 
appears to be carbonaceous matter. Then also its outlines 
are indefinite. To remove this variety of pyrite much 
coal must, in general, be wasted if the entire mass of 
the lense is to be recovered. Coals having this form 
of pyrite in large quantity are almost sure to have a 
rather high pyrite content as shipped, unless all the coal 
is washed. If the larger sizes of coal were hand-picked 
at the tipple, large amounts of this material would prob- 
ably be effectively removed. Pyrite present as facings 
is practically impossible of removal by any method of 
hand-picking except where, as in some rare localities, 
the facings become so numerous as to become practically 
a mass. 

In some of the better Illinois coals pyrite occurs only 
as facings or as leaf pyrite (see Fig. 3). The removal 
of some of this impurity can be accomplished by crush- 
ing and washing the finer sizes, but it is probable that 
the actual amount of pyrite that could be thus removed 
would be negligible and would only in small degree 
affect the selling value of the coal. 

Masses of leaf pyrite are commonly not discarded ; al- 
though the mass may have a bright appearance, the 
actual amount of pyrite present is small. This is indi- 
cated by the fact that such a mass of coal filled with 
particles of leaf pyrite weighs but little more than 
pure coal. Furthermore, such pyrite is difficult to sep- 



Vol. 16, No. 4 

arate by washing, the small flakes of mineral remain- 
ing suspended and floating off with the coal. The prob- 
lem of separating such pyrite from coal is yet to be 

The vein pyrite coal in Illinois (Fig. 5) rarely ex- 
ceeds A in. in thickness. Its occurrence is practically 
restricted to the horseback fissures such as are found 
to be especially numerous in No. 5 bed. The coal ad- 
jacent to such fissures is commonly well impregnated 
with pyrite in finely divided state so that the entire 
mass is very hard. It is the common practice to entirely 
discard the mass of coal attached to the sulphur "spar," 
as it is called, for it is usually thoroughly impregnated 
with pf^rite. The miner receives extra pay for the re- 
moval of this material so that impurity of this sort does 
not commonly reach the top, except where the "spars" 
are thin. 

Clay veins also are commonly rich in a finely divided 
pyrite that is disseminated throughout their mass (see 
Fig. 6) and reaches out into the adjacent coal. This 
pyrite with the attached coal is discarded just as the 
pyrite and coal in sulphur "spars" is thrown away. 
In many mines the removal of the horsebacks is a cause 
of considerable waste, and in some instances serious 
consideration could well be given to the problem of its 
elimination in, at least, a large degree. 

The impregnation of mother coal by pyrite gives a 
very hard black material with the general appearance 
of mother coal but with a slight golden tinge. The ma- 
terial is very hard. The substance is commonly called 
"blackjack" by the miners, though it is possible that 
all the "blackjack" of miners is not pyritized mother 
coal. The material is nearly as difficult to cut as the 
gray or brassy pyrite, and where it lies in relatively 
large masses is readily discarded. Smaller masses; how- 
ever, especially if imbedded in large masses of coal, are 
less easily removed. "Blackjack" commonly sticks 
rather tightly to the surrounding coal and the removal 
of pieces less than a foot in length and an inch or two 
thick, except as they occur along partings, does not seem 
to be common practice. 

The sulphur balls found in the floor clay and the py- 
rite rosettes found in the roof shale do not commonly get 
into the coal as shipped. They are rather interesting 
occurrences but of no special importance commercially, 
except that clays with these sulphur concretions are 
not adapted for burning. 

Pyrite in the Various Coals 

The distribution of pyrite of the various varieties in 
the coal beds of the state is a matter of some interest. 
It is doubtful whether any of the varieties are restricted 
to any one bed, but certain occurrences seem to be typi- 
cal of individual beds. This is true to such an extent 
that the manner of occurrence of pyrite can be taken 
as one of the criteria for identification of beds. 

In the four more important commercial coals in Illi- 
nois, No. 2, No. 5, No. 6 and No. 7, pyrite is present in 
characteristic form. But the widely spread pyrite in 
No. 6 coal varies somewhat in different districts. With- 
out an intimate knowledge of all the operations in the 
state it is impossible to make any generalizations in 
regard to the occurrence of pyrite to which exception 
cannot be taken, but it is believed that the following 
statements are based upon a sufficient number of obser- 

vations to make them generally applicable and to form 
a basis for more extended investigation. The character 
of the pyrite present in the four coals mentioned will 
be described in the order given. 

Pyrite in No. 2 (La Salle) coal, mined at La Salle, 
Spring Valley and southward as far as Bloomington, 
Roanoke, and in one mine at Peoria, seems to occur 
characteristically as isolated bright brassy nodules (see 
Fig. 1), commonly found in the upper half of the bed. 
By the miners these are called "sulphur" balls. Their 
common size is 3 to 4 in. across and 1 to 14 in. thick. 
Nodules exceeding a foot in thickness and 18 in. to 2 ft. 
across are found, but are rare. These sulphur balls 
generally comprise less than 0.5 per cent, of the total 
mass of the coal, but there is considerable variation in 
the amount present in different regions. They are usu- 
ally readily removed from the coal at the face. 

I am not aware that pyrite occurs in this form in 
the No. 2 coal at Murphysboro, in which area the sul- 
phur content of the coal is very low, but in the northern 
part of the state, except possibly in the Grundy County 
field, such "sulphur" balls are quite characteristic of 
this bed. Other forms of pyrite are not conspicuous. 

Pyrite Characteristic of Peoria and Fulton 

Several varieties of pyrite seem to be characteristic 
of the next higher coal, No. 5 (Springfield or Harris- 
burg) coal. The two most conspicuous forms are the 
gray or brown laminated pyrite and the crystalline py- 
rite found in horsebacks. The gray or brown, stony 
and laminated pyrite (Fig. 4) are quite characteristic of 
the coal in many mines in the Peoria and Fulton County 
region and they have been observed in this coal as far 
east as Bloomington. Such pyrite does not seem to be 
quite as common in the Springfield region, though 
it is doubtless present. It has been observed as far 
south as Lincoln in Logan County. 

The crystalline pyrite or "spar sulphur" (Figs. 5 
and 6) is generally found in the mines in the central 
part of the state. In addition to these two varieties 
of pyrite, there also seems to be present in this coal in 
central Illinois a greater proportion of "blackjack" or 
mother coal impregnated with pyrite, than is found in 
other coals. But the amount differs greatly in different 
mines and in different districts even for this coal. None 
of these forms of pyrite are found to be especially char- 
acteristic of No. 5 coal in Saline County. 

Sheets and plates of pyrite are characteristic of the No. 
6 (Herrin) coal. From Du Quoin northward, at least 
to Centralia, and west to the Mississippi valley the coal 
in nearly all the mines is interbedded with pyrite in 
sheet or plate form (Fig. 7). It is commonly found 
in the partings between benches. As the coal is some- 
what differently subdividea into benches in different 
parts of thp area, the varying positions of the rather 
persistent sulphur bands is more or less characteristic 
of the various fields. 

However, the only thing significant about the vari- 
ation in the manner of occurrence seems to be that in 
parts of the area the sulphur partings are few and each 
relatively thin, whereas in other parts of the district 
the partings are numerous and each rather thick, that 
is I to i in. or more in thickness. There is a persistent 
sheet of pyrite found over large areas in this coal. This 

July 24, 1919 



1 — "Sulphur" or pyrite "ball" with 
distinct boundary such as is commonly 
found in ceal No. -2. 

2 — Lens of grayish pyrite such as 
is found in No. 5 and No. 7 coals. 

3 — Finely divided leaf pyrite such as 
is found in No. 6 coal in Franklin and 
Williamson counties. Contains less 
pyrite than the appearance of the 
specimen indicates. 

4 — Laminated gray pyrite common in 
No. 5 coal. Contains ^ higher percent- 
age of sulphur than its appearance 

5 — Pyrite vein or "spar sulphur" 
common in No. 5 coal in the central 
part of the state. 

6 — Fragment of clay "horseback" or 
clay vein from No. 5 coal in the Peoria 
district, impregnated "with crystalline 

7 and 8 — Two fragments of plate or 
sheet pyrite found in No. 6 coal in the 
Belleville region. 

9 — Small pvrite nodules found in the 
floor clay of Xo. 5 coal in the Peoria